Organizational structure can define as a hierarchy of the responsibilities and job profile. Structure depends entirely on the organizations objectives and the strategy chosen to achieve them. If all decisions are taking from the top management can name as a centralized structure. There are some issues arising due to this method and introduced decentralized method. Under the decentralized structure the centralized power delegating to later stages of the structure.
Under the theoritical backgroung we can realise thre are three mjor structuers as traditional, devisional and matrix structuers.
Some structures are based on functional division and departments. These are the kind of structures that follow the organization’s rules and procedures. These structures call traditional structures. We can categories them by having precise authority lines for all levels in the management as Line structure (kind of structure that has a very specific line of command), Line & Staff Structure (suitable for most organizations, especially small ones) and Functional Structure (classifies people according to the function they perform in their professional life or according to the functions performed by them in the organization)
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Divisional structures based on the different division in the organization calls divisional structure. These structures can be further divided into few structures as product, market and geographic. Under the product structure can discuss that it is based on organizing employees and work on the basis of the different types of products. If the company produces three different types of products, they will have three different divisions for these products. Market structure is used to group employees on the basis of specific market the company sells. Geographic Structure is using for large organizations have offices at different place. Matrix structure is a combination of function, and product structures calls Matrix structure. This combines both the best of both worlds to make an efficient organizational structure.
Organizational culture mainly can divide into 04 areas as follows;
Hard Macho Culture – This culture is big rewards and quick feedback. This kind of culture is mostly associated with monitory activities like brokerage and currency trading and also be related with activities, like a sports team or branding of an athlete, and also the police team. This kind of culture is considered to carry along, a high amount of stress, and people working within the organization are expected to possess a strong mentality, for survival in the organization.
Work Hard Play Hard culture – The organization does not involve much risk as the organizations already consist of a firm base along with a strong client relationship & this kind of culture is mostly implementing by large organizations which have strong customer service. This kind of organizations culture is equipped with specialized jargons and is qualified with multiple team meetings.
Bet your Company Culture – This type of company makes big and important decisions over high stakes endeavors. It takes time to see the consequence of these decisions. Companies that postulate experimental projects and researches as their core business, adopt this kind of culture. This kind of culture can be adopted by a company designing experimental military weapons for example.
Process Culture – Process culture does not include the process of feedback. In this kind of culture, the organization is extremely cautious about the adherence to laws and prefers to abide by them. This culture provides consistency to the organization and is good for public services.
1.3 Individual Behavior at work
The understanding Individuals in Organization is more important. Psychological Contract as the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return is to be considered. Also the Person-Job Fit extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization and the nature of Individual Difference as personal attributes that vary from one person to another should consider in decision making.
Personality and Individual Behavior also taking major part. Personality means the relatively permanent set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another call personality. The “Big Five” Personality Traits are a popular personality framework based on five key traits as Agreeableness (person’s ability to get along with others), Conscientiousness (number of goals of which a person focuses), Negative emotionality (extent to which a person is poised, calm, resilient and secure), Extraversion (person’s comfort level with relationships) and Openness (person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests). The Myers-Briggs Framework – approach to understanding personalities in organizations Other Personality Traits at Work as Locus of control, Self-efficacy and Authoritarianism. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) also some extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others and possess social skills
Attitudes and Individual Behavior are complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations or other people. Also can consider cognitive dissonance caused when an individual has conflicting attitudes. Also some work-related Attitudes should consider. Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is an attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified by or fulfilled in his or her work and Organizational Commitment is an attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to the organization itself
GE Matrix (Barbican Center UK)
Based on the Barbican’s breadth and product range the GE Matrix is the most appropriate tool for portfolio management. Within the context of the market in which the Barbican operates in, it is crucial that non financial factors are taken into consideration; the GE matrix unlike its counterpart takes these factors on board. Despite there being a level of subjectivity when weighing the factors which affect business strength and market attractiveness, the Barbican ensures that factors are selected carefully and are the result of an extensive environmental analysis. In recognition of the limitations of the GE Matrix, it is not the sole method of portfolio analysis but it one of the more suitable tools that can be tailored to meet the Barbican’s corporate objectives.
The GE Matrix allows for the Barbican to add factors which are applicable within the context of the London arts market, other than cash usage and cash generation. The GE Matrix considers for a broader range of factors other than just the market growth rate that can determine the attractiveness of a market. For example, macro factors like technological advances particularly in terms of online media are vital to the Barbican’s success and can be addressed the GE Matrix, providing valuable analysis which is specific to the arts sector.
Factors such as the high relative brand strength and customer loyalty are crucial to the Barbican’s success and can be addressed in the GE Matrix in terms of business unit strength unlike the BCG Matrix where market share is the only dimension by which the competitive position of each SBU is assessed. It is important to consider factors other than market share which can determine the competitive strength of a SBU; the GE Matrix addresses these factors. Although the strategic implications for both models are the same (build, hold, harvest, divest), since the GE Matrix has wider range of variables it offers the Barbican with a broader scope of strategic variations within these categories allowing for a more informed decision making in the marketing planning stage
Some of the Barbican’s SBUs operate in niche markets such as Barbican Education and Barbican Film. Since the GE Matrix is a more suitable for analysing niche markets, it provides a valuable tool when assessing Barbican’s product portfolio. For example, Barbican Education provides educational resources and schemes for schools, local neighbourhoods and families and while it dominates a small niche, it has a very low market share in the overall industry. Whereas the BCG Matrix categorises it as a ‘Dog’ due to its low market share and low growth rate (a potential candidate for divesture), the GE Matrix recognises that as it does perform well as niche operator and still worth investing in. Furthermore, Barbican Education represents the Barbican’s values and enhances its Corporate Social Responsibly (CSR); the GE Matrix takes these factors into consideration.
Eg: Samsung Electronics
There is an increase in demand on LED TV on the Kazakhstan Market. SEK has prepared marketing plan which should concentrate on both push and pull strategies. Since Samsung is a first company to introduce new product on the market, there is a competitive advantage from this point of view. But this might be easily overcome by competitors, since no huge investments in productbrand awareness has been made.
If we look at Ansoff matrix, it’s clear that in 2009 Samsung was playing in “Product development” quadrant, introducing new product to the market, but in 2010, when competitors start to actively work in the same area, strategy will be mover to the “market penetration” quadrant, because there is already demand on the product, market is familiar with an innovation and there is a clear goal to increase market share and protecting existing occupied shares from competitors penetration. Here huge investments are required in order to support the strategy from both – push and pull strategies point of view
In the past they have used a diversification strategy whereby they launched Polish and Indian current accounts to Polish and Indian immigrants living in the UK and a market development strategy whereby they adapted their student account and introduced it to international students living in the UK, however given their current financial situation it is too risky for us to adopt these strategies in the near future.
RBS uses all three competitive strategies across its UK Retail division. As they are a large company they can afford to achieve cost leadership through economies of scale, e.g. RBS mortgages are often some of the cheapest in the UK market. They use the diversification strategy and try to add a unique selling point to all of their products, e.g. RBS teen accounts (Adapt and Revolve) come with a range of benefits that are suited to 11-18 year olds, all free of charge. None of their competitors offer this on their youth accounts. Finally on a select few of our UK products we adopt the focus strategy, where we are appealing to a wealthy niche market, e.g. their Private Banking service. Strict criteria must be met in order to qualify for Private Banking and as it is so exclusive with great rewards customers are willing to pay a premium price.
3.1 Action-Centred Leadership Model
John Adair’s (1998) Action-Centred leadership model is based on three parts:
Defining the task
Managing the team or group
Good managers and leaders should have full command of the three main areas of the Action Centred Leadership model, and should be able to gauge the situation and use each of the elements accordingly. The ability to do all these things will keep the right balance, achieve results, improve quality, build morale, develop teams and improve productivity. This is the mark of a successful manager and leader.
This is represented by Adair’s trademark, three overlapping circles, which illustrate the importance of teamwork:
Three Circle Diagram (TM John Adair)
The Action Centred Leadership model shows the three elements are mutually dependent, as well as being separately essential to the overall leadership role. Adair further sets out the core functions of leadership that are central to this model:
Planning – seeking information, defining and allocating tasks, setting aims, initiating, briefing, setting standards.
Controlling – maintaining standards, ensuring progress, ongoing decision-making.
Supporting – individuals’ contributions, encouraging team spirit, reconciling, morale.
Informing – clarifying tasks and plans, updating, receiving feedback and interpreting.
Evaluating – feasibility of ideas, performance, enabling self-assessment.
The Action-Centred Leadership model, therefore, does not stand-alone; it must be part of an integrated approach to managing and leading. There should be a strong emphasis on applying these principles through training. Unlike some other theories, Adair promotes a ’50:50 rule’, whereby, motivation is the responsibility is 50% from the individual and the other 50% from external factors with leadership being part of the factors. When it comes to team building the 50:50 rule can also apply where the team creates 50% of the success and 50% from the leader. John Adair’s theory gets right to the heart of the leadership role and is easy to see how it works in a multi-dimensional way. Although the theory have been around for some decades, it is still relevant for today’s world management.
3.2 Evaluation of the Adair’s Theory (Based on the “Network” – center for acute mental illness)
Organizations are facing a big challenge, the structure of the mental health care that they are used to was to be phased out and be replaced by a whole new service model never attempted by any mental health service before. All that was available at the initial stages was the directive, which stated that care given to mental health service users must be ‘Socially Inclusive’. It is now down to the whole team to draw on their expertise and knowledge to redesign a Socially Inclusive care package suitable for the various different facets of mental illness.
The Network manager set about making a list of her responsibilities:
Identify aims and vision for the team, purpose and direction by defining the tasks
Identify resources, people, processes, systems and tools including funding, market planning and technology
Create the plan to achieve the tasks that is deliverable, measurable, within timescale, with the right strategy and tactics
Establish responsibilities, objectives, accountabilities and measures by agreement and delegation
Control and maintain activities against parameters
Monitor and maintain overall performance against plan
Report on progress towards the group’s aim
Review, re-assess, adjust plan, methods and targets as necessary
It is down to the manager to identify her responsibilities to the group and to each individual. The team held a series of meetings to establish a comprehensive care package that can cater for the many elements of mental health illnesses. It was then agreed that each professional is to be responsible for drafting out a care package relevant to the area of his or her expertise to be presented in the next team meeting for approval.
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As there was no experienced marketing staff within the team, a new person was recruited for marketing, PR functions to help create a marketing strategy using various marketing mixes within the confines of a tight budget, to communicate a positive message to stakeholders and services users. The manager provided the marketing staff with a brief, budget and time frame for the task, and then held regular meetings to discuss ideas and monitor progress.
The Network operates on the principles of quality care and continuous improvement with an overall focus to deliver a value for money service to their customers. With this in mind the team holds weekly meetings for each department to have the opportunity to update the rest of the team with their weeks progress, ideas and difficulties. During these meetings it is encouraged for individuals to contribute ideas and comments for open discussion. Each member of the team has an individualized supervision meeting with the manager on a one to one basis to discuss progress, the next task, training where necessary and any individual issues or concerns. It is also a time for the manager to encourage and support the staff member to boast morale and confidence thus should increase productivity and quality of service.
Recommendation and Justification for Team Leadership Improvements
Even though an organization has a good team leadership, it would be beneficial to consider the following issues in order to build and develop from the current success into the future:
Encourage more constructive feedback as this increases self-awareness, offers options and encourages development – it is human nature not to want to say anything that can be interpreted as negative and to cause upset or misunderstanding. However, as long as this is work related and constructive, members of the team should feel comfortable enough to discuss and debate such feedback.
The staff is to be mostly trained professionals in therapy, hence it is second nature for them to always start with positive, this has contributed to the success of the organisation’s transition and it should be noted so as to encourage and maintain such culture.
Be specific – It causes confusion and is not helpful when comments are generalised. Being specific when behaviour is not acceptable or when identifying what the person have done well and behaviour that should be praised will earn the leader understanding and respect.
Refer to behaviour that can be changed – always give feedback about something that the person can change; this will offer the person opportunity to progress and do better.
Offer alternatives – if negative feedback is given, it is important to suggest how it could be done differently, thus turning a negative situation into a positive.
Be descriptive rather than evaluative – explain to the person the effect of what you saw or heard had on you. By saying something is good or bad does not facilitate a deeper understanding of the situation.
Own the feedback – it is important to take responsibility for the feedback we offer. Statements that generalise are not seen as productive.
Leave the receiver with a choice – due to the changes that have taken shape at The Network, the manager and team have all experienced internal and external resistance to various feedbacks. It is crucial to continue to provide skilled feedback so people can have a choice to act or not to act and the opportunity to examine the consequence of that decision
It is natural at the time of change for people to feel unsettled, loss direction, focus and can cause low self-esteem and confidence. The manager being the leader of the organisation must continue to be the lynch pin for the team and offer support, guidance and encouragement.
3.2 MARS model
Jerald and Baron (2003) said that Organizational behaviors should be analyzed at three levels namely Group process (communication), Individual behavior (attitude) and Organizational process (structure).
MARS model serves as a useful initiating point for studying individual behaviors and its results within organizations. As four letters of the name of model denotes it has four key areas, Motivation, Ability, Role perception and Situational factors. It is the synergistic effect of these four factors that strengthens or enhances the performance of employees in organizations.
Islam and Ismail (2008) stated that word motivation is derived from the Latin word “Movere” which means move. Motivation is the driving force that directs activities. Luthans (2008) defined motivation as “a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive” (p.158). Further Mcshein elaborated Motivation as the internal forces of a person that influence his direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. This implies that motivation is not adhoc rather random behavior but a goal driven behavior. Intensity refers to the amount of effort exerted towards the achievement of the goal. Persistency refers to the continuation of such efforts for a particular time period.
Another factor that could influence employee performance and behavior is their ability. Ability includes natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required by an employee to complete a given task successfully. Abilities can be either physical or conceptual. There is a relationship between natural aptitudes and learned capabilities since the former can enhance the latter.
McShane, explained that role perception is a person’s belief about the specific tasks assigned to them, their relative importance and preferred way or ways of achieving these tasks. Meek, Meek, Palmer & Parkinson (2007) stated that Task comprises of two element, Task characteristic and Task information. Task characteristic includes properties of Task such as Measurability in terms of cost, time resources and efforts, out put, time durations, and the person responsible for achieving the task. Task information consists of description of task, assumption or preconditions, inputs, required skills and resources, responsibilities and estimated time. Today’s organizations are in endless pursuits in finding ways to enhance role perceptions.
This refers to the conditions that are beyond employee’s controllable area. It can have either enhancing or constraining impact on employee behavior or then the performance. Situational factors can be divided into three categories Global, Organizational and Personal. Global situational factors consist of macro environmental elements such as Technological, Social, Political and Economical. Both the organization and the individual get affected but there is very little either can do about it. Organizational situations are within the organizational boundaries and there is many individuals can do about compared to the Global situations. Personal situations encompass all the micro level factors that influences on individual and has the greater control over it.
Key HRM Roles (personality and team roles)
Belbin identified nine team roles and he categorized those roles into three groups as Action Oriented roles, People Oriented roles, and Thought Oriented roles. These entire team role is associated with typical behavioral and individually strengths. We can categories in to a nine roles as follows;
Action Oriented Roles:
Shapers (SH) – the personal capabilities of people who can challenge the team to improve are call shaper. They are active and usually extroverted people who enjoy stimulating team members, finding norms, and finding the solutions for problems. Also he / she are the one who shakes things up to make sure that all possibilities are considered and that the team does not become satisfied.
Implementer (IMP) – Implementers can be introduced as people who get things done. They go round the team’s ideas and implementing actions and preparing plans. They are typically traditional, disciplined people who work methodically and efficiently and are very well organized.
Completer – Finisher (CF) – the meaning of the Completers-Finishers are the people who see that projects are completed thoroughly. They ensure there have been no errors or oversights and they pay attention to the smallest of details. They are very concerned with deadlines and will push the team to make sure the job is completed on time without any delay.
People Oriented Roles:
Coordinator (CO) – the role of the Coordinator is taking on the traditional team-leader role and referred to as the chairmen. They instructing to the team on what they perceive are the objectives. They are generally listeners and they are naturally able to recognize the value that each team member and initially coordinate and giving directions.
Team Worker (TW) – The people who provide support and organizing arrangements for team success call a team leader. Team workers are filling the role of negotiators within the team and they are elastic, tactful, and perceptive.
Resource Investigator (RI) – Resource Investigators are innovative and curious. They explore available options, organize contacts and work hard on behalf of the team. They are enthusiastic team members, who identify and work with external stakeholders to help the team accomplish its objective. They are outgoing and are often extroverted, meaning that others are often receptive to them and their ideas.
Thought Oriented Roles:
Plant (PL) – Plant is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches. They thrive on praise, but criticism is especially hard for them to deal with. In generally this category often introverted and ready to work apart from the team. Because their ideas are so novel, they can be impractical at times. They may also be poor communicators and can tend to ignore given parameters and constraints.
Monitor – Evaluator (ME) – these players are the best at analyzing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come up with. These people are shrewd and objective and they carefully weigh the pros and cons of all the options before finalizing and implementing a decision.
Specialist (SP) – as the final initiator Specialists are people who have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done. They pride themselves on their skills and abilities, and they work to maintain their professional status. Their major role is o is a filled person in the area, and they commit themselves fully to their field of expertise. This may limit their contribution, and lead to a preoccupation with technicalities at the expense of the bigger picture.
Recommendations to Improve HR Planning and Developments
For the improvement activity the team members and managers mutually agreed to a vision and a specific set of values that would define the Georgetown plant.
Establishment of a value “card system” in order to give immediate feedback to anyone in the company, including managers, if they were not following the values. The cards worked like those that are used for a soccer referee. Each team member had a pocket-sized booklet that included a set of values, the expected behaviors, and three cards in the colors of green, yellow, and red. Whenever anyone observed someone demonstrating the values of the company, like stopping what they were doing to help a teammate, they were greeted with a green card. A yellow card was used to “warn” another person or the whole group if they were getting close to the “line,” while the red was used to let the others know that the “line” had been crossed.
Instead of involving with administrative activities HR people need to be encouraged to move to the floor to work directly with management and manufacturing. All the managers have to talk to teams that are sitting right near them so that the teams will cover all the functions. Further they have connections with central HR. Therefore the managers do not have to worry about that.
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