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Effect of various pollutants

Acknowledgement I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Dr. Salman Ashraf, Associate Professor of Biochemistry, who gave me the honour to be one of his students. Also for his valuable advices and helped from the experimental part to the reviewing this thesis. Additionally, I want to thank all the faculty members and...

Textile dyeing and textile wastewater treatment

Advances In Textile Dyeing And Textile Wastewater Treatment Using Advanced Oxidation And Membrane Filtration Technologies: A Review Introduction The textile industry is a diverse sector in terms of production of raw materials, operating processes, product development, and equipment. The industry is well-characterized for consuming large amounts of water, energy, and discharging high...

Water treatment Processes

Question Limit of detection Stating the water supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001, "limit of detection is calculated as three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter. Also, its means five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample". DA...

Introduction to natural gas

Natural gas is one of the most important source of energy for reducing pollution and maintaining a clean and healthy environment we can call it as a future energy resource. In addition to being a domestically abundant and secure source of energy, the use of natural gas also offers...

Biological catalysts

Introduction Enzymes:Enzymes are single or multiple -chain proteins that act as a biological catalysts with the ability to promote specific chemical rxn under the mild condition that prevail in most living organism. Over-view of Enzymes catalysts All reaction in the body are mediated by enzymes, which are protein ...

Electrolysis Of Copper Sulphate Chemistry Essay

Aim: to find out how the amount of current affect the amount of copper deposited at the cathode during the electrolysis of copper sulphate with inert graphite electrodes Hypothesis: Michael Faraday's first law of electrolysis states: "The mass of any element deposited during electrolysis is directly proportional to the number of...

Fatty acid analysed

Introduction In this essay, I am going to choose write about fatty acid analysed through the method of HPLC (High Performance Chromatography) and Gas chromatography. Fatty acids are found in the lipids, plants, waxes, fats and essential oils (different types of oils) and used for cooking, food engineering ...

Introduction to chromatography

Chromatography is a technique for separating mixtures into their components in order to analyze, identify, purify, and/or quantify the mixture or components. Separate Analyze Identify Purify Quantify Components Mixture ...

The substitution reactions

Acknowledgement The preparation of this project on the topic-" substitution reactions.": a profile' would not have been possible without the valuable contribution of my TEACHERS. I would like to give most specially thanks to my CHE sir Dr. Ashish...

High incidence of breast cancer

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most popular cancer in industrialised nations and the second top reason of death in female population. Although breast cancer incidence is high, there have been some decrease in recent years due to earlier detection. The evidence shows that Prostaglandins (PGs) play an important role in the...

The renewable hydrogen research

Abstract/Executive summary This report showcases a concise description of the University of Glamorgan's renewable hydrogen research and demonstration centre which includes its history and the technology employed at the demonstration centre. Hydrogen if produced renewably can help to solve the energy problems of the 21st Century, providing a carbon-free fuel as it...

Reacties van stoffen opgelost in water

De volgende onderwerpen komen aan bod in dit hoofdstuk: Elektrolyten Netto Ion-vergelijkingen Soorten reacties Neerslag reacties Zuur-base reacties Redox reacties Elektrolyten: Als suiker (Sucrose) oplost, kun je daar de volgende moleculevergelijking voor opstellen: C12H22O11(s) à C12H22O11(aq) Als keukenzout oplost zie de vergelijking er als volgt uit: NaCl(s) à...

Biodegradable polymer

Introduction The ISO definition of a biodegradable polymer is “an irreversible process leading to a significant change of the structure of a material, typically characterized by a loss of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular weight, structure or mechanical strength) and/or fragmentation. Degradation is affected by environmental conditions and...

The Trojan horses

Another type of malware that is not technically a virus because there is usually no auto-replication is a Trojan horse program, which seems to be something useful, as a free utility, but actually contains some kind of malware. The unhappy about a Trojan program that is running the software users...

Thermonuclear bomb

INTRODUCTION The Hydrogen bomb was first suggested by Edward Teller in 1942 but active work on it was pursued in the summer of 1942 by Oppenheimer, Teller, Los Alamos and others. The first thermonuclear bomb was exploded in 1952 atÿEnewetak by the United States, the second in...

The Inditex-Zara case

INTRODUCTION In today's highly competitive and global marketplace, the pressure on organizations to find new ways to create and deliver value to the customers grows even stronger. Market development combined with new sources of global competition has led to over-capacity in many industries. Putting an incredible pressure on price, as often...

Homeostasis Receptors Hormones

With Particular emphasis on the specific molecular interactions of phytochemicals, discuss the means by which mammalian chemical signals are coupled to elicit cellular responses. Homeostasis is deriverd from the Greek words: homios ( like, same, resembling ) and stasis (posture, to stand ) is the maintenance of constancy of human's internal...

IR spectroscopy of cigarette smoke

In this experiment the constituents of cigarette smoke in undisclosed brands A and B were analysed using Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The smoke from the cigarettes of both brands were tested comparing both the levels of carbon monoxide and methane between both brands and the difference in concentration of these...

Enzyme kinetics laboratory report

How the changes in substrate concentration (PNPP), changes in temperature, changes in pH and the presence of an inhibitor (phosphate ions) effects the rate of reaction of the reaction between PNPP and water catalysed by the enzyme acid phosphates which produces PNP and phosphate as its products . Using spectrophotometer...

About Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

INTRODUCTION The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used most commonly, compare with all other drugs. They are mainly used to treat postoperative, dental, and menstrual pain and pain of headache and migraine. They also used to treat symptoms of pain and swelling in chronic joints disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, and...

Carbon nanotubes

Introduction Carbon nanotubes are the allotops of carbon , they have a cylindrical nano structure. Nano structure are construct with a length to diameter ratio of 28000000:1 , this is significantly larger than any other material. They have many novel properties and are many useful in nanotechnology , electronics...

Formulation and characterization of microemulsion system

Abstract Formulation of a new oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion composed of Castor oil/Tween 80/Ethanol/Phosphate buffer for enhancing the loading capacity of an anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam has been accomplished. The pseudo-ternary phase diagram has been delineated at constant surfactant/cosurfactant ratio (1:2). The internal structure of so created four-component system was elucidated by means...

Gas Solid Chromatography And Gas Liquid Chromatography Chemistry Essay

Gas chromatography mainly consists of Gas solid chromatography and Gas liquid chromatography, in both types gas is used as mobile phase and either solid or liquid used as stationary phase. Gas solid chromatography is not used widely because of limited number of stationary phases available. In Gas solid chromatography, the...

Effect on chromatography of changing

Learing outcomes. Describe the effect on chromatography of changing the column length, phase volume ratio and the partition coefficient. Estimated the minimum length of column needed to resolve two components. Outline of lecture Recap of important chromatography terms The Craig engine Effect of column length Effect of partition coefficient...

Overview of nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system that allows us to name compounds with different names so they can be easily identified as separate chemicals. Inorganic compounds are compounds that do not deal with the formation of Carbon and Hydrogen, or simply all other compounds that do not fit into the description of...

Effects of chronic heroin

ABSTRACT As with most illegal drugs, the chronic use of heroin possesses both long-term and short-term effects. Whether injected, snorted or smoked, heroin will begin to affect the body's central nervous system almost immediately after it is used. This report aims to analyse these effects of chronic heroin use and the...

Chemical kinetics

1) INTRODUCTION: Kinetics-- study of reaction rates and mechanisms Factors affecting rate: Nature of reaction (miscibilities, surface area, molecular structure) Concentration Temperature Catalysts Reaction Rates Concentration Changes Chemical kinetics is the study of the speed with which a chemical reaction occurs and the factors that affect this speed. This information is especially useful...

standard operating procedures

SOPs - Standard Operating Procedures - A General Overview Aim This document is not meant to be all encompassing but is designed to give readers an overview as to what should be in a SOP and what a SOP might look like. Background...

About natural gas

Natural gas: Natural gas is one of the most important source of energy for reducing pollution and maintaining a clean and healthy environment we can call it as a future energy resource. In addition to being a domestically abundant and secure source of energy, the use of...

Elevated levels of heavy metal ions and toxic

1.1 INTRODUCTION The elevated levels of heavy metal ions and toxic organic compounds (Chlorinated and other synthetic organic chemicals) in our environment have been a matter of concern because of their lethal effect both to man and animals. In recent years, several different methods ...

titulación de ácido clorhídrico y ácido acético en vinagre comercial con una base fuerte

Titulación de ácido clorhídrico y ácido acético en vinagre comercial con una base fuerte Propósito Determinar el punto de equivalencia entre las reacciones NaOH (ac) + HCl (ac) à NaCl (ac) + H2O (l) y NaOH (ac) + HCH3COO (ac) à NaCH3COO (ac) + H2O (l), observando los cambios...

Biodiesel Fuel

Introduction Biodiesel fuel is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from a renewable lipid feedstock, like animal fat or vegetable oil. The word ‘Bio’ represents its renewability and biological source in contrast to traditional petroleum-based diesel fuel; and “diesel” refers to its use in diesel engines. As an...

Aqueous conditions

Introduction Lipases belong to the class hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.1) and in aqueous condition hydrolyze acyl glycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol (Jaeger & Eggert 2002). Under reduced aqueous conditions, lipases catalyze variety of organic transformations which are chemo-, regio- enantio...

Neutralize adequately

Introduction: An effective antacid should be able to neutralize adequately in order to alleviate pain and discomfort. Problem: to investigate the effect of different kinds of antacid. Compare the neutralization ability of antacids. Infer which antacid(s) tested is most effective. - Hypothesis: In this experiment I plan to...

Explaination of drug metabolism

Explaination of drug metabolism. Metabolism is one of the methods for analysing the effect of drugs or xenobiotics on the body. It is basically a process of converting lipophilic drugs into more hydrophilic drug to elicit pharmacological effect and subsequent hepatic or renal elimination. So it is essentially a process of...