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This report is how to apply a new concept of leadership, and management in the JD Sports Fashion plc is the UK specialised multiple retailer of fashionable and own branded sports wear. The main fascia of JD is to promoting sports wear in everyday life rather than only on sport field. JD has developed its reputation as the most innovative visual merchandiser of fashionable sports wear with the best and the most exclusive stylish ranges. Sales of JD are largely based on the sale of international brands such as Nike and Adidas and own branded sports and casual wear such as McKenzie, Carbrini and Frisk. It is a customer oriented organisation and hence the customers are given the first priority in the organisation.
Knowledge Management Style:
According to GAO Et Al (2008) knowledge is subject to a number of different interpretations. Knowledge is also regarded as asset of organises statements of facts or ideas which represents a reasonable judgement. It is something which alters activities by becoming grounds for action. At JD Sports all employees are involved in knowledge creating activities such as merchandising for apparel, footwear and accessories.
GAO Et Al (2008) states that organisational knowledge is fragmented into two levels.
Personal knowledge refers to an individual's specialised knowledge which is used by the organisation. At JD personal knowledge are the skills possessed by an individual applies and implements at company which bring back positive results for the organisation.
Knowledge at the organisation level is divided into two categories, static substance knowledge and the dynamic process knowledge.
Static substance is the basic criteria and standards that JD maintains for example the merchandising brief, the apparel outlet etc. it refers to the explicit knowledge in terms of vision and mission of JD.
Dynamic process refers to the employee activities of the organisations operations. This includes the employees serving customers new product knowledge and selling techniques etc.
Knowledge Management is the collection of processes that govern the creation, dissemination and leveraging of knowledge to fulfil organisational objectives.
JD uses Knowledge management as a facilitating tool of managing activities which includes creation, transformation and collaboration. At JD knowledge is used as an organised combination ideas rules and procedures which help to achieve its strategic goals easily.
Individual knowledge and organisational knowledge is distinct at JD but yet they are interdependent. At JD individual can take quick decisions to solve customer enquiries rather than using the regulations set by the company, in complex situations at JD when the organisational task are highly interdependent individuals do not possess the necessary pool of expertise to solve interdisciplinary problems. They therefore have collaborated with management by sharing their knowledge and expertise. Hence they can agree on common presumptions and analytical frameworks and can therefore coordinate diverse set of activities and solve complex issues.
At JD individual knowledge if not shared with the entire employee, it will have very little effect on the organisations knowledge base. Hence at JD the management team ensures to facilitate the process of interactions between the employees and makes them sensitive towards environmental stimuli. Hence the individual knowledge is amplified and internalized to contribute to the organisational knowledge base.
The diagram below shows JD manage different kinds of knowledge which is defined as capturing, distributing and using knowledge for accomplishment of a task.
Creating balance between existing expertise and creativity.
Informal meeting internet news groups and other modes of collaboration between employees
Empowering and job specific and business related training
Periodical reviews and revisions of existing rules procedures and policies.
The external analysis is a technique which analyses the general external environment of the organisation.
Social - Change in the social trend can impact on the demand of JD's products and services such as substitute products and potential companies with differentiating strategy. If ant potential company penetrates the market with a break through strategy in promoting different fashion wear attractively. It might cause a decline in the trend of wearing sports wear in everyday life that JD focuses.
Technological - latest technologies create new products and new processes and can affect JD possibility. Positive trend in new technology can help JD in reducing costs, improve quality of their service and lead innovation in their services. Latest technology in preferred in business organisations as they are accurate and efficient. On the other hand it may give rise to unemployment as technological-machines can be used rather than human.
Economical - the economic factor includes interest rates, taxation and inflation which can have a major impact on behaviour of JD. If higher interest rates apply investment of JD will deter and will cost JD more to borrow. If UK currency is maintained strong it can make imports of products easier since the price decreases in terms of foreign currency. Inflation in the economy may provoke higher wage demands by the workforce that will increase the company's cost.
Political - political issues are the alignment and trade barriers set by the government. It also includes taxation. Changes in political governance may affect JD in various ways. Since most of the products of JD are imported. If profitability. On the other hand JD may lose a lot of their customers will not be willing to pay the high price and will rather shift towards substitute products.
Herzberg' Hygiene-Motivation Theory
Motivation to work at JD using Herzberg Theory, the studies includes the interview to employee where asked what are their please and displease concerning their work. He developed the theory to explain these result, he called satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors, using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they considered maintenance factors are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction.
Two Factors affecting job attitude
Leading to dissatisfaction
Leading to satisfaction
Relationship w/ boss
Relationship w/ peer
Implications for Management
If the motivation-hygiene theory holds, management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also provide intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs.
Leadership Style and its impact:
The Path Goal Theory - use to make effective impacts in achieving goal. The theory suggests different behaviours that has to be practiced and utilised at different situations that improves decision making externally by the practice of the four different style thus making the decision process smoother.(jerkins 2003)
The manager practices the four different leadership styles based on the context of the situation and the frame of reference to keep the operations in the organisation smooth. The four style of includes participative, directive, supportive and achievement oriented leadership. The manager practices directive leadership by making the employees follow the core rules and regulations of the company rules. Supportive leader applies when displaying the concern and the need for the subordinates, having a friendly approach towards them showing confidence upon the subordinates to drive motivation of the employees towards achieving organisational goals.
The practice of the participative leadership applies when the manager involves the subordinates in making and taking decisions, this allows unique advantage since concise opinion of decision can be reached rather than a weak compromise. This again drives motivation in the subordinates which in turn makes the impacts of the decisions to be more effective.
Achievement oriented leadership involves the manager to make the best out of the employees continuously giving feedback and showing confidence in the subordinates ability to perform better encouraging them for their work and certainly driving their motivation and making them more dedicated towards their activities for achieving the best out of the subordinates.
Relevant leadership Model
The 360 degrees feedback
Why it is important to make efficient and effective use of team's knowledge and skills, while planning to achieve work objectives.
According to Lucey (2005) knowledge is the information within people's mind that is highly valuable to the organisations which is a potential source of competitive advantages.
Chaffey et al (2006) states that knowledge is the overall combined result of a persons experiences and the information they possesses. He argues that knowledge can be classified into two forms; explicit and tacit knowledge.
Knowledge can therefore be stated as information that increase and highlights the experiences and skills person posses which will reduce uncertainty and add value when utilized.
Explicit knowledge at JD are the explicit knowledge about the products they sell and tacit knowledge can be regarded as JDs products are expensive but sells better that competitors. This is a knowledge that cannot be expressed readily and not even be removed.
To overcome these issue JD encourages sharing of knowledge throughout the organisation. And helps develop informal networks within the organisation. This is done by group meetings and observations which act fast and can solve problems readily. This is experienced when a customer wants a reduction in the price of a product, through meetings and observations on the product and the employees convinces the customer to purchase the product at the declared price. Rotation of employees from different departments is seen frequently such as apparel to footwear and vice versa. This helps increase explicit knowledge about products and a service which helps operate the process smoother.
JD also encourages having a shared culture and brainstorming sessions to encourage innovation in their business. This allows them, to have everyone involved in making and drawing conclusions for better impacts in the business. The sharing culture allow the opportunity to work closely with the full organisation and encourages motivation of he employees as they think they are regarded as s part of the organisation and have been given self identity. Though brainstorming sessions ideas come up that are dealt and practiced on the business and the results are analysed. To encourage motivation, innovation and involvement of the employees in the organisation task culture is adapted to empower their workforce. Hence it makes the management to be job oriented and utilities unifying power of the group which encourages wide influence on expert power rather than on position or personal power.
One barrier to delegation in the workplace and one mechanism to support delegation in the workplace.
The mechanism to support delegation in the workplace is to have a meeting with the employees in a particular task set to them. Meeting regularly is very important just to know and inform the employees what exactly needs to be done to complete the task that will be doing what. Manager must decide what to delegate. Delegating absolutely everything is not effective. The manager must ensure that the employees hear about the tasks intend not to delegate and the instruction must complete. Do not give employees an overload tasks, this will show to the employees that the work ethic is fair and respect them as employees. The manager must clear to the employees what to expect to them to complete the task. While being a realistic in those expectations, the instruction giving to them must be clear. Make sure that they understand the task fully. Encourage them and ask question in a polite way. Say everything
One technique that could be used to monitor the outcomes of delegation in the workplace is the cost leadership strategy. That organisation can adapt to provide goods and services at the lowest possible price. Organisations can gain cost leadership generally by reducing the production costs. It can also be achieved by helping suppliers and customers reducing the costs usually by networking and forming alliances and linkages that will beneficial to all stake holders of the organisation.