Human Development:Heredity, Environment & Parental Influence

3225 words (13 pages) Essay

24th Jul 2017 Psychology Reference this

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Human Development Through Heredity, Environment and Parental Influence

Abstract:

Over the past 100 years , has focused a study of environmental impacts , and to analyze the genetics of the human personality aggressive , timid , introvert , social , and positive or negative qualities of the other . Over the past few years, entered the human development issues in the countries’ policies , particularly the policies of development and growth , and is considered the environment of the human being is a key factor in the formation of the human personality , and analyze the currently widespread integration of environmental issues in the growth of human development , and analysis of the implications of the surrounding environment , mainly through the so-called human rights , while the effects of growth on the quality of the human environment are Ä shear curve of social and genetic effects .

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Furthermore, it has shown recent contributions on the importance of the role of institutions in human development in the construction of the path of development and to get rid of the negatives that surround the man through awareness , education and humanitarian assistance and development of laws to protect children from violence, community or social pressures that affect the formation of the child’s personality . In this paper , we try to analyze the causal relationships between human development and the factors that affect human development into country policies as an essential part of human development and the reduction of violence through the analysis of the factors that affect human development and the formation of a positive figure in the community .

Pollutants and other aspects that affect the human body of a man-made or natural influence on the patterns of human growth and development, and have been classified all of these factors on the extent of their impact on the formation of human personality and physical health in countries.

Introduction:

Nature and nurture both of them have influences on human development, but the nurture strongly influences early in human development.

In history of human development, there was no have existed a lot of theories which discuss how and why the nature or nurture factors has influenced the human development, not only in these nowadays, but also in the past, a lot of people as well as countries also they are study which factor has more impact on humans.

nature means nature processes and some inheriting characteristics which cannot be changed.

Nurture means processes caused by surroundings and some characteristics which can be changed by outer environment, so in this project, I will talk about the nature and nurture and the influence on human development from childhood to adulthood.

In this project we will discuss branch of general psychology through human development in Heredity, Environment and Parental Influence.

Human development are affected by many factors could be positive or negative, among these factors heredity, environment and the influence of parents, and how these factors affecting the building personality from birth to adulthood and helps you better understand yourself, helps you learn more about your children personality, helps you understand how to interact and analyze Personalities.

There are many different personality types, and it is sometimes difficult to classify a person into a single type as there are many different personality traits, you can possess like Positive Personality Traits, Negative Personality Traits.

Also understanding psychological functioning for personality in family, school, and other social contexts such as parents, genetics and the environment that affect human development and the resulting is personality characterized by a certain individual Trait.

The goal of the Human Development is to study the nature and the nurture, and course of human development, in context, to Prevent practices and policies that affect the human personal growth, so studying human development helps to understand personalities, helps you learn more about children’s behavior and understand what is normal and what is not normal, and how human development is influenced by family, schools, community and the workplace.

Project Body:

Heredity is the process and the result of the process by which the characteristics or traits are produced and transmitted from parents to offspring through the genes or transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring, either biologically through their genes or socially (psychological) through environmental or through parental since birth to adulthood.

Genes small piece part of (DNA) that affect a particular process or personal characteristics.

Our genetic makeup, as well as environmental influences, its play a large role in determining our personal.

heredity of behavioral traits, and it is an overlap of genetics, psychology, and ethnology, developmental genetics and study of how genes influence the general behavior in human.

Genetics play a large role in when and how learning, growing, and development occurs. Although environment has an effect on the walking behavior of infants and toddlers, children do not usually begin walking before a certain time that is predetermined by genetics. The genetic makeup of a child predetermined an age range for when a child will begin walking, but the influences in the environment determine how early or late the event will actually occur.

Heredity through genes are the biochemical units of heredity that form the chromosomes. The genes are essentially the segments of DNA molecules that contain the codes for particular proteins which then determine who we are, – at birth and when become in age 40 th – do not forget the importance of environment, but the genes is the main issue that impact in build of human personalities whence our skin color, hair color and type, eye color, smarts and many of personal traits and Psychological traits.

so, the human development through heredity it is transfer of traits from parents to children through genes that determine certain traits for each personality and it is a first main factor.

 

In this part of project will talking about how environment effect the human development since birth to adulthood and the environmental elements and the factors Influencing on all human personalities, natural environmental impacts and human activity impact.

(Noises) In general the noise impact on adults and children in lack of sleep, stress, these factors affecting the human race which leads to low productivity in adults at work, Children’s reading abilities, cognitive development, motivational tasks are affected by exposure to noise, most common noises that children are exposed to are transportation, cars, airplanes, music.

The children living near airports and exposed to airport noise, found these delays in reading in most of children.

(Pollution), Studies have found that some air pollutants have detrimental effects on human development, growth, the lower birth weights as a result of particulate air pollutants.

In a European Commission study, it was calculated that air pollution also reduces life expectancy by an average of almost 8 months across the World. Emitted by traffic, industry and domestic heating sources, these pollutants are released in the form of tiny particles that can penetrate deeply into both the bloodstream and respiratory tissue.

 

The pollutants have an adverse effect on human health, mental and physical . Psychologically , transportation and loud sounds in the city, causing tension and

stress and lack of sleep , so we find that most people who live in crowded cities are suffering from psychological stress and lack of equilibrium ,

while the people living in the suburbs of cities or villages , we find a few of them suffer stress and lack of sleep . Results of scientific studies and research findings confirm that the large number of pollutants and the multiplicity of sources, the main cause of increase in crimes at both the physical or psychological . (physical ), Because of the contaminants stages of pregnancy the fetus is affected by the amount of toxins that pass through the respiratory tract to the mother , the genes affected by toxins break down the system thereby creating genetic mutations in some cases , or when the fetus becomes puberty become mentally unbalanced .

From previous results, we find that the environment has an impact on human development, mental and physical, according to scientific studies and research findings have been confirmed damages resulting from the surrounding environment, whether natural or human activity.

 

In this part of project will talking about the major ways parents influence children: direct interaction, identification, and transmission of family stories.

The profile of cognitive abilities, beliefs, ethical values, coping defenses, and salient emotional moods that characterizes each child at each developmental stage is the result of diverse influences operating in complex ways.

Most students of human development agree that the most important determinants of the different profiles include:

1) the inherited physiologic patterns that are called temperamental qualities.

2) parental practices and personality.

3) quality of schools attended.

4) relationships with peers.

5) ordinal position in the family.

6) the historical era in which late childhood and early adolescence are spent.

Each of these factors exerts its major influence on only some components of the psychological profile and is usually most effective during particular age periods.

For example, the quality of social relations with peers affects primarily the child’s beliefs about his/her acceptability to others and has its major effect after school entrance.

By contrast, parental conversations with the child, and especially naming unfamiliar objects, affect the child’s future verbal talents and have maximal effect during the first 6 years of life.

Parents can affect their children through at least three different mechanisms. The most obvious, and the one easiest both to imagine and to measure,

involves the consequences of direct interactions with the child.

For example, a mother praises a 3-year-old for eating properly, a father threatens the loss of a privilege because a child refuses to go to bed, a parent names an unfamiliar animal in a picture book. These everyday events that involve the rewarding of desirable actions, the punishment of undesired ones,

and the transfer of knowledge from parent to child have a cumulative effect. Failure to discipline acts of disobedience and/or aggression is correlated

with children’s a social behavior.

 

However, these first-order effects can have second-order consequences that appear later in life.

7-year-old with a more extensive vocabulary than her peers, because her parents encouraged language development 5 years earlier, will master the tasks

of the elementary grades more easily and, as a result, perceive herself as more competent than her peers. This belief is likely to embolden her to resist

domination by others and, perhaps, motivate the initiation of unusually challenging tasks. The 7-year-old who was not chastised for aggressive behavior earlier or who had abusive or overly intrusive parents is likely to be aggressive with peers.

A parent can do anything in the eyes of a 6-year-old, but becomes an embarrassment to that same child at age 13.

An adolescent’s more critical view of his parents is part of growing up, preparing him to separate from his family when he becomes an adult.

Parents might turn that critical eye inward, to reassess their parenting and lifestyles.

The choices parents make can have long-lasting positive and negative influences on children.

(Parental Involvement), It isn’t easy to be involved with a teen who keeps pushing away, but making the effort pays off. Parents who are involved with their children, who know where they are after school and have met most of their friends, have a positive effect on their child’s life. Children of involved parents are less likely to participate in risky behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol or fighting, according to the Dubai Department for Public Health. Teens with involved parents have better self-esteem and perform better in school.

While

(Lack of Involvement), On the flipside, a lack of parental involvement can have long-lasting negative effects on a child. Children who don’t have a close relationship with a parent are at risk for teen pregnancy, more likely to drink alcohol or smoke cigarettes, and more likely to live a sedentary life. They are also more likely to be withdrawn or suffer from depression.

 

(Positive Parenting), Being an involved parent takes time, patience and the ability to deal with eye rolls and behavior.

Parents can start with a family dinner, which has shown to have a tremendous positive effect on children.

The family dinner brings parents and children together, giving time and space for conversation in a comfortable environment.

Positive parenting is being available to a child, talking about subjects that interest the child and knowing his friends.

Child’s Emotional and Social Development dependent on Parental Influences

As children grow up, there are many aspects of their lives which influence and affect their development and behaviors. One of the most important facets during this time period of development is the parental figures in their life. They play a large role in the social and emotional behaviors a child will possess during childhood and later in life as well. The way a parent socializes may have a slight amount to do with their genetic makeup, but due to the child’s interactions with and observations of, the parents contribute more to the social and empathy related development than heredity.

The following describes some ways that parents can build developmental assets in their children:

1-provide support to all family members.

2-communicate in a positive way with each other.

3-be involved in your children’s schooling.

4-set boundaries, be a role model and have high expectations for behavior.

5-encourage good use of time; for example, being involved in recreational or creative activities or helping others in the community or at home.

5-model a commitment to learning.

6-promote positive values, including responsibility and restraint.

7-help develop social skills such as planning, decision-making and resistance skills.

8-help children develop a sense of personal power and purpose, high self-esteem, and a positive view of their own future.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, nature and nurture both have influences on early human development. Nature decides human’s dispositions and nurture can change these personalities. Nature gives human born abilities and nurture help human to develop the abilities.

Nature gives innate attributes to human and people are almost the same when they are born. Then nurture makes the innate attributes change and result in people having different lives.

So nurture strongly influences early human development, because the environment surrounding us from all sides, and with differing environmental side there is a negative side and a positive determined by the parents at the stages of human growth.

Appendix:

Environmental (in psychology) is a study the relationship between the environment and human and human behavior and impacts on human growth during the first stages of life.

Nature and nurture both have influences on early human development.

References:

https://www. environment-in+psychology&biw=120&bih=929&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source.html

http://fuseopnsciednceblog.blogspot.ae/2013/10/thoughts-on-research-tangent.html

Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D.H.. (1996). Growing Up Sad. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Gerhold, M., Laucht, M., Texdorf, C., & Shmidt, M.H. (2002, Summer). Early mother-infant interaction as a precursor to childhood social withdrawal. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32 (4), 277-293.

Halloran, E.C., Ross, G.J., & Carey, M.P. (2002, Spring). The relationship of adolescent personality and family environment to psychiatric diagnosis. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32 (3), 201-216.

http://www. forums.com/writing-feedback-3/nature-nurture-both-have-influences-early-human-development-5320235/

Hart, S., Jones, N.A., Field, T., & Lundy, B. (1999,Winter). One-year-old infants of intrusive and withdrawn depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30 (2), 111- 120.

Gimko, C., Hronkite, R.C., Berg, E.A., & Moos, R.H. (2002, Spring). Children of parents with univocal depression: a comparison of stably remitted, partially remitted, and nonremitted parents and nondepressed controls. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32 (3), 165-185.

http://www.studymode.com/essdays/How-Do-Parents-Influence-Child-Development-723377.html

http://www.srcmp-grc.gc.ca/guide-kid-enf/page3-eng- Parents-Influence.htm

Iyengar, B. K. S. (1976). Light on yoga. Yoga dipika. New York: Schocken Books.

Kegan, J. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Macy, J. (1991). World as lover, world as self. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. highly recommended

Nelson, A. (1993). Living the wheel: Working with emotions, terror and bliss with imagery. York Beach, ME: Weiser.

Abdulla / Ali / Mohamed 1 | Page

Human Development Through Heredity, Environment and Parental Influence

Abstract:

Over the past 100 years , has focused a study of environmental impacts , and to analyze the genetics of the human personality aggressive , timid , introvert , social , and positive or negative qualities of the other . Over the past few years, entered the human development issues in the countries’ policies , particularly the policies of development and growth , and is considered the environment of the human being is a key factor in the formation of the human personality , and analyze the currently widespread integration of environmental issues in the growth of human development , and analysis of the implications of the surrounding environment , mainly through the so-called human rights , while the effects of growth on the quality of the human environment are Ä shear curve of social and genetic effects .

Furthermore, it has shown recent contributions on the importance of the role of institutions in human development in the construction of the path of development and to get rid of the negatives that surround the man through awareness , education and humanitarian assistance and development of laws to protect children from violence, community or social pressures that affect the formation of the child’s personality . In this paper , we try to analyze the causal relationships between human development and the factors that affect human development into country policies as an essential part of human development and the reduction of violence through the analysis of the factors that affect human development and the formation of a positive figure in the community .

Pollutants and other aspects that affect the human body of a man-made or natural influence on the patterns of human growth and development, and have been classified all of these factors on the extent of their impact on the formation of human personality and physical health in countries.

Introduction:

Nature and nurture both of them have influences on human development, but the nurture strongly influences early in human development.

In history of human development, there was no have existed a lot of theories which discuss how and why the nature or nurture factors has influenced the human development, not only in these nowadays, but also in the past, a lot of people as well as countries also they are study which factor has more impact on humans.

nature means nature processes and some inheriting characteristics which cannot be changed.

Nurture means processes caused by surroundings and some characteristics which can be changed by outer environment, so in this project, I will talk about the nature and nurture and the influence on human development from childhood to adulthood.

In this project we will discuss branch of general psychology through human development in Heredity, Environment and Parental Influence.

Human development are affected by many factors could be positive or negative, among these factors heredity, environment and the influence of parents, and how these factors affecting the building personality from birth to adulthood and helps you better understand yourself, helps you learn more about your children personality, helps you understand how to interact and analyze Personalities.

There are many different personality types, and it is sometimes difficult to classify a person into a single type as there are many different personality traits, you can possess like Positive Personality Traits, Negative Personality Traits.

Also understanding psychological functioning for personality in family, school, and other social contexts such as parents, genetics and the environment that affect human development and the resulting is personality characterized by a certain individual Trait.

The goal of the Human Development is to study the nature and the nurture, and course of human development, in context, to Prevent practices and policies that affect the human personal growth, so studying human development helps to understand personalities, helps you learn more about children’s behavior and understand what is normal and what is not normal, and how human development is influenced by family, schools, community and the workplace.

Project Body:

Heredity is the process and the result of the process by which the characteristics or traits are produced and transmitted from parents to offspring through the genes or transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring, either biologically through their genes or socially (psychological) through environmental or through parental since birth to adulthood.

Genes small piece part of (DNA) that affect a particular process or personal characteristics.

Our genetic makeup, as well as environmental influences, its play a large role in determining our personal.

heredity of behavioral traits, and it is an overlap of genetics, psychology, and ethnology, developmental genetics and study of how genes influence the general behavior in human.

Genetics play a large role in when and how learning, growing, and development occurs. Although environment has an effect on the walking behavior of infants and toddlers, children do not usually begin walking before a certain time that is predetermined by genetics. The genetic makeup of a child predetermined an age range for when a child will begin walking, but the influences in the environment determine how early or late the event will actually occur.

Heredity through genes are the biochemical units of heredity that form the chromosomes. The genes are essentially the segments of DNA molecules that contain the codes for particular proteins which then determine who we are, – at birth and when become in age 40 th – do not forget the importance of environment, but the genes is the main issue that impact in build of human personalities whence our skin color, hair color and type, eye color, smarts and many of personal traits and Psychological traits.

so, the human development through heredity it is transfer of traits from parents to children through genes that determine certain traits for each personality and it is a first main factor.

 

In this part of project will talking about how environment effect the human development since birth to adulthood and the environmental elements and the factors Influencing on all human personalities, natural environmental impacts and human activity impact.

(Noises) In general the noise impact on adults and children in lack of sleep, stress, these factors affecting the human race which leads to low productivity in adults at work, Children’s reading abilities, cognitive development, motivational tasks are affected by exposure to noise, most common noises that children are exposed to are transportation, cars, airplanes, music.

The children living near airports and exposed to airport noise, found these delays in reading in most of children.

(Pollution), Studies have found that some air pollutants have detrimental effects on human development, growth, the lower birth weights as a result of particulate air pollutants.

In a European Commission study, it was calculated that air pollution also reduces life expectancy by an average of almost 8 months across the World. Emitted by traffic, industry and domestic heating sources, these pollutants are released in the form of tiny particles that can penetrate deeply into both the bloodstream and respiratory tissue.

 

The pollutants have an adverse effect on human health, mental and physical . Psychologically , transportation and loud sounds in the city, causing tension and

stress and lack of sleep , so we find that most people who live in crowded cities are suffering from psychological stress and lack of equilibrium ,

while the people living in the suburbs of cities or villages , we find a few of them suffer stress and lack of sleep . Results of scientific studies and research findings confirm that the large number of pollutants and the multiplicity of sources, the main cause of increase in crimes at both the physical or psychological . (physical ), Because of the contaminants stages of pregnancy the fetus is affected by the amount of toxins that pass through the respiratory tract to the mother , the genes affected by toxins break down the system thereby creating genetic mutations in some cases , or when the fetus becomes puberty become mentally unbalanced .

From previous results, we find that the environment has an impact on human development, mental and physical, according to scientific studies and research findings have been confirmed damages resulting from the surrounding environment, whether natural or human activity.

 

In this part of project will talking about the major ways parents influence children: direct interaction, identification, and transmission of family stories.

The profile of cognitive abilities, beliefs, ethical values, coping defenses, and salient emotional moods that characterizes each child at each developmental stage is the result of diverse influences operating in complex ways.

Most students of human development agree that the most important determinants of the different profiles include:

1) the inherited physiologic patterns that are called temperamental qualities.

2) parental practices and personality.

3) quality of schools attended.

4) relationships with peers.

5) ordinal position in the family.

6) the historical era in which late childhood and early adolescence are spent.

Each of these factors exerts its major influence on only some components of the psychological profile and is usually most effective during particular age periods.

For example, the quality of social relations with peers affects primarily the child’s beliefs about his/her acceptability to others and has its major effect after school entrance.

By contrast, parental conversations with the child, and especially naming unfamiliar objects, affect the child’s future verbal talents and have maximal effect during the first 6 years of life.

Parents can affect their children through at least three different mechanisms. The most obvious, and the one easiest both to imagine and to measure,

involves the consequences of direct interactions with the child.

For example, a mother praises a 3-year-old for eating properly, a father threatens the loss of a privilege because a child refuses to go to bed, a parent names an unfamiliar animal in a picture book. These everyday events that involve the rewarding of desirable actions, the punishment of undesired ones,

and the transfer of knowledge from parent to child have a cumulative effect. Failure to discipline acts of disobedience and/or aggression is correlated

with children’s a social behavior.

 

However, these first-order effects can have second-order consequences that appear later in life.

7-year-old with a more extensive vocabulary than her peers, because her parents encouraged language development 5 years earlier, will master the tasks

of the elementary grades more easily and, as a result, perceive herself as more competent than her peers. This belief is likely to embolden her to resist

domination by others and, perhaps, motivate the initiation of unusually challenging tasks. The 7-year-old who was not chastised for aggressive behavior earlier or who had abusive or overly intrusive parents is likely to be aggressive with peers.

A parent can do anything in the eyes of a 6-year-old, but becomes an embarrassment to that same child at age 13.

An adolescent’s more critical view of his parents is part of growing up, preparing him to separate from his family when he becomes an adult.

Parents might turn that critical eye inward, to reassess their parenting and lifestyles.

The choices parents make can have long-lasting positive and negative influences on children.

(Parental Involvement), It isn’t easy to be involved with a teen who keeps pushing away, but making the effort pays off. Parents who are involved with their children, who know where they are after school and have met most of their friends, have a positive effect on their child’s life. Children of involved parents are less likely to participate in risky behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol or fighting, according to the Dubai Department for Public Health. Teens with involved parents have better self-esteem and perform better in school.

While

(Lack of Involvement), On the flipside, a lack of parental involvement can have long-lasting negative effects on a child. Children who don’t have a close relationship with a parent are at risk for teen pregnancy, more likely to drink alcohol or smoke cigarettes, and more likely to live a sedentary life. They are also more likely to be withdrawn or suffer from depression.

 

(Positive Parenting), Being an involved parent takes time, patience and the ability to deal with eye rolls and behavior.

Parents can start with a family dinner, which has shown to have a tremendous positive effect on children.

The family dinner brings parents and children together, giving time and space for conversation in a comfortable environment.

Positive parenting is being available to a child, talking about subjects that interest the child and knowing his friends.

Child’s Emotional and Social Development dependent on Parental Influences

As children grow up, there are many aspects of their lives which influence and affect their development and behaviors. One of the most important facets during this time period of development is the parental figures in their life. They play a large role in the social and emotional behaviors a child will possess during childhood and later in life as well. The way a parent socializes may have a slight amount to do with their genetic makeup, but due to the child’s interactions with and observations of, the parents contribute more to the social and empathy related development than heredity.

The following describes some ways that parents can build developmental assets in their children:

1-provide support to all family members.

2-communicate in a positive way with each other.

3-be involved in your children’s schooling.

4-set boundaries, be a role model and have high expectations for behavior.

5-encourage good use of time; for example, being involved in recreational or creative activities or helping others in the community or at home.

5-model a commitment to learning.

6-promote positive values, including responsibility and restraint.

7-help develop social skills such as planning, decision-making and resistance skills.

8-help children develop a sense of personal power and purpose, high self-esteem, and a positive view of their own future.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, nature and nurture both have influences on early human development. Nature decides human’s dispositions and nurture can change these personalities. Nature gives human born abilities and nurture help human to develop the abilities.

Nature gives innate attributes to human and people are almost the same when they are born. Then nurture makes the innate attributes change and result in people having different lives.

So nurture strongly influences early human development, because the environment surrounding us from all sides, and with differing environmental side there is a negative side and a positive determined by the parents at the stages of human growth.

Appendix:

Environmental (in psychology) is a study the relationship between the environment and human and human behavior and impacts on human growth during the first stages of life.

Nature and nurture both have influences on early human development.

References:

https://www. environment-in+psychology&biw=120&bih=929&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source.html

http://fuseopnsciednceblog.blogspot.ae/2013/10/thoughts-on-research-tangent.html

Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D.H.. (1996). Growing Up Sad. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Gerhold, M., Laucht, M., Texdorf, C., & Shmidt, M.H. (2002, Summer). Early mother-infant interaction as a precursor to childhood social withdrawal. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32 (4), 277-293.

Halloran, E.C., Ross, G.J., & Carey, M.P. (2002, Spring). The relationship of adolescent personality and family environment to psychiatric diagnosis. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32 (3), 201-216.

http://www. forums.com/writing-feedback-3/nature-nurture-both-have-influences-early-human-development-5320235/

Hart, S., Jones, N.A., Field, T., & Lundy, B. (1999,Winter). One-year-old infants of intrusive and withdrawn depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30 (2), 111- 120.

Gimko, C., Hronkite, R.C., Berg, E.A., & Moos, R.H. (2002, Spring). Children of parents with univocal depression: a comparison of stably remitted, partially remitted, and nonremitted parents and nondepressed controls. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32 (3), 165-185.

http://www.studymode.com/essdays/How-Do-Parents-Influence-Child-Development-723377.html

http://www.srcmp-grc.gc.ca/guide-kid-enf/page3-eng- Parents-Influence.htm

Iyengar, B. K. S. (1976). Light on yoga. Yoga dipika. New York: Schocken Books.

Kegan, J. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Macy, J. (1991). World as lover, world as self. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. highly recommended

Nelson, A. (1993). Living the wheel: Working with emotions, terror and bliss with imagery. York Beach, ME: Weiser.

Abdulla / Ali / Mohamed 1 | Page

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