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Human resource planning can be defined as the process of ensuring the right number of qualified people, into the right job at the right time to deliver the result in an efficient and effective manner. It the system matching the available resources, either internally or externally, with the demand that the organization expects to have over a period of time. The resources available internally are the employees who are already in the organization and external resources are those who have to be recruited from outside. The process of Human resource planning also includes the action plan to be followed, so as to have the required resources in place.
Manpower Planning and human resource planning are synonymous. In the past, the phrase manpower planning was widely used, but now emphasis is on human resource planning which is more broad based. Human resource manpower planning is ''the process by which a management determines 'how an organization should be move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.
Coleman has defined human resource or manpower planning as "the process of determining requirement and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization".
Stainer defines manpower planning as "Strategy for the acquisition, utilization improvement, and preservation of an enterprise's human resources".
ACCORDING TO PETER DRUKER
''Without human factor all the factor of production are useless''
Human resources are the most valuable asset of an organization. It is an important economical resources so planning of human resources is essential; it's proper use lead to-
Maximum utilization of human resources,
Reduces excessive labour turnover and high absenteeism,
Improve productivity and aids in achieving the objectives of an organization.
ACCORDING TO E.W.VELTER-
''Human Resource planning is the process by which a management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desire manpower position''
ACCORDING TO WICKSTROM-
Human resources planning consist of a series of activities. These are as follows:
To forecast future manpower requirements based upon the specific future plan of a company.
Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources are employer optimally.
To anticipate manpower problem regarding future demand and present inventory.
To plan necessary programmers of recruitment - selection, training, development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING;
The Characteristics of human resource planning are as followâ€¦
A human resource plan must be directed toward well defined objective. Its objectives may be as follows;
To develop human resources.
To update technical expertise.
To plan a career of individual people executive people.
To build a team.
HR plan must incorporate the human resources needs of various departments.
HR planning has the way for an effective motivation process.
HR planning must envisage a well formulated plan for Human Resources Department.
HR planning must have adequate flexibility. It can facilitate procurement, training and develop of employees according to changing needs of the organization.
HR planning should ensure not only to the current demand but also to the future demand.
Planning at the operational level may better be covering short term while at the top level Human Resources can be planned for a long term.
In short, Human Resource planning is a multipurpose process. It must be systematic and forward looking activity on the part of Human Resource Management.
OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNINGâ€¦
To maintain the required quantity and of human resources required for a smooth and efficient functioning of the organization.
To forecast the turnover rates.
To plan to meet organizational human resource needs at the time of expensive or diversification.
To develop the existing human resources to match the human resource requirement of the future.
To foresee the effect of technological changes on the requirement for human resources, and to provide for the same.
To optimize staffing in the organization.
To utilize human resource effectively and efficiently.
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING MODEL
Human Resource planning at different Planning level
HRP is done at different level in the organization to meet the resources requirement at these levels. The flow of Communication regarding HRP has to be both ways, that is, from top to bottom as well as from bottom to top.
Corporate level planning
Corporate level Human Resource Planning takes into consideration the changing market sitituation, strategic plans of the organization, the technological changes anticipated etc. at a macro level. These are influenced, like any other corporate level plan, by the philosophy and culture of the organization. The role of human resource planning at this level is to identify the broad policy issues relating to human resources.
Intermediate level planning
Intermediate level planning is done at theStratergy Business Unit level. The Human Resources Planning at this stage is done based on the corporate level HR Plan. The decisions here should complement the decision at the higher level and help the single business or collection of business that is independent and formulates its own strategy.
These planes are made at the operational level and, as in the case of planning at other level, are made in pursuit of the organizational objective. this include simple plans like plans for training and development of resources, recruitment etc, to match the requirements laid down at a broader level.
Planning short term activity
Planning at this level include management of day to day activities like grievance handling. Planning at this level and the operations level are very critical because, these plans practically ensure the success or failure of the corporate plans. If their plans fail, the corporate plans too are likely to fail.
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING PROCESS
Human Resources planning are a multipurpose process. It is one of the most crucial, complex and continuing managerial function. Human resource planning process are as follow..corporate level plan, by the philosophy and culture of the organization.
HRP involves planning for long term needs, rather than for temporary replacement needs. It has to take into consideration the career planning for individual employees and succession planning. The basic steps of HRP are;
Analyzing the impact of the organizational strategy and objectives on different units of the organization in terms of the human resource requirements.
Involving the line managers in determining the human resource needs of their respective departments.
Forecasting the quality and quantity of human resource required by different department or division.
Matching the current human resource supply in the organization with the number required in the future.
Developing an action plan to meet the future requirement in terms of addition or separation, in a planned, in a planned and phased manner.
The main step include in Human resource planning process are as followâ€¦
To determine goals or objectives.
To establish future manpower requirement.
To audit human Resource.
To plan job Requirement and Description.
To develop a Human Resource Plan.
PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING CHART
TO DETERMINE GOALS OR OBJECTIVES:-
Human Resource Planning fulfills individual, organizational and national goals. The main objective of Human Resources Planning is to fit employee abilities to company requirements, with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements. The objectives may be decided for a short term. For example, the short term objectives may be to hire 25 persons from ST/BC for purpose of training The long term objective may be to start a new industry or to expand market or to product.
TO ESTIMATE FUTURE MANPOWER REQUIREMENT:-
Forecasting provides the basic premises on which the manpower planning is built. So the structure of the organization at a given point of time must be estimated by the management. To estimate this, it is essential to determine the number and types of employee needed.
Many environmental factors such as business forecast, expansions and growths, design and structural changes, management philosophy, Government policy, product and human skills mix, and competition affect the determination of future needs. After estimating the future organizational structure the next step is to draw up the requirements of human resources, both for the existing department and for new vacancies. To meet this purpose a forecast of labour force is needed and acquisitions should be obtained from different department.
TO AUDIT HUMAN RESOURCES:-
After estimating the future needs for Human Resources, one should determine the present supply of manpower resources. It can be done through "Skill Inventory". A skills inventory contains the following information.
A requirement of operating job analysis is necessary after deciding many persons would be needed. Job Analysis records include details of training, skill, qualification, abilities, experience and responsibilities etcâ€¦ which are needed for job descriptions and job specifications also.
DEVELOPMENT A HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN:-
At this stage plan for finding out the sources of labour supply is developed and implemented. For this policy regarding obtaining personnel through internal promotion or from an outside force is determined. Generally the higher vacancies are filled up by promotion and lower vacancies by recruitment from the labour market.
ADVANTGES OR IMPORANT OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
HRP has been growing in important in the recent time. With the market becoming more dynamic and the organizations more competitive. It has become imperative and plan for the manpower need, rather than being confronted by sudden crises. By the time an organization responds to shortages in its human recourses, its competitors might have surged miles ahead in the market. So organizations today have grown to understand and accept the importance of goods human resource planning. HRP also helps in cutting down costs by optimizing staffing. It also helps in handling different situation like or divestment thought proactive planning.
Human resource planning is useful at different level like national, sectors, industry level and individual level.
Human resource planning should be useful for improvement of personal
By HRP a manager or superior should be collect qualified or competent employee
In the organization,
Human resource planning is important or efficient aspect of organization by it use a manager must be forecast future of an organization and he can understand problem of organization and he can try to solve it.
To meet the challenging of a new and technology and new technique of production existing employee need to be trained in an organization.
Human Resource planning is useful for reduce labour cost.
Human Resource planning manager should be improving productivity of personal or organizational product.
Human resource planning is long term activity than it should be more time taken.
If any manager or superior in do not have sufficient knowledge about organizing than he do not solve problem of organization or his subordinate.
Human Resource planning is long term or forecast activity or planning depend upon future of organization or future is uncertain than manager do not understand future company or market uncertainly and he do not take right decision at the place.
HRP is important all level of department if any organization departments in mis communication than human resource planning stratergy do not have success and manager do not achieve organizational object or goal.
HRP is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people, at the right places, at the right time and that these people are capable of performing their tasks effectively and efficiently. This helps the organization to achieve its overall objectives.
Two major ways in which societal trend affect employment is through consumer markets, which affect the demand for goods and services, and labor markets, which affect the supply of people needed to produce goods and service. Maintaining a flexible workforce is the major challenge of the HR department and HRP helps it handle this challenge.
Human resource planning is done at different level- corporate, and operations level and for short-term activates. A proper human resource planning exercise should utilize the inputs of all the entire department in the organization and enjoy the support of the top management. A human resources planning exercise should utilize the inputs of all the departments in the organization and enjoy the support of the top management. A human resource professional would be better equipped for human resource planning if he has a good understanding of the market dynamics, changes in the economy, organizational processes and technological development. The process of HRP involves three key steps - assessing and making an inventory of the current human resource, forecasting the organization's human resources needs and matching the demand and supply of the human resources.
Forecasting the over all human resources requirements involves studying the factors effecting the supply and estimating the increase or decrease in the external and internal supply of human resources. New hires, transfers-in, individuals returning from leave etc. increase the internal supply of human resources, while retirements, dismissals, transfers-out of the unit, lay-off, voluntary quits, sabbaticals, prolonged illness, and death reduce the supply. The matching of supply and demand can help the human resources department to identify areas in which shortages and surpluses exist. When there is a need for downsizing, organizations opt for retrenchment using several techniques such as lay offs, outplacement, leave of absence without pay, loaning, work-sharing, reduced work hours, early retirement and attrition to reduce the number of employees. Effective Human Resource Planning reduce the pressures on the management an employees, as both employment and retrenchment would be well planned and phased out over a comfortable time, span, avoiding unpleasant consequences.
In last in all the organization human resource planning is most and efficient or effective aspect than by effective planning a manager can decide and taken effective decision about personal or employee and product of organization and hi can achieve organizational goal of personal and product of organization. Effective or competent employee or manager should be easily achieved organizational object or goals. Human resource planning inspires or motive to a employee of an organization.