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Job design is a term that is widely used in the management of todays modern organizations structure as a strategy to increase their profitability and productivity. Daft, et al., 2010 It is mainly concerned with the process of planning, setting up and organizing systematic tasks within the organization according to the organization’s needs and employee’s capability. In order for the strategy to be effective and efficient, management put the responsibility to their employees and explains how the implementation process of their organization work arrangement will be in their management system. (DuBrin, 2008)
Virtual organization is an association that exists but cannot be physically seen by the naked eye. It’s a concept that changed in line with the current vast developments. (Burn, J., et al., 2012) The virtual organization is very flexible and responsive because it does not necessarily require an office to operate but the existence of this virtual organization can be felt and experienced throughout the business process. Thurow (2011) states that business processes refers to the networking system used along the production process which conducted virtually through the way of communicating using electronic devices as the main telecommunication form.
According to Parker, Craig and Craig (2008), matrix structured organization has the advantage of giving the opportunity for the top management to develop their skills in conducting and managing project-based strategy as well as gaining experience. It also practices a decentralization decision-making system that encouraging improvements of employee’s self motivation level as they have the chance to make decisions and act independently. Matrix structure organization also creates the flexibility of cross-communication system in exchanging information and ideas among the team members from different departments which can helps on saving time and cost. ( Gido and Clemens, 2008)
Chain of command function as an organization system that showing how the operational and management within the organization works in a systematical manner to ensure efficient flow of work activities. It clarifies the organization reporting system between the subordinates to their superior which resulting as the unity of command. (Madura, 2007) According to Lunenburg and Ornstein (2011), it signifies the continues line of authority from the top managerial position to the lowest levels of an organization that showing the distinctive status, roles, responsibility, and the rights inherit in varies positions of the organization itself.
Maslow’s need theory consist of physiology needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Each level must be completely fulfilled before moving on to the next level. (Robbins, 2009) Physiology needs refers to our physical needs. Safety needs are needs of safety and security. Both levels are the low-order needs that can be satisfied internally. The high-order needs that can be satisfied internally are the social needs that seek for love and affection, then the esteem needs that refer to the needs of self-esteem and lastly the self actualization which is the needs of becoming fully matured human. (Shajahan, 2007)
Scientific management mainly focuses on the application of scientific method of study and also analysis into a problem which occur during management. Scientific Management basically referring on understands what one wants his subordinates to do and see it to be done efficiently and effectively. (Sahni and Pardeep, 2010) According to Murugan (2007), among the principles of scientific management are Science not rule of Thumb, scientific training and development of workers, close cooperation between employees and manager, equal division of works and also responsibility, maximum prosperity of employer and employee and mental revolutions.
Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model consists of five characteristic such as skill variety which means variety increases when overcome new problems each day and implementing various skills in completing tasks. Secondly, task identity, where employee’s working performances is acknowledgeable. Third, task significant is where an employee contributes positive result to the company. Fourth, autonomy is where the employees are given the freedom in planning while carrying out tasks. Lastly, the feedback where there will be an evaluation on employee’s performance in order to improve any deficiency. (Daft and Marcic, 2010) The application of these characteristic may increase the productivity and produces more motivated and productive the employees.
Montana and Charnov states the Expectancy Theory of motivation was proposed by Victor Vroom, a business school professor. The theory is more on the individual goal which focuses more on outcomes and their expectations while achieving it. (Jex and Britt, 2008) Employees are able to receive rewards according to his or her performance while working. The theory’s method will keep the employees motivated at all times as they hold their personal expectations of the rewards. (Montana and Charnov, 2008) The expectancy of increasing effort by the employees will lead to the increment of performance which will increase the productivity and positive result.
According to Wright (2010), Hawthorne studies were first attempted by Elton Mayo showing how lighting affected the employees working performance. But it shows that the physical conditions of the workplace do not influence the performance or motivation. In his finding, taking interest in all individual was enough to increase their work efficiency and output. Hence, the Hawthorne Experiment continues to show its result from time to time. Companies which value their employee’s ideas and opinions will result a higher standard of achievement. (Wong, 2010) This will also increase the ability and self esteem of the employees. Thus, increase their performance and productivity while working.
Montana and Charnov (2008), states the theory of X and Y was proposed by Douglas McGregor. In theory X, managers will assume that their employees are less ambitious, less responsible, dislike their job and prefer to wait for instructions rather than to lead a task. Managers with theory X are stricter and may threaten their employees to motivate them. But manager who holds the theory Y will assume that the employees are more responsible, willing to do work, more creative and self-directed. Thus, in theory Y the managers will not control much on their employees because they believe that employees are capable to perform well. (Shermerhorn, 2011)
The effectiveness of an organization internal communication can be improved through creating forum site on social websites such as Facebook and Twitter for discussion related to a matter. (Heath, 2005) Furthermore, any perceptions and ideas proposed by the employees should be considered and not being excluded in order to improve good relationship with other teamwork. Next, employers and employees should also instill proactive attitude to ask when in doubts related to a matter in order to avoid conflicts and distorted message. Lastly, employees should be train on communication skills to improve their self-esteem and communicating potential. (Quirke, 2012)
Public sectors are basically a bureaucratic government-based organization which normally focusing more on providing services to public rather than making profit. (Lienert, 2009) A simple example of a public sector organization is the government hospitals. The organization emphasizes more on accommodating the health service to the community by providing free to low-cost medical aid. However, privates sectors are non-government owned organization and runs on the main motive on making profit. (Rees and Porter, 2008) For example, supermarket such as Tesco and Carrefour in Malaysia are operated by private enterprises and not the government.
Planning stage is one of the functional approaches involved in the management process. According to Schwalbe (2006), it concerns activities such as setting goals and objectives of the work in an effort to keep it on track throughout the operation process. Next step would be, create and considering relevant strategies to achieve goals effectively. At last, the final step is simulating plans to coordinate and objectify activities in various possible ways it can succeed. (Lewis, et al., 2006) Within this stage, it requires a lot of critically thinking creativity and innovative aspects from that individual to come out with a radical and quantum ideas.
Fordism is a term that was named after an American entrepreneur; Henry Ford which was the founder of Ford Motor Company. (Schhlosser and Simonson, 2009) Fordism is a philosophy of manufacturing that being conducted based on the Taylorism theory that emphasizes in machine and efficiency of employees working performance. Fordism philosophy aimed to increase the productivity and reduce costs by adjusting output, set the installation process in phases, and dividing the work into small tasks according to employee’s expertise. (Blyton and Jenkins, 2007) The effectiveness of the philosophy enables an organization to maximize their profit and performance.
Personality is an influential matter that affecting a person’s decision. It is developed through their education, ways of socialization and nurturing since they were a child.
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