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These children would want to achieve a lot. They set high standards and they are perfectionists. It is also stated that they focus on achieving the goals in the educational and occupational settings. The transformational leaders are always driven to achieve the goals set. They are also concerned with helping others solve their problems. They are motivated. They have a vision and they try had to achieve it. They encourage others to achieve and fulfil the goals of the organization. The first born children tend to be hard working. They possess authoritarian characteristics. They want to fulfil the expectations of the family. They are responsible. They are set to achieve their goal. They conform to the rules as they need to fulfil the expectations by the parent. Since they act in the same way their parents they tend to inspire others. They have qualities of others as they have grown up with the parents around and tend to pick those up. Hence, based on the above descriptions it was deduced that the only children and first born tend to have most often the same characteristics.
Many researchers have concluded that only-children and first-borns, regardless of gender, appear to be academic achievers as compared to later born children (Coleston, 2008).
Thus, the hypothesis that “There will be no significant difference between Only children and First born on Transformational Leadership style” was formulated.
- Transactional Leadership Style
Transactional leadership style mainly focuses this attention on the role and task and how this is related to the performance. The transactional leadership theory states emphasize on the relationships that are formed between the leader and follower on account of various exchanges (Burns, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). In 1978, according to Hollander he theorised this leadership as to have various dynamic process. These were mainly in relation with the leader and follower and the interpersonal interactions among the two. These leaders were responsible to give clear instructions. They would reciprocate with the follower and respond to them appropriately. This in turn increased the leader’s influence on them (Hollander, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). These leaders rewarded and gave the followers acknowledgement when the expectations or the goals were met. These leaders mainly negotiate and their roles and responsibilities and there is mutual respect and influence. According to Heifetz in 1994, these leaders influence their followers and they are also under the followers as it is a reciprocal relationship. According to Burns 2003, leaders who are involved in both the simple and complex situations and they try to achieve the organizational goals (Wheatley, 2010).
Only children never lack companionships. From an early age they are used to playing alone with their toys and not forming relationships much. Their job satisfaction most often depends on their urge to attain perfection. An only child will find a setting where they can work alone rather than in a team (Leman, 2009 cited in Murphy, 2012).
The first born children are well organized. They feel they must be perfect in everything that they do. They stick to authority and they follow the rules (Kalkan, 2008 cited in Murphy 2012). First borns are seen as highly motivated and most often take charge of the things. First born children generally hold the dominant role over the younger siblings in the family (Tucker and Updegraff, 2010 cited in Murphy, 2012). They often fill high positions of authority in their professions. They set high goals for themselves and they generally would do anything to achieve the goals that they have set (Leman, 2009 cited in Murphy, 2012).
According to the above literature review it has been seen that only children prefer working on their own rather in a team and also try to seek perfection. The transactional leaders share a relationship with their followers and clearly explain the roles. The first borns try hard to seek perfection. They are very motivated and do anything to achieve their goals.
Hence, the hypothesis stating that “There will be no significant difference between Only children and First born on Transactional Leadership style” was formulated.
- Laissez faire leadership style
These leaders generally cause confusion as they are in leadership positions but they are not working or associated with any kind of responsibility. They are inactive. (Bass, 1990 cited in Hartog et al 1997) reported negative correlations on laissez-faire leadership and this in turn results in the performance, effort and attitudes. This is the most inappropriate way to lead someone. There is not enough motivation given by them. A leadership theory by Kerr and Jermier proposed that subordinate, task, and, organization are the main characteristics. When there is no leader role the subordinates could be empowered to do work and thus this can result in transformational leadership (Hartog et al 1997).
Only children are higher on taking initiative and personal aspiration. They are highly motivated. They focus on educational or occupational achievement more often. These children have stronger individual identities (Mellor, 1989 cited in Collins, 2006).The first born children are often seen as powerful and influential (Murphy, 2012). They operate as being responsible for their family members and in return about the productiveness of them. When they feel that the productivity has not been attained they feel that they were not good enough for the job (Hoopes & Harper, 1987 Cited in Klas, 2002).
According to the above literature review it can be seen how only children are seen are very motivating and focused. The laissez faire leadership style is one where there is no leadership role taken and they are irresponsible. The first born children are seen as powerful and taking initiative to complete a task.
Hence, the hypothesis “There will be no significant difference between Only children and First born on the Laissez faire leadership style” was formulated.
2.2.1 ii Only children and Last Born
Only children according to Adler will occupy a unique position as they don’t have another sibling to compete with. The only child generally becomes the focus of attention to the family (Havighurst, 1960; Leman, 1998 Cited in Klas, 2002).They lead their life with dependence and self-centeredness. They gain their family’s attention throughout their childhood. Later on in life there is this awakening where they are no longer the focus of attention anymore. They never had to compete with others. They usually have difficulty interacting with their peers (Hjelli et al., 1992). Only children do not have the habit of sharing their things with others this by default comes across as being selfish (Leman 1988, cited in Klas, 2002).
The Last born children are considered the most outgoing and secure one in the family. They are generally the least academic ones (Herra, 2003 cited in Collins, 2006). They are looked as the least capable one when compared to their siblings. They are also looked as having less experience in comparison to the other siblings in the family. These children may become discouraged as they are not able to fulfil the expectations set by their older siblings and hence they are considered as failures. These children possess strengths such as caring, outgoing, thoughtful and empathizing which are certain personal skills that the other siblings tend not to possess (Snow et al, 1981 cited in Collins, 2006).
- Transformational Leadership Style
In Transformational leadership however, the leader fails to understand followers motives and needs. The focus shifts from the need of the leader to the followers needs. By gaining an understanding of their followers needs, the transformational leader can potentially convert followers into leaders (Chandan et al, 2014).
Hence, the hypothesis “ Only children will be higher on Transformational Leadership style as compared to Last Born” was formulated.
- Transactional Leadership Style
According to this theory there is an exchange of rewards between the leaders and the followers. Transactional leaders try to motivate their followers through extrinsic rewards. The roots of Transactional leadership theory is grounded in the social learning and social exchange theories, which recognize the equal nature of leadership. Bass and Avolio described contingent reward as that when the leader will give the subordinate once they have achieved goals that were agreed to. Contingent reward is therefore the exchange of rewards for meeting agreed-on objectives. Transactional leaders can also act by relying on active management by exception which occurs when the leader monitors followers to ensure mistakes are not made. In passive management by exception, the leader interferes only when things go wrong (Chandan et al, 2014).
Only children are more autonomous when it comes to personal control. Only children prefer being around things than people. This has been seen from an early age where they play with toys rather than mixing with others. When the other person who the only child interacts with does not understand what he/she is trying to say they often get frustrated (Isaacson, 2004 cited in Murphy 2012).
Last born generally have a drive for passion in their live. They strive for different type of success most often to a new innovate way something in which they can excel in and not the same field as their siblings. They are attracted by new ideas and innovations. They haven’t had much of the valuable experiences at home instead they are seen more sociable as they have opportunities outside their homes to develop these social skills (Snow et al, 1981 cited in Collins, 2006).
According to the above literature review it can be seen that only children prefer working on their own. They do not like when others do not understand them They prefer things over people. The transactional leadership style is where the leader has a reciprocal relationship with the follower. They motivate their followers by giving rewards.
Hence, the hypothesis “ Only children will be significantly lower on Transactional Leadership style as compared to Last borns” was formulated
- Laissez faire Leadership style
These leaders allow the group complete freedom in decision making. They never took part in any discussion of any kind. They dint not participate in working towards a goal as well. There were no appraisals also given to their followers.
Hence, as it can be seen by the above literature review that the last born children are more sociable and they have innovate ideas which they excel in and especially good social skills. It can be seen since the last born children would be able to express their needs and give the rewards to their followers as compared to the only children.
The hypothesis that “ Last born will be higher on Laissez faire leadership style as compared to only born” was formulated.
2.2.1 iii First Born and Last Born
First Born generally behave in a more mature way as they have interacted with adults mostly. They are hence expected to assume responsibilities. They resent having to serve as the models for their younger siblings. They also have to take care and look after their younger siblings. They generally conform to the wishes of the group they belong to. They generally give in to the wishes and are suggestible as they have always conformed to their parent’s wishes most often. They have been overprotected and hence there could be a lack of aggressive behaviour. The generally develop leadership abilities and this happens as since they were small they had to assume responsibilities at the house. They are often seen as bossy to others. They are usually really high achievers and sometimes even overachievers and this is due to the parental expectations that make them perform as they need the parent’s approval for almost everything. They feel replaced by the other sibling and therefore try and achieve a lot of things to gain the approval of their parents. They are unhappy and this stems as they feel really insecure after the other younger sibling has come into their lives (Hurlock, 1981).First born and last born generally occupy different positions in their family. First born constantly keep rankly themselves in relationship to the other people present around them. They generally tend to be more conscientious, intellectual, and socially dominant than later born. On the other hand, later born children are more agreeable, socially gregarious, and non-conforming. First born were always used to the attention given by their parents until the sibling was born, this led to feeling of dethronement and they became more dominant. Later born on the other hand were more agreeable and less conscientious as compared to First born (Sulloway, 2001 cited in Roach, 2006).
Last born tend to be wilful. They are spoilt by the family and pampered. There wasn’t much discipline given to them and the parents were not that strict. They had greater feelings of security as there was no displacement for them. They are protected by their parents when the older sibling verbal or physically attack them. This is why they are more dependent and in turn they are irresponsible. They generally underachieve as they do not have much parental demands. They have extremely good social relationships outside the house. They tend to be popular but not good leaders due to their lack of responsibilities. They tend to be happy due to the attention they have received (Hurlock, 1981).
- Transformational Leadership style
They are those people that encourage and motivate the followers to achieve the goals. A transformational leader mostly needs to make decisions quickly. They take each opportunity that is presented to them. These leaders are very persistent. They have a vision and are passionate about it. They possess values such as conviction and a good character. These leaders are caring and they respect other individuals. These leaders are competent as well. These leaders tend to see that their vision is achieved in the organization. They see that there is a change brought about in their subordinates. They are innovative. They tend to integrate the creative insight and intuition within themselves. These leaders focus on the other aspects looking towards the future and not just the current situation they are faced with (Bhargava, 2003).
According to the above literature review it can be seen that the first born are more responsible as they have grown up with adults. The last born tend not to take up responsibility and they tend not to be good leaders. This helped in concluded and formulating the hypothesis that “ First born will be higher on Transformational Leadership style as compared to Last born”.
- Transactional Leadership style
Transactional leadership style mainly focuses this attention on the role and task and how this is related to the performance. The transactional leadership theory states emphasize on the relationships that are formed between the leader and follower on account of various exchanges (Burns, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). In 1978, according to Hollander he theorised this leadership as to have various dynamic processes. These were mainly in relation with the leader and follower and the interpersonal interactions among the two. These leaders were responsible to give clear instructions. They would reciprocate with the follower and respond to them appropriately. This in turn increased the leader’s influence on them (Hollander, 1978 cited in Wheatley, 2010). These leaders rewarded and gave the followers acknowledgement when the expectations or the goals were met. These leaders mainly negotiate and their roles and responsibilities and there is mutual respect and influence. According to Heifetz in 1994, these leaders influence their followers and they are also under the followers as it is a reciprocal relationship. According to Burns 2003, leaders who are involved in both the simple and complex situations and they try to achieve the organizational goals (Wheatley, 2010).
Last borns are considered as saviours of their family as they give more emphasize to the accomplishments and achievements of their older siblings and this gives them a sense of position of esteem and significance (Stewart et al, 2001). They tend to lack in maturity as they have been pampered by their mothers more often. Since they are given more attention by their mother their extraverted ego is being fed and this is a reason they are considered to be more creative (Nakao et al, 2000 cited in Collins, 2006).
According to the transactional approach there exists and active relationship among the leader and follower where they are seen to influence one and another. The leader generally gives rewards to the follower and tries not to use authoritative measures (Wheatley, 2010). Younger siblings are described as being co-operative and outgoing. Investigations have also confirmed that middle born and last born are socially adept as compared to the older siblings (Coleston, 2008).
According to the above literature review it was seen that the last born are seen more co-operative as compared to the older sibling who is more authoritative. Hence, the hypothesis that “ Last born will be higher on Transactional Leadership style than First born” was formulated.
- Laissez Faire Leadership style
The laissez faire leadership style is extremely the opposite of the other two leadership styles that are active. This is mostly linked to negative outcomes where there is low motivation seen by the leaders (Wheatley, 2010). There is an absence of any kind of Transaction (Wheatley, 2010).They are very passive leaders (Yammarino & Bass, 1990; Yammarino, Spangler & Bass, 1993, in Hartog et al 1997). These leaders generally avoid the decision making of the team. They also avoid supervising and taking up this responsibility.
First-born when compared to last born children and middle children found that they are more socially adept than the rest. It was seen that the first born and only children had similar traits. They tended to be more self-confident, conscientious, responsible and less empathetic. The younger siblings were seen as rebellious and risk takers (Coleston, 2008). The first born children help to mentor their younger siblings. They tend to be good caretakers. The parents give more attention to the first born as compared to the last born. The last born generally don’t take up responsibilities as the older sibling most often does that for them ( Kluger, 2011 cited in Murphy, 2012)
According to the above literature review it can be first born will be more confident and responsible as compared to the last born. The will take up initiative and not rebel as compared to the last born. The laissez faire leadership is one where there is no supervising or responsibility taken.
Hence, the hypothesis “ Last born will be higher on Laissez faire leadership style as compared to first born” was formulated.
The given chapter included a detailed literature on the variables that are studied. The hypotheses that were formulated were based on the reviewed literature and were hence inferred.
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