Effects of organizational politics on organizations

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Organizational politics is behaviors that others perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of other people and possibly the organization (McShane and Von Glinow, 2009). Politics in organization can be viewed as different perspective either in negative or positive view. From our question, we can identify the problem that as Steve Jobs applies political strategies to protect his valued resources, position and self image? Although the CEO claimed Steve Jobs as a conniving backstabber because he used political tactics to get his way, instead in positive view, the others think that the company will be out of business if he hadn't taken over the company.

However, organizational politics that happen in company have advantages and disadvantages for that company depends on how the employee are perceived by others. As we perceived that Steve Jobs's action is the one example of organizational politics, but his action is one of good thing for his company. This is because he sold his shares of 1.5 million and that can bring goodwill for the company. On the other hand, he also show a negative perspective in organizational politics when he replaced the position of Apple's CEO. From our discussion as a group, we list out three alternatives which are maintaining relationship in organization, aware of the potentially destructive aspect of organizational politics, and also supporting team norms and corporate culture. From these alternatives, maintaining relationship in organization is the best alternative to minimize the organizational politics and also can reduce conflict within the team.

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As conclusion, we can minimize the organizational politics by providing clear rules for resource allocation, establishing a free flow of information and having leaders who as a role model of organizational citizenship.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The structure of an organization can be arranged in vertical or horizontal line among individuals and groups. Each group will represent their task and interdependent with other group. In some organization, the worker adopt with a competitive and self-serving situation. They are bond together to form small groups and are inattentive in their work. This situation make organizationan would be political. You might perceive a co-worker's attempt to influence the boss as normal behavior but in someone view might perceive the co-worker's tactic as the one of organizational politics.

Organizational politics have been defined as action by individuals who are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests without regard for well-being of others or their organization (Kacmar and Baron 1999' p.4). Other research said that organizational politics can be a negative outcome for individuals (Harris, Andrews, and Kacmar 2007). In other definition, McShane and Von Glinow (2009) defined the meaning of organizational politic as organization behaviors that others perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of other people and possibly the organization.

However, politics in organizationan can viewed as both negative and positive perspective. Everyone practices politics in some situation in an organization but perceived in positive perspective view, the politics are considered to have positive force within the organization. Instead, in negative perspective view, organizational politics also can influence the relationship between the leader and employee in leading to the development and success of each and every department in organization. Different perspective shown different effect that can influence the organization behavior.

3.0 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

From our critical thinking question (no.7) [1] , the situation show that Steve Jobs is a special adviser and raise morale among Apple employees and customers, but he spent more time advising the CEO on how to cut costs, redraw the organizational chart, and hire new people. Most of the top people at Apple were Jobs's colleagues, who began to systematically evaluate and weed out teams of Apple employees. Besides, he sold 1.5 million shares of Apple stock he had received. This action caught the attention of Apple's board of directors, than they decide to replace the CEO with Steve Jobs. The CEO claimed Jobs was a conniving backstabber who used political tactics to get his way. Others suggest that Apple would be out of business today if he hadn't taken over the company. In our opinion, this situation shows that Steve's Jobs's action is an example of organizational politics.

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From the question, we can see that Steve Job not doing his work as a special adviser and raise morale among Apple employees and customers, but he spent more time advising the CEO. Besides, he also attracts the attention of Apple's board of directors when he sold 1.5 million shares of Apple stock he had received. After that, the board of director decides to appoint Steve Jobs as a new CEO. Although the others suggest that Apple would be out of business if he hadn't taken over the company, but the ex-CEO think that he was a conniving backstabber that used political tactics.

Our group identifies the problem that as Steve Jobs applies political strategies to protect his valued resources, position and self image? Although we can see that Steve Jobs as a conniving backstabber when we perceived in negative perspective, but in positive perspective, the others think that the company will be out of business if he hadn't taken over the company.

SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM

4.1 Explanation

From the problem identification,we can said that Steve Jobs applies political startegies to protect his valued resources, position, and self image for himself and also give benefit for the company as well. The important point to emphasize about organizational politics is the legitimacy of both the outcomes and the methods used to achieve them. However, organizational politics that happen in company have advantage and disadvantage for the company depends on how the employee are perceived by others. When employees perceive many incidents of organizational politics, the result is lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment as well as high levels of work-related stress.

The advantage of organizational politic that we can see is the Steve Jobs will have knowledge of general political conditions prevailing in the company. The indicators that available to assess political climate are general job satisfaction levels, responsiveness to innovative ideas, and efficacy of decision making machinery and also the speed of implementation of decisions. However, understanding is the important key for leaders to exploit and smoother organizational politics and also to enhance their own leadership credibility.

But not all the organizational politic have advantages, it is also have the disadvantages such as decreasing loyalty and increasing focus on self interest, hoarding of information and control, excessive worrying about status and perceived slights, less constructive criticism and feedback and also defensiveness about errors and mistakes.

However, organizational life has always been and also be characterized by politics. The challenge for the leader is to learn how to play the game while simultaneously trying to change and improve the rule and for organizations is always to ensure that politics do not prevent them from changing and adapting to new challenges. In this case, Steve Jobs use the organizational politic for himself and for the company. That why, he can sold 1.5 million shares of Apple stock he had received and at the same time caught the attention of Apple's board of director. So with this action, Steve Jobs can replace the CEO and run the business to achive the company goal.

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5.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES

From this assignment, you should be able to define the meaning of organizational politics. Although we can see the definition of organizational politics are different from the other perspective but the meaning is always similar to each other.

Besides, in this assignment you should be able to list some advantages and disadvantages of using the organizational politics in the company.

From this assignment, you be able to see the some alternative that we used to solve this problem. We are likely to list out three alternatives to solve the problem about organizational politic that happen in company. We can see two different views either in positive or negative view when someone does politic tactics in organization. From these three alternatives, we are chosen the best one alternative to solve this problem. The best alternative is depends which one can be good solution to solve this problem.

6.0 GENERATE ALTERNATIVES

As we perceived that Steve Jobs's action is the one example of organizational politic, but his action is the one of good thing for his company. This is because he sold his shares of 1.5 million and that can bring a good thing for the company's name. It is also can attract a lot of shareholder to invest in the company. But he actually used political tactics since he was not sincere and honest in selling their shares. Because of his action, the boards of directors decide to replace the CEO with Steve Jobs. This situation shows a bad thing in organizational politics that happen in Apple Company especially for Apple's CEO.

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From the definition of organizational politic, it is behaviors that other perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of other people and possibly the organizational. The change of CEO position is a personal gain for Steve Jobs but not for the ex-Apple's CEO. So, one of the alternatives that can solve this problem is maintaining relationships in organization because the effective politics that happen in organization is not about winning at all situations but about focusing the relationships while achieving our goals.

Other alternatives, is to be aware of the potentially destructive aspects of organizational politics in order to minimize their negative effect. Of course, individual within organizations can waste time overly engaging in political behavior. So, the boards of directors need to observe their workers frequently and also to make sure they are doing their work not the other's work.

Last but not least, the other alternative to solve this problem is supporting team norms and corporate culture. When we are supporting team norms and coporate culture, it can reduce conflict and stress within the team. It is because each member in team arrives with his or her rules, attitudes, values and personality style. So, the organizational politic that happen in company can be minimize as well.

Although the bad thing of organizational politics is happened when Steve Jobs replace the CEO position, generally at the same time, the good thing is happened for the organization.

7.0 CHOOSE ALTERNATIVE

From the three alternatives that are given, one of these alternatives is the best one that can solve the bad thing of organizational politics that happen in Apple Company. The best alternative is maintaining relationships among the employee in organization. This is because the effective politics that happen in organization is not about winning at all situations but about focusing the relationships while achieving same goals.

The workplace is one of the most common places for conflicts and also for organizational politics happened. So, employees need to socialize more with their co-worker because people in the workplace work collaboratively. We need to know that each individual or department in company does not have their own goals because everyone works and takes an effort to achieve a common goal for the benefit of the organization. So, Steve Jobs need to maintain harmony relationship with ex-Apple's CEO, so it can reduce the conflict and increase the collaboration between them.

Morever, Jobs's action that sold his share and attracts the attention of board of director is the one of good thing that shows his effort to achive a company's goal. Although it is an example of organizational politic but it's a positive thing for the company because the others suggest that Apple would be out of business if he hadn't taken over the company

Besides, the concept of 'organizational politics' refers to any behavior and process that are deemed inappropriate and unfavorable for the organization. So, in order to survive in, we must learn how to 'go with the flow' or 'play the game.'

8.0 TEAM REFLECTION

As a team, we have worked in a really good team and everyone have the opportunity to express his or her shared in many different ideas, facts and learning issues with our team without their ideas being ridiculed. Each team member will let others to finish talking in giving some idea before sharing his or her opinion or raising a question and non-judgmental of other member, and also willing to listen to others' opinions.

Each team member is present in every discussion and ready to participate. We do the discussion at the Sultan Abdul Samad Main Library every Wednesday around 2 or 3 hours. We learned a new topic about Organizational Politics and we discuss it among the member in our team to solve the problem. We have also learned how to work in a team and get assignment done on time to complete the assignment that given by our lecturer. During the discussion, none of us sit quietly without giving any ideas or talk about other things, but they are given contributions or give their views or comment in our topic.

In addition, we have divided the tasks to each member of our group member and we knew that everyone can be responsible and get his or her work done on time. Each team member do the research or work that are assigned to him or her. In work as a team, we get cooperate to work effectively and affectively.

In this group, we are getting very closer, friendly and caring with each other because all members in this group are from different background and class.

9.0 CONCLUSION

Organizational politics refers to influence tactics that others perceive to be self-serving behaviors at the expense of others and sometimes contrary to the interests of the entire organization on work unit. Apple's CEO should have more control over the workers whose Steve Jobs is actually to serve as a special adviser and raise morale among Apple employees and customers, but he has used political tactics to spent more time advising the CEO of the company. Organizational politics is more prevelent when scarce resources are allocated using complex and ambigious decisions and when the organizational tolerates or rewards political behavior. Steve Jobs with high need for personal power and strong Machiavellian values have a higher propensity to use political tactics. Steve Jobs is very good as an employee because he has sold shares of 1.5 million and increases the company's name Apple. He actually had to use political tactics since his intentions are not sincere and honest in selling their shares, this action caught the attention of Apple's board directors as a CEO is not so good.

Organizational politics can be minimized by providing clear rules for resource allocation, establishing a free flow of information using education and involvement during organizational change, supporting team norms and a corporate culture that discourage dysfunctional politics, and having leaders who a role model organizational citizenship rather than political savvy. CEO of Apple would also need to evaluate the characteristics of an individual whether it is honest or sincere in a given job before hire or promote someone.