These reasons have made Human Resource Planning to become a major objective in organizations.
The process of Human Resource Planning include analysis of level of skill in the organization (skill inventory) analysis of current and expected vacancies due to retirement, discharges, transfers, prootions; sick leaves, leaves of absence or other reasons and analysis of current and expected expansions as pointed out by
This also indicates that plan has to be made internally by the Human Resources for training and development of present employee, for advertising job opening recruiting and hiring new people.
A good Human Resource Planning must respond appropriately to the rapid changing in the society and must go beyond forecasting to all aspect of Personnel Management.
Human resource or manpower planning is of great important in the general development and growth of organizations. Thus personnel and Human resources experts, managers and practitioners have now made it known to management that adequate attention be given to it with a view to ensuring better use of other resources especially capital. Organisations have also realized that with increasing competition and complexity in business, more time should be devoted to effective human resources planning to achieve desired goals. Furthermore organisations have known that not only is the overall cost of human resources high , that human element is complex, unpredictable and sometimes difficult to develop or change unlike capital that is relatively easier to acquire, manager or control.
Human Resources Planning is defined as the process of assessing an organization’s human resources needs in the light of organizational goals and changing condition and making plans to ensure that a competent, stable workforce is employed. The actual planning process will vary a great deal from organization to organization
According to Walker, effective human resources planning is a process of analyzing an organization human resources needs under changing condition and development of the activities necessary to satisfy those needs.
Walker sees human resources planning as two step processes, planning as they pertain to all aspects of personnel management. This will include for example planning with respect to desired organizational climate and development of staff reward and appraisal system appropriate to short range and long range organizational goals. This implies that help must be proactive and as well as reactive.
Pattern states that Human Resource Planning is the process by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people in the right place at the right time doing things for which they economically most useful.
Fayana (2002) emphasized that human resource planning deals with the systematic and continuing process of analyzing a firm’s human resources needs under mutating conditions and developing workforce policies suitable to the long-term effectiveness of the organization. It is a vital part of corporate planning and budgeting procedure since human resources costs and forecasting both effect and are affected by long-term corporate plans.
Dynamic Activity : Manpower planning is a continuous or never ending process because the demand and supply of manpower are subjectto frequent change. It is dynamic activity.
Development of Policies : It resultsin the development of policies, programmes and procedures for the acquisition, development, preservation and utilization of the organization’s human assets.
Inventory of Human : It includes the inventory of present human in the organization. The manager should know the persons, who will be available to him, for undertaking higher responsibilities in the near future.
Objectives : Human resources in object should be most important aspect for the orabisation. Without object organization or company do not run and do not achieve target, market or goal.
Economic Development : At the national level, manpower planning is essential for economic development. It is particularly helpful in the generation of employment in educational reforms and in geographical mobility of talent.
Helps fill the gap : Manpower planning identifies the gaps in existing manpower so that suitable training programmes may be developed for building specific skills, required in future.
Promoting New Employees : The database available provides a comprehensive skill repertoire, which facilties for decision making as to the promotional opportunities to be made available for the organization.
Forcasting on future : Human requirement must be important an effective for any organization of department. Without human resource organization do not run and other factor are useless.
Focus of Human Resource Planning
According to Bramham, Torrington and Hall, the process of matching future organizational requirement with the supply of properly qualified, committed and experience staff in the right place at the right time. These staff can be drawn from both the internal and external labour market
This requires a focus on the following:
An assessment of future product market trends and requirement.
A specification of the type and numbers of staff required to satisfy these product market trends and requirement.
An estimate of the type and number of staff likely to be employed by the organization in five years.
A specification of the number/type of staff to be recruited or made redundant.
A development plan for restraining and re-focusing existing staff and, if appropriate, for recruiting additional staff from the external analysis.
A re-examination of broader business strategies in the light of this analysis.
Need of Manpower Planning
Manpower Planning is a two-phased process because manpower planning not only analyses the current human resources but also makes manpower forecasts and thereby draw employment programmes. Manpower Planning is advantageous to firm in following manner:
Shortages and surpluses can be identified so that quick action can be taken wherever required.
All the recruitment and selection programmes are based on manpower planning.
It also helps to reduce the labour cost as excess staff can be identified and thereby overstaffing can be avoided.
It also helps to identify the available talents in a concern and accordingly training programmes can be chalked out to develop those talents.
It helps in growth and diversification of business. Through manpower planning, human resources can be readily available and they can be utilized in best manner.
It helps the organization to realize the importance of manpower management which ultimately helps in the stability of a concern.
Human Resources Planning Process
The stating point of human resource planning process (HRPP) is the determination of corporate or organizational goals. This will now help us to have a clear vision of the future aspiration of the organization and plan towards the realization of its objects.
Identify the direction the organistion wants to take to achieve those goals e.g through the introduction of new technology, a new project of by diversification. This will then be translated into human elements needed for the actualization of the set objectives.
Take inventory of current manpower position to determine future needs.Information such as educational qualification, skills , experience, type of job, sex, age and geographical location should be considered in planning manpower needs. In other words, we have to take stock of our current manpower to enable us forecast what we need in future. This involves job analysis, job description and job specification
A manpower audit is equally important: This will show the actual number of employees on the establishment which will form the basis of operations. For instance, if there is manpower deficiency, the organization could correct the situation through its personnel/administrative programmes. This could be achieved through the following means.
Training and staff development
Promotion and transfer etc
The purpose, then, for establishing a human strategic plan is to:
Decide where your department is going over the next three to five years
Establish an action plan (tactics) to get where you want to go
Help your staff focus on the truly important activities
Define the resources you’ll need to accomplish your objectives
Create a plan to acquire necessary resources
There are many advantages of human resource in an organization some of them include:
Human resource helps in employee management:
There are many advantages that human resource provides in an organization but the foremost advantage of human resource in an organization is the assistance it provides in Recruiting staff and in training employee. The human resource department is mostly responsible to develop the systematic plan according to which they hire the staff and help to build a professional work team.
There are series of strategies that the human resource system implements in employment appointing which includes:
Allocated training sessions for employees
Develop test plans for employee
To manage and analyze employee interviews
To create internship opportunities
Human resource provides consultancy:
There are many issues that the employee or work-team of an organization faces. The advantage of human resource is that it’s a medium which provide all the consulting that a employee needs and also answer general queries. Human resource is very effective in an organization to settle down any managerial dispute or employee problem in a professional and proficient manner.
Building business plan :
On more advantage of human resource is that these departments actively participate in business and marketing decision. The human resource system comprises of highly dedicated professionals who have the ability to devise new plan and implement marketing strategies that would bring more business and capital to the organization.
Forethought of business :
Human resource also deals with the long-term management of the business. This department evaluates the future scope of the business and devises strategies which would be profitable to the organization in the longer run and bring in stability to the business and provide it an established medium to stand on in the future.
Building public relations :
Human resource also helps the business and commerce to make public relations and built a proper referral system. It is very necessary that the business develops an association with other businesses in the market so it could propel its earning through collaboration with other business sectors. The human resource department arranges seminars, business meetings and official gathering for the company so that it gets acquainted with the market and other businesses.
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These advantages therefore clearly illustrate how important the human resource is for an organization. Whether the business is small or it’s a big budget industry, building and maintaining a high profile human resource system is very necessary if the business wants to avoid disputes and problems in the longer run. The human resource can be deployed in a small organization at a low scale by hiring minimal staff and growing it gradually as the business progress.
More Time Consuming
Coordination with other managerial function
Management Information System
Resistance from employees
It is depend on company future activity and current activity. Future is uncertain then manager have a problem to make a best alternative.
Delphi system involves the use of large number of experts and managers who are required to present their own idea of future manpower or human resources requirement for a particular time. They are expected to fill questionnaires on human resources needs in each unit, section or department within the organization. These statements and assumptions are passed anonymously to others by an intermediary. These inputs are reviewed and analyzed by different experts and managers until a final forecast paper on human resources needs qualification, skill, experience etc, is acceptable by the experts/managers. It is the belief that inputs and criticism of experts before a consensus forecasts was accepted would make it more accurate for implementation in the organization. This method has been shown to produce better one – year forecast than the linear regression analysis. It is m mostly used to generate predictions. It is however criticized because of the problem of synchronizing or integrating the opinions of experts.
Nominal grouping technique: This is another type of expert forecast. With this system, managers/experts are brought together to discuss for about 10-20 minutes. Their views ,ideas or criticisms are listed on a sheet of paper before a consensus is reached. This system is advantageous in that experts are brought together to discuss unlike the Delphi technique. It is also use to identify orgnaisation problems and proffer solutions to them.
This system is similar to managerial judgment forecasting method used in small organizations that are not rich enough to have data banks for their human resources information and job analysis
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