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for an organisation. One of the key features of a conversion process manufacturing system is the efficiency with which the products services are transferred to the customers.This fact will include the determination of where to place the plant or facility.The selection of location is a key-decision as large investment is made in building plant and machinery. It is not advisable or not possible to change the location very often. So an improper location of plant may lead to waste of all the investments made in building and machinery, equipment. Before a location for a plant is selected, long range forecasts should be made anticipating future needs of the company. The plant location should be based on the company's expansion plan and policy, diversification plan for the products, changing market conditions, the changing sources of raw materials and many other factors that influence the choice of the location decision. The purpose of the location study is to find an optimum location one that will result in the greatest advantage to the organization.
The need for selecting a suitable location arises because of three situations.
When starting a new organisation, i.e., location choice for the first time.
In case of existing organisation.
In case of Global Location.
In Case of Location Choice for the First Time or New Organisations
Cost economies are always important while selecting a location for the first time, but should keep in mind the cost of long-term business/organisational objectives. The following are the factors to be considered while selecting the location for the new organisations:
Identification of region: The organisational objectives along with the various long-term considerations about marketing, technology, internal organisational strengths and weaknesses, region specific resources and business environment, legal-governmental environment, social environment and geographical environment suggest a suitable region for locating the operations facility.
Choice of a site within a region: Once the suitable region is identified, the next step is choosing the best site from an available set. Choice of a site is less dependent on the organisation's long-term strategies. Evaluation of alternative sites for their tangible and intangible costs will resolve facilities-location problem. The problem of location of a site within the region can be approached with the following cost-oriented non-interactive model, i.e., dimensional analysis.
Dimensional analysis: If all the costs were tangible and quantifiable, the comparison and selection of a site is easy. The location with the least cost is selected. In most of the cases intangible costs which are expressed in relative terms than in absolute terms. Their relative merits and demerits of sites can also be compared easily. Since both tangible and intangible costs need to be considered for a selection of a site, dimensional analysis is used.
In Case of Location Choice for Existing Organisation
In this case a manufacturing plant has to fit into a multi-plant operations strategy. That is,
additional plant location in the same premises and elsewhere under following circumstances:
Plant manufacturing distinct products.
Manufacturing plant supplying to specific market area.
Plant divided on the basis of the process or stages in manufacturing.
Plants emphasizing flexibility.
The different operations strategies under the above circumstances could be:
Plants manufacturing distinct products: Each plant services the entire market area for the organization. This strategy is necessary where the needs of technological and resource inputs
are specialized or distinctively different for the different product-lines.For example, a high quality precision product-line should not be located along with other product-line requiring little emphasis on precision. It may not be proper to have too many contradictions such as sophisticated and old equipment, highly skilled and semi-skilled personnel,delicates processes and those that could permit rough handlings, all under one roof and one set of managers. Such a setting leads to much confusion regarding the required emphasis and the management policies. Product specialization may be necessary in a highly competitive market. It may be necessary to exploit the special resources of a particular geographical area. The more decentralized these pairs are in terms of the management and in terms of their physical location, the better would be the planning and control and the utilization of the resources.
Manufacturing plants supplying to a specific market area: Here, each plant manufactures almost all of the company's products. This type of strategy is useful where market proximity consideration dominates the resources and technology considerations. This strategy requires great deal of coordination from the corporate office. An extreme example of this strategy is that of soft drinks bottling plants.
Plants divided on the basis of the process or stages in manufacturing: Each production process or stage of manufacturing may require distinctively different equipment capabilities, labour skills, technologies, and managerial policies and emphasis. Since the products of one plant feed into the other plant, this strategy requires much centralized coordination of the manufacturing activities from the corporate office that are expected to understand the various technological aspects of all the plants.
Plants emphasizing flexibility: This requires much coordination between plants to meet the changing needs and at the same time ensure efficient use of the facilities and resources. Frequent changes in the long-term strategy in order to improve be efficiently temporarily, are not healthy for the organization. In any facility location problem the central question is: 'Is this a location at which the company can remain competitive for a long time?For an established organization in order to add on to the capacity, following are the ways:
Expansion of the facilities at the existing site: This is acceptable when it does not violate the basic business and managerial outlines, i.e., philosophies, purposes, strategies and capabilities. For example, expansion should not compromise quality, delivery, or customer service.
Relocation of the facilities (closing down the existing ones): This is a drastic step which can be called as 'Uprooting and Transplanting'. Unless there are very compelling reasons, relocation is not done. The reasons will be either bringing radical changes in technology, resource availability or other destabilization.
All these factors are applicable to service organizations, whose objectives, priorities and
strategies may differ from those of hardcore manufacturing organizations.
In Case of Global Location
Because of globalisation, multinational corporations are setting up their organizations in India and Indian companies are extending their operations in other countries. In case of global locations there is scope for virtual proximity and virtual factory.Reasons for global location are as follows
Tangible Reasons: The tangible reasons for setting up an operations facility abroad could be as follows:
Reaching the customer: One obvious reason for locating a facility abroad is that of capturing a share of the market expanding worldwide. The phenomenal growth of the GDP of India is a big reason for the multinationals to have their operations facilities in our country. An important reason is that of providing service to the customer promptly and economically which is logistics-dependent. Therefore, cost and case of logistics is a reason for setting up manufacturing facilities abroad. By logistics set of activities closes the gap between production of goods/services and reaching of these intended goods/services to the customer to his satisfaction. Reaching the customer is thus the main objective. The tangible and intangible gains and costs depend upon the company defining for itself as to what that 'reaching' means. The tangible costs could be the logistics related costs; the intangible costs may be the risk of operating is a foreign country. The tangible gains are the immediate gains; the intangible gains are an outcome of what the company defines the concepts of reaching and customer for itself.
Intangible Reasons: The intangible reasons for considering setting up an operations facility abroad could be as follows:
With an operations facility in the foreign country, the firm's customers may feel secure that the firm is more accessible. Accessibility is an important 'service quality' determinant.
The firm may be able to give a personal tough.
(c) The firm may interact more intimately with its customers and may thus understand their requirements better.
(d) It may also discover other potential customers in the foreign location.
Organisational Learning-related Reasons
(a) The firm can learn advanced technology. For example, it is possible that cutting-edge technologies can be learn by having operations in an technologically more advanced country. The firm can learn from advanced research laboratories/universities in that country. Such learning may help the entire product-line of the company.
(b) The firm can learn from its customers abroad. A physical location there may be essential towards this goal.
(c) It can also learn from its competitors operating in that country. For this reason, it may have to be physically present where the action is.
(d) The firm may also learn from its suppliers abroad. If the firm has a manufacturing plant there, it will have intensive interaction with the suppliers in that country from whom there may be much to learn in terms of modern and appropriate technology, modern management methods, and new trends in business worldwide.
Other Strategic Reasons
(a) The firm by being physically present in the host country may gain some 'local boy' kind of psychological advantage. The firm is no more a 'foreign' company just sending its products across international borders. This may help the firm in lobbying with the government of that country and with the business associations in that country.
The firm may avoid 'political risk' by having operations in multiple countries.
(c) By being in the foreign country, the firm can build alternative sources of supply. The firm could, thus, reduce its supply risks.
d) The firm could hunt for human capital in different countries by having operations in those countries. Thus, the firm can gather the best of people from across the globe.
(e) Foreign locations in addition to the domestic locations would lower the market risks for the firm. If one market goes slow the other may be doing well, thus lowering the overall risk.
F ACTORS INFLUENCING FACILITY LOCATION
Facility location is the process of determining a geographic site for a firm's operations.Managers
of both service and manufacturing organizations must weigh many factors when assessing the desirability of a particular site, including proximity to customers and suppliers, labour costs, and
transportation costs. Location conditions are complex and each comprises a different characteristics of a tangible (i.e. Freight rates, production costs) and non-tangible (i.e. reliability, Frequency security, quality) nature.
Location conditions are hard to measure. Tangible cost based factors such as wages and products costs can be quantified precisely into what makes locations better to compare. On the other hand non-tangible features, which refer to such characteristics as reliability, availability and security, can only be measured along an ordinal or even nominal scale. Other non-tangible features like the percentage of employees that are unionized can be measured as well. To sum this up non-tangible features are very important for business location decisions. It is appropriate to divide the factors, which influence the plant location or facility location on the basis of the nature of the organisation as:
General locational factors, which include controllable and uncontrollable factors for all type of organisations.
Specific locational factors, specifically required for manufacturing and service organisations.
Location factors can be further divided into two categories.Dominant factors are those derived from competitive priorities (cost, quality, time, and flexibility) and have a particularly strong impact on sales or costs. Secondary factors also are important, but management may downplay or even ignore some of them if other factors are more important.
General Locational Factors
Following are the general factors required for location of plant in case of all types of organisations.
Proximity to markets: Every company is expected to serve its customers by providing goods and services at the time needed and at reasonable price organizations may choose to locate facilities close to the market or away from the market depending upon the product. When the buyers for the product are concentrated, it is advisable to locate the facilities close to the market. Locating nearer to the market is preferred if
The products are delicate and susceptible to spoilage.
After sales services are promptly required very often. Transportation cost is high and increase the cost significantly.
Shelf life of the product is low.
Nearness to the market ensures a consistent supply of goods to customers and reduces the cost of transportation.
Supply of raw material: It is essential for the organization to get raw material in right qualities and time in order to have an uninterrupted production. This factor becomes very important if the materials are perishable and cost of transportation is very high. General guidelines suggested by Yaseen regarding effects of raw materials on plant location are:
When a single raw material is used without loss of weight, locate the plant at the raw material source, at the market or at any point in between.
When weight loosing raw material is demanded, locate the plant at the raw material source.
When raw material is universally available, locate close to the market area.
If the raw materials are processed from variety of locations, the plant may be situated so as to minimize total transportation costs.
Nearness to raw material is important in case of industries such as sugar, cement, jute and cotton textiles.
Transportation facilities: Speedy transport facilities ensure timely supply of raw materials to the company and finished goods to the customers. The transport facility is a prerequisite for Facility Location and Layout the location of the plant. There are five basic modes of physical transportation, air, road, rail,water and pipeline. Goods that are mainly intended for exports demand a location near to the port or large airport. The choice of transport method and hence the location will depend on relative costs, convenience, and suitability. Thus transportation cost to value added is one of the criteria for plant location.
Infrastructure availability: The basic infrastructure facilities like power, water and waste disposal, etc., become the prominent factors in deciding the location. Certain types of industries are power hungry e.g., aluminum and steel and they should be located close to the power station or location where uninterrupted power supply is assured throughout the year. The non-availability of power may become a survival problem for such industries. Process industries like paper, chemical, cement, etc., require continuous. Supply of water in large amount and good quality, and mineral content of water becomes an important factor. A waste disposal facility for process industries is an important factor, which influences the plant location.
Labour and wages: The problem of securing adequate number of labour and with skills specific is a factor to be considered both at territorial as well as at community level during plant location. Importing labour is usually costly and involve administrative problem. The history of labour relations in a prospective community is to be studied. Prospective community is to be studied. Productivity of labour is also an important factor to be considered. Prevailing wage pattern, cost of living and industrial relation and bargaining power of the unions' forms in important considerations.
External economies of scale: External economies of scale can be described as urbanization and locational economies of scale. It refers to advantages of a company by setting up operations in a large city while the second one refers to the "settling down" among other companies of related Industries. In the case of urbanization economies, firms derive from locating in larger cities rather than in smaller ones in a search of having access to a large pool of labour, transport facilities, and as well to increase their markets for selling their products and have access to a much wider range of business services. Location economies of scale in the manufacturing sector have evolved over time and have mainly increased competition due to production facilities and lower production costs as a result of lower transportation and logistical costs. This led to manufacturing districts where many companies of related industries are located more or less in the same area. As large corporations have realized that inventories and warehouses have become a major cost factor, they have tried reducing inventory costs by launching "Just in Time" production system (the so called Kanban System). This high efficient production system was one main factor in the Japanese car industry for being so successful. Just in time ensures to get spare parts from suppliers within just a few hours after ordering. To fulfill these criteria corporations have to be located in the same area increasing their market and service for large corporations.
Capital: By looking at capital as a location condition, it is important to distinguish the physiology of fixed capital in buildings and equipment from financial capital. Fixed capital costs as building and construction costs vary from region to region. But on the other hand buildings can also be rented and existing plants can be expanded. Financial capital is highly mobile and does not very much influence decisions. For example, large Multinational Corporations such as Coca7Cola operate in many different countries and can raise capital where interest rates are lowest and conditions are most suitable. Capital becomes a main factor when it comes to venture capital. In that case young, fast growing (or not) high tech firms are concerned which usually have not many fixed assets. These firms particularly need access to financial capital and also skilled educated employees.
Government policy: The policies of the state governments and local bodies concerning labour laws, building codes, safety, etc., are the factors that demand attention. In order to have a balanced regional growth of industries, both central and state governments in our country offer the package of incentives to entrepreneurs in particular locations. The incentive package may be in the form of exemption from a safes tax and excise duties for a specific period, soft loan from financial institutions, subsidy in electricity charges and investment subsidy. Some of these incentives may tempt to locate the plant to avail these facilities offered.
Climatic conditions: The geology of the area needs to be considered together with climatic conditions (humidity, temperature). Climates greatly influence human efficiency and behaviour. Some industries require specific climatic conditions e.g., textile mill will require humidity.
Supporting industries and services: Now a day the manufacturing organisation will not make all the components and parts by itself and it subcontracts the work to vendors. So, the source of supply of component parts will be the one of the factors that influences the location.The various services like communications, banking services professional consultancy services and other civil amenities services will play a vital role in selection of a location.
Community and labour attitudes: Community attitude towards their work and towards the prospective industries can make or mar the industry. Community attitudes towards supporting trade union activities are important criteria. Facility location in specific location is not desirable even though all factors are favouring because of labour attitude towards management, which brings very often the strikes and lockouts.
Community infrastructure and amenity: All manufacturing activities require access to a community infrastructure, most notably economic overhead capital, such as roads, railways, port facilities, power lines and service facilities and social overhead capital like schools, universities and hospitals. These factors are also needed to be considered by location decisions as infrastructure is enormously expensive to build and for most manufacturing activities the existing stock of infrastructure provides physical restrictions on location possibilities.
Specific Locational Factors for Manufacturing Organisation
Factors dominating location decisions for new manufacturing plants can be broadly classified in
six groups. They are listed in the order of their importance as follows.
Favourable labour climate: A favorable labour climate may be the most important factor in location decisions for labour-intensive firms in industries such as textiles furniture and consumer electronics. Labour climate includes wage rates, training requirements attitudes toward work, worker productivity and union strength. Many executives consider weak unions or low probability of union organizing efforts as a distinct advantage.
Proximity to markets: After determining where the demand for goods and services is greatest, management must select a location for the facility that will supply that demand. Locating near markets is particularly important when the final goods are bulky or heavy and outbound transportation rates are high. For example, manufacturers of products such as plastic pipe and heavy metals all emphasize proximity to their markets.
Quality of life: Good schools, recreational facilities, cultural events, and an attractive lifestyle contribute to quality of life. This factor is relatively unimportant on its own, but it can make the difference in location decisions.
Proximity to suppliers and resources: In many companies, plants supply parts to other facilities or rely on other facilities for management and staff support. These require frequent coordination and communication, which can become more difficult as distance increases.
Utilities, taxes, and real estate costs: Other important factors that may emerge include utility costs (telephone, energy, and water), local and state taxes, financing incentives offered by local or state governments, relocation costs, and land costs.
There are some other factors needed to be considered, including room for expansion, construction costs, accessibility to multiple modes of transportation, the cost of shuffling people and materials between plants, competition from other firms for the workforce, community attitudes, and many others. For global operations, firms are emphasizing local employee skills and education and the local infrastructure.
Specific Locational Factors for Service Organisation
The factors considered for manufacturers are also applied to service providers, with one important addition - the impact of location on sales and customer satisfaction. Customers usually look about how close a service facility is, particularly if the process requires considerable customer contact.
Proximity to customers: Location is a key factor in determining how conveniently customers can carry on business with a firm. For example, few people would like to go to remotely located dry cleaner or supermarket if another is more convenient. Thus the influence of location on revenues tends to be the dominant factor.
Transportation costs and proximity to markets :For warehousing and distribution operations, transportation costs and proximity to markets are extremely important. With a warehouse nearby, many firms can hold inventory closer to the customer, thus reducing delivery time and promoting sales.
location of competitors : One complication in estimating the sales potential at different location is the impact of competitors.Management must not only consider the current location of competitors but also try to anticipate their reaction to the firm's new location. Avoiding areas where competitors are already well established often pays. However, in some industries, such as new-car sales showrooms and fastfood chains, locating near competitors is actually advantageous. The strategy is to create a critical mass, whereby several competing firms clustered in one location attract more customers than the total number who would shop at the same stores at scattered locations. Recognizing this effect, some firms use a follow -the leader strategy when selecting new sites.
Retailers also must consider the level of retail activity, residential density, traffic flow, and site visibility. Retail activity in the area is important, as shoppers often decide on impulse to go shopping or to eat in a restaurant. Traffic flows and visibility are important because businesses customers arrive in cars. Visibility involves distance from the street and size of nearby buildings
and signs. High residential density ensures night time and weekend business when the population
in the area fits the firm's competitive priorities and target market segment.
BANKS: PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK
Branches(ATMs) in south delhi
New Friends Colony
Today banks are performing all kinds of banking transactions and providing various financial services in order to make life easier for people. Customers are demanding speed and convenience in banking transactions, high efficiency and confidence in their investments and financing services with convenient limits and reasonable cost.
Banks consider the demographic, economic and social characteristics of the geographical regions in branch site selection in order to provide the best financial services in line with their customers' demands.
Banks usually prefer regions with comparative advantage in terms of demographic, economic
and socio-cultural characteristics when they are making decisions about opening or closing a branch at a region. However, they are faced with the question of which factors are more effective on selection of branch site with regards to regions. The determination of variables influencing branch site selection for regions would provide bank managers with effective insights into the selection of the most appropriate sites for opening bank branches. The banking sector in india has targeted making financial services more geographically widespread and accessible by increasing the number of branches and staff. India has cities and regions with very diverse developmental levels and the geographical distribution of the banking sector also shows a variety depending on the differences between the developmental levels of cities.
RESTAURANT: PIZZA HUT
Outlets in south Delhi
There are 10 outlets of Pizza hut in south delhi
2 outlets in Green park
1 outlet in Vasant Vihar
New Friends Colony
Factors affecting location facility of a Pizza Hut
Are there enough people in the area to support your business? For example, is the restaurant location in the heart of a thriving downtown shopping district, or along a busy freeway? There needs to be enough people who live in the area, or pass through the area on a regular basis to keep you busy. To determine the population base of a particular area, you can do a site study. Most people looking at their first restaurant don't have enough money in their budget for a professional survey. A less expensive method to determine the population base of certain area is to use a circle graph, as well as asking the local chamber of commerce and town office for more information.
Will there be enough parking to accommodate all the seats in your new restaurant? Ideally, a new restaurant location should have its own parking lot. If that isn't an option, is there public parking near the restaurant location?
There's a reason that major restaurant chains are often located near highway and freeway exits: It makes them accessible for customers. Motorists can reach the restaurant without fighting traffic or driving out of their way. Most successful restaurant locations (but not all) are easy to find.
This goes along with accessibility an dis very important for new restaurant locations. People have to know the restaurant is there. This is why property prices in downtown districts and developed strips are higher than other areas. They offer a level of visibility that can bring in a great deal of walk-in business.
The real estate value of your location may be trending upward or downward and it helps to know what to expect. Higher property costs may involve a higher rent payment, but they may indicate a customer base with more disposable income to spend eating at your restaurant. It's important to address all these elements when you sit down to draft yourÂ business plan for a new restaurant, which you will need before applying for a loan. In addition, by understanding each of these elements, you can better choose the right location for your new restaurant
RETAIL SHOP: RELIANCE FRESH
Outlets in south Delhi
Factors affecting facility location
Location and Retail Strategy
The selection of a location type must reinforce the retailer's strategy. The location type decision needs to be consistent with the shopping behavior and size of its target market and the retailer's positioning in its target market.Â A critical factor affecting the location consumers select to visit is the shopping situation they are involved with. There are three major types of shopping situations which are convenience shopping, comparison shopping, and specialty shopping.
Convenience Shopping - Minimize the customer's effort to get the product or service by locating store close to where customers are located.Â
Comparison Shopping - Customers have a good idea of what type of product they want, but do not have a strong preference for brand, model or retailer.
Category Specialists - Customers can see almost all brands and models in one store.
Density of Target Market
A second, but closely related factor that affects the choice of location type is the density of the retailers target market in relation to the location. A good location has many people in the target market that are drawn to it. A shopping store located next to a Wal-Mart is a potentially good location because WM draws lots of customers from a very large area. It is not important to have high customer density near a store that sells specialty merchandise because people are willing to search out this type of merchandise.
Uniqueness of Retail Offering
Finally, the convenience of their locations is less important for retailers with unique,differentiated offerings than for retailers with an offering similar to other retailers. Example: Cabelas provide a unique merchandise assortment and store atmosphere. Customers will travel to wherever the store is located, and its location will become a destination.Â
Legal Considerations need to be examined when evaluating different location types. Laws regarding how land is used have become so important that they should be a retailer's first consideration in a site search. Legal issues that affect the location decision include environmental issues,zoning,buildingcodes,signs,andlicensingrequirements.
The EPA as well as state and local agencies has become increasingly involved with issues that could affect retail stores. Two environmental issues have received particular attention in recent years. The first is above ground risks such as asbestos containing materials or lead pipes used in construction. The second issue is hazardous materials that have been stored in the ground. This consideration can be particularly important for a dry cleaner because of the chemicals it uses or for an auto repair shop because of its disposal of used motor oil and battery fluid. The costs of cleaning up hazardous materials can range from several thousand to many millions of dollars per site.Â Retailers have 2 remedies to protect themselves from these environmental hazards. The best option at their disposal is to stipulate in the lease that the lesser is responsible for the removal and disposal of any such material if it is found. Also the retailer can buy insurance that specificallyprotectsitfromtheserisks.Â
Zoning and Building Codes
Zoning determines how a particular site can be used. For instance, some parts of a city are zoned for residential use only; others are zoned for light industrial and retail uses. Building codes are similar legal restrictions that specify the type of building, signs, and the size and type of parking lot that can be used at a particular location.Â
Restrictions on the use of signs can also impact a particular site's desirability. Sign size and style may be restricted by building codes, zoning ordinances, or even the shopping center management.Â
Licensing Requirements may vary in different parts of a region. For example, some Dallas neighborhoods are dry, meaning no alcoholic beverages can be sold; in other areas, only wine and beer can be sold. Such restrictions can affect retailers other than restaurants and bars.Â
All of these legal issues can discourage a retailer from purchasing a particular site. These restrictions aren't always permanent. Although difficult, time consuming, and possibly expensive, lobbying efforts and court battles can change these legal restrictions.