The word of diplomacy is derived from the Greek diploma and it means the official document or certificate which folded on itself, which was issued by a person who holds the highest authority in the country and entitle the holder to special privileges, including prescription and task envoy. It also launched the permits which was granted by the judge for some individuals.
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Then the meaning of this word widened later to include official papers and documents which contain the texts of the agreements concluded by the Roman Empire with foreign communities and tribes and come to mean the study of ancient documents related to international relations. The Romans also used the word to denote the diplomatic temperament ambassador or envoy went to Latin (in the sense of a man a hypocrite duplex)(  ).
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM:
So we can make our research problem about if the diplomacy is considered a vital or important tool that can effect on foreign policy and international relations or it can lead to conflicts among countries
FIRST:THE MEANING O WORD DIPLOMACY:
Sicheron said about diplomacy in (106 – 43 BC). The use of diplomacy give us the sense of formal recommendation that given to individuals who come to the Roman country, and they bring with them to allow them to pass, and to be the subject of special care. Greek diplomacy has moved into Latin and European languages â€‹â€‹and then into Arabic.
and for referring to the management and direction of international relations,we used the word bargaining, and use the term to refer to the Embassy that is the body of work. spain was the first to use the word embassy or ambassador after being transferred from the canonical expression which means a server or embassy
Diplomacy in french means an envoy or authorized any person who sends in the task (The word Vtstq ambassador of his kidneys, which continued, Custodian of a title that is granted only for representatives of the Kings).the diplomacy word doesont enter in the international lexicon only since the mid-seventeenth century when it replaced the word “negotiation”.
The meaning of “diplomacy” with time become refers to different meanings,as it is used today (  ).
either a sign of the political approach in a given time, it is said, for example: Russian diplomacy has evolved in this century, and become what it was in the last century.
either to denote the tact, courteous, and savvy displayed by someone for his relations with others, it is said, for example: So and so possess high diplomacy
and either to denote the negotiations and the subsequent
ceremony,and it is said: that this dilemma international lacked diplomatic solution or saying “peaceful resolution of disputes” any and used in the broad sense, while referring to diplomatic history of a State or for a period of time through negotiations and communications in the sense of not to resort toviolence.
certain to dealing with the chronology of the official relations between the countries, such as saying “diplomatic history of France.”
diplomacy is used in a narrow sense as an adjective to some terms, such as diplomatic correspondence and diplomatic immunities and privileges
it is used as an error to synonymous with strategy.
it is used as an error to synonymous with international politics, international relations, foreign policy.
it is used as synonymous to negotiate, so it is said in the definition of diplomacy as the art of negotiations, and this is not true because it excluds other functions such as diplomacy and representation agreement and interests.
it is used to denote a diplomatic representative profession which is based on the words of Professor Ernest Sato, the task of “reconciling the interests of his country and the interests of the country into line with and Aldhuz honor his homeland and to ensure the development of international awareness.”
This is the final meaning of diplomacy which reacts with the original meaning of the word of “diplomacy”, and “diploma” only “letter of credit” issued today by the Head of State and who is armed with diplomatic representative so he could direct his duties in the host country
And diplomacy in the Arabic language is the word (the book) to express document exchanged by those in power, including that give the holder protection and safety advantages. The word used when the Arabs embassy letter words starting any direction and to the people, in order to negotiate and derive (word Embassy of travel) or (resulting in between people if the fittest) and (word ambassador is walking among the people in the Magistrate or between two men).
* SECOND: THE DEFINITION OF DIPLOMACY
diplomacy in modern general meaning and which is consistent with the concept of international law is a set of concepts, rules and procedures and protocol, institutions and international norms governing relations between States and international organizations and diplomatic representatives, in order to serve the higher interests (security and economic) and public policy, and documentation between the interests of countries by contact and exchanges and political negotioation and contract agreements and international treaties(  ).
diplomacy is considered the key tool to achieve foreign policy goals to influence the foreign states and groups aim Astmaltha and enlist their support in various ways, including what is to convince me, ethical and what is intimidating (padded) and immoral. In addition to the delivery of information to governments and negotiate with concerned diplomatic strengthen relations between the countries and their development in various fields and to defend the interests and people of their nationals abroad and representing governments in the occasions and events, in addition to gathering information on the conditions of countries and outside groups, and evaluate attitudes governments and groups towards the current issues or reactions about potential future policies or positions(  ).
The definition of diplomacy has been developed by uprising of diplomacy itself (  ).
Indians knew diplomacy since three thousand years ago by saying: “It’s the ability to provoke war and confirm peace between nations.”
definition of Ernest Sato: “The diplomacy is the use of intelligence and tact in the management of official relations between the governments of receiving countries.”
Charles de Martins definition: “Diplomacy is the science of foreign relations or foreign affairs of States, and specifically it is the meaning of art of negotiations.”
definition of Charles Calvo: “Diplomacy is the science of relations between different countries resulting from mutual interests, and on the principles of public international law and the provisions of treaties and conventions.”
rural definition: “Diplomacy is the science and art of representation of countries and bargaining.”
definition of Foderih: “Diplomacy is the art of representation authorities and the interests of the country’s government and foreign forces, and work to be respected and not violated no significant human and prestige home and abroad, and international affairs management, standardization and monitoring of political negotiations as instructed by the government.”
definition of Antololitz: “Diplomacy is a set of knowledge and art that is necessary for the conduct of foreign relations of the States correctly
definition of Harold Nicholson: “Diplomacy is guiding international relations through negotiations, and the manner in which it manages ambassadors and envoys of these relations, and diplomatic working man or his art.”
definition of Henry Kissinger: “Diplomacy is adapting differences through negotiations.”
definition of George Kennan: “diplomacy is the process of communication among governments.”
definition of DVD Aarthy and Osuhaa: “Diplomacy is the art of applying the principles of diplomatic law.”
definition of Philippe Caillet: “Diplomacy is the means by which followed a subject of international law for the conduct of foreign affairs through peaceful means, particularly through negotiations.”
definition of Dr. Adnan al-Bakri: “:diplomacy is a political process that is used by the state in the implementation of its foreign policy in its dealings with other countries and other international individuals to manage the official relations among each others including international system
definition Dr..Smouha is Extraordinary in his book (diplomatic and protocol): “Diplomacy is art of government representative, and paying attention to the interests of the country’s with foreign governments, and to ensure that the rights of the country intact and its dignity is respected abroad, and managing the International Business by directing the political commissioners, and follow-up stages and according to the instructions , and seek to apply law in international relations in order to become the basis of legal principles to deal with people. “
definition Dr. Smouha Extraordinary in his book (modern diplomacy): “Diplomacy is a set of rules, norms and principles of international interested in the organization of relations between States and international organizations, and assets to be followed in applying the provisions of international law, and to reconcile the interests of disparate countries, art of conducting negotiations in
international meetings and conferences ,and holding conventions and treaties
definition Dr.Ali Hussein al-Shami: “Diplomacy is the science and art of management of relations between international persons, a career diplomatic representatives, or function exercised by diplomats, and the field of this function is the external relations of the countries, nations and peoples.”
definition of Ma’mon Hamwi: Diplomacy is the practice of the process for the conduct of the affairs of state of Foreign Affairs which is the science and art, to requests from a deep study of the relations between states and their mutual interests and operative dates and charters treaties of international documents in the past and the present, which is the art that is based on special talents founded on tact physiognomy and the power of observation.
Oxford dictionary definition: “Diplomacy is (  ).
A) it is a science of caring about international relations by negotiations.
B) the way in which the ambassadors and diplomatic representatives in achieving this care. “
DEFINITION THIRD: DIPLOMAT:
According to the international practice the diplomat is consideres as a person whose name is toddler in the diplomatic list that is made by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in state ) (  ).
The Vienna agreement of 1961, in the first article reads as follows:
1 / d phrase ” diplomatic members” GOES to the members of the mission who have diplomatic status.
1 / e phrase “diplomatic envoy” goes to the head of the mission and to diplomatic members in mission.
The diplomatic list i that is issued by the State includes the people who undertake the following tasks: Head of Mission (Ambassador or Minister or the Chargé d’affaires), counselors, secretaries, and then attached to ordinary diplomats, as well as to persons who arenot diplomats originally but it granted them this chance to protect them and to facilitate their mission and they are-called technicians attached such as: military attache, the cultural attaché, labor attaché, commercial attache, Agricultural Attaché, Supplement Media … Etc..
FOURTH: TYPES OF MODERN DIPLOMACY:
Diplomacy takes the form of “summit diplomacy” and it refers to conferences that isnconvened by the heads of state among themselves to discuss some issues or international relations among the countries participating in the summit meeting.and this type becomes existing in these recent years as a type of diplomacy.
This kind of diplomatic activity reflects the development in the importance of inter-State relations and the attention of the governments of the world in the international dimension
The idea of summit meetings comes to be a mean to develop radical solutions or important agreements between states where to meet with the leaders of the countries with their vast powers will help save time and effort and quick access to important decisions.
The most important international conventions that have been accessed after the Second World War and have had an impact on the course of international relations was born out of the summit meetings between the countries..
There is another type of diplomacy which is crisis diplomacy and it refers to diplomatic activity that is used to solve urgent international crisis
The International Crisis management has become important in the contemporary diplomatic relations. The contemporary international society may have constantly for various political crises as a result of ideological differences, political, and economic ties between the countries and the lack of ability or willingness of States to use military force to end the crisis.
So crisis ddiplomacy comes as an alternative to war and as a director of the tension between the two countries. Traditionally diplomatic agent is given some options to solve international crises broad powers to enable diplomat to move, and to take into account in choosing his experience in solving international problems and his ability to understand the dimensions of the problem or crisis is concerned.
The third and final style of contemporary diplomacy is Alliance Diplomacy, which means the diplomatic activity dedicated to the establishment of the military alliances or political blocs.
And this pattern has emerged of a diplomatic outcome to increase state trend toward alliances and blocs. Nature has imposed chaotic power struggle in the contemporary international community the importance of military alliances.
The political blocs have become a tool to increase the political influence to international groups and powerful states in the international community. As military alliances and blocs of political are important for the security of the state and its influence has received special attention in the diplomatic arena than other concerns.
FIFTH: THE TOOLS OF DIPLOMACY IN FOREIGN POLICY:
The increasing importance of diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy diversity patterns, and the multiplicity of forms they are no longer the traditional style consisting of Ambassador personality or actively diplomatic mission, but expanded and took different shapes and patterns.
1- Diplomatic mission:
The process of representation and negotiation that take place between states and their subsidiary business carry out requires a number of people with specific tasks (  ). So nations usually send each of them a group of people to carry out these tasks. The group is usually headed by sending someone responsible that is considered as inherent (original) Representative of his country to manage the group and to distribute the work among its members..
And the diplomatic mission also improve political and economic relations and cultural relations between the sending State and the sending State to it (  ).
Finally the diplomatic mission does some administrative works related to nationals of the sending State of the mission, such as protection and registration of births, deaths and marriages work and Mark passports. Usually the consulates of these tasks Embassy where most of these businesses are not political in nature and the exercise does not affect the nature of the relations between the two countries.
2- ARMED FORCES: MILITARY POWER
Armed forces is one of the primary means for the implementation of foreign policy and a key ingredients to the success of diplomacy.
Although the armed forces are considered expensive in its coasts when it is compared to diplomacy and it isnot desired to be used in the international community as a means to achieve the objectives of State, but they nevertheless have great interest with the governments of the international community so the too ofl military “creates a background of confidence and stability to work diplomacy and negotiation of center power sound wisdom, since the state can not not supported by a military force to refrain from giving concessions that harm their vital interests if it is exposed to pressures and threats that state can’t resist it. “
And the armed forces are used in more than one appearance. In addition to the traditional use and we mean actual usage in time of war to defend or attack, the armed forces also used in peace time to make pressure and deterrence and the consequent them from bending the other parties to achieve national interests.
The use of the armed forces as an instrument of pressure and peacetime deterrence justifies the high costs and increases the conviction of the average citizen of the importance of expenses and bear their consequences.
if armed forces don’t enter in a defensive or offensive war ,it does not mean stop its effectiveness, but the use of armed forces in peace to pressure and deterrence is more than used in the war so that peace is the rule and fighting is exception (  ).
The pressure and deterrence, if national goals are achieved through them ,more rewarding than the war where they will not cost home and citizen any additional burden while the war would result in additional losses to the homeland and the citizen and the size of these losses will depend on the protracted war and the quality of weapons used in it.
DIFFERENT USES OF THE ARMED FORCES:
armed forces are used in various forms. We can identify three main uses of the armed forces.
armed forces are used as a tool to attack Offensive Capability. And also it is used for expansion and control feature of contemporary international relations. Israel’s occupation of Arab lands, and the Soviet Union’s occupation of Afghanistan, and America to Iraq just examples of countless situate And this led to increase in the effectiveness and the importance of using the armed forces as an instrument of attack is the success of this policy to the achievement of a number of national objectives of the countries that took them.
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Using the strategy of attack in the war comes from the state’s conviction attacking that is the attack despite the consequncies that lead to nationalism, responsibilities and the violation of international laws is the best way to defend and achieve national goals as the state begins the attack usually choose the right time and the right conditions to fight, and this is an important element in the divert of the course of the war and determine their results.
armed forces are used as an instrument to defend Defensive War Capability and the use of armed forces to defend the State as state is forced to defend its security and national interests.
The state resorted to defend the support and sympathy of world public opinion where this state are viewed as a victim state.
But for legitimacy and global affection, state that resort to defense strategy loses important military advantages, including the loss of the initiative and the willingness and the imposition of war in time may not be appropriate and according to unsuitable conditions.
The end result of a defensive war strategy depends on the ability and potential of the Government of the defender state and the morale of its people(  ).
The state enter in a defensive war but due to the availability of possibilities and the government’s ability to military mobilization and sacrifice of its people turned into defensive war to a preemptive war after contain hostile attack and repelled and then turn the battle into the territory of the aggressor State.
In this case, the state’s strategic turn into defense strategy to attack and strategy here earn state legality of the war and achieve a new national interests are often strategic interests.
Finally the armed forces are used as an instrument of Deterrent Capability and deterrence is a complex policy and it means simply as that the weapons are stored and army is equipped with a view to use in the attack, but in order to convince the opponent that it will be used immediately to repel any attack seriously doing.
The success of the policy of deterrence requires the availability of a number of basic requirements. The first of these requirements possession of the State sufficient deterrent capabilities of the attacking force respond to the state and convince them that the course of the battle if it happened might turn against their interest.
Then there must be tangible design by the State deterrent to the actual use of the possibilities available to them to repel any foreign aggression.
The attacking state need to know the precise knowledge of the possibilities available to the State deterrent. Knowing these possibilities will help the success of the policy of deterrence and lack of knowledge will encourage the aggressor State to attack.
In addition to that the success of the policy of deterrence requires deterrent to know the state of the values deterrent â€‹â€‹that govern the conduct of the State which threatens attack. natural aggressive of attacking state will limit the success of the policy of deterrence as the state typically offer aggressive military adventures, regardless of the likelihood of success.
Finally, the success of the policy of deterrence assumes that the assailant acted in a rational way and estimated revenue and cost of military action and how this service work for the national interest. The absence of rationality means a lack of objective evaluation of military action and to surrender to the emotions and desires. This surrender may push the attacking state leaders to engage in a military adventure, regardless of the final sum (  ).
3- THE TYPES OF WARS:
When wars occur ,it takes different forms. The difference comes from the different objectives and military potential (  ). War may be a lightning war. This war is usually offensive in nature, where the country is headed lightning strike to the Centers for hostile armies gathered through the use of weapons fast and mobile. Featuring blitzkrieg short period of time and specify the desired goal and that is towards to military operations by determining it precisely.
War may take a form like the attrition war; They Unlike differentiate with the lightning war as attrition war is long-term and differences in the quality of the weapons used and combat tactics. And the success of the war of attrition would require a number of requirements, including: favorable natural conditions, and the country’s ability to withstand the political, economic and military for a long period of time, and the desire of the people to bear the effects of war and its troubles.
States that take the strategy of a war of attrition usually countries with over populated positioned to provide the necessary number of fighters, and has a semi-self-sufficient in food, and the morale of its people so high to ensure the government and the military leadership a strong popular base.
War may be a preventive war, which means the destruction of opponent’s strength and eliminate them before they grow in full dimensions. This strategy ensures followers of the State which is waging a preventive military control, where they will spend the hope of owning a hostile State of sophisticated weapons.
Finally may take the form of Pre-emptive war which take a form of frustration and means that war waged by the state when it proves that her opponent is about to launch an attack against it.
So war of frustration rely on a large extent on the ability to interpret the intentions of discount and if it is already about to launch an attack or is it practiced a kind of policy of deterrence and muscle-flexing. And the state which is waging a war of frustration usually try to justify its attack on the grounds that its security is in danger and it goes to war is absolutely imperative to preserve national security.
Propaganda means any organized attempt to influence the minds and emotions and behavior of a particular group to achieve a particular target. And publicity involved with diplomacy in that it primarily verbal activity, but they differ from diplomacy in that it went to the people of other countries not to their governments.
In order to have successful and effective propaganda,so we must have a number of basic conditions.propaganda Must first be characterized as simple in presentation even it can be understood without effort by the ordinary reader and listener. The more simple, the more publicity impact on the general public and achieved the desired objectives (  ).
Propaganda Also must be characterized by ability to attract the attention of the reader or listener and provoke interest. The more publicity linked to the reality experienced by the masses as a strong attraction to attention. So that the masses are always concerned with their betterment. In addition to the interest rate of public attention must be paid to move the emotions. Because stir emotions helps to generate interest propaganda article.
And advertising in order to be accepted and be somewhat reasonable. This means that promotional material must not devoid of health. The absolute lie is not easy to sell to the masses, because when the masses receive any promotional materials, they trying to compare it to some extent to the reality
Propaganda achieve the desired impact in the minds and emotions and behavior of the masses by propaganda material must being consistent in content, so that the discrepancy in the content leads to questioning the propaganda material.
If the goal of Saudi media, for example, provide propaganda material against an enemy state should be the content of the article consistent on the radio, press and television If the public finds the addressee, for example, that radio news confirmed by the press and propaganda supported by the TV. This will increase the conviction public offeree health news. If presented radio news radio, and newspapers provided the same news but the content is different, and ignore the TV news College, this will push the citizen to question about the news
propaganda material is consolidated in the minds of the masses by repeating it so that they appear to the public addressee as truth for granted. As appearing promotional material once or twice is not enough, but it must be repeated several times and in all media: radio, print, and television.
In the field of â€‹â€‹advertising strategies,we can distinguish between two types of strategies.
Strategic objective means to provide information material to the listener or reader news take into account the greater degree of accuracy and objectivity, and then leaves him the task of finding meaningful or significant news media.
The thematic strategy on the basis that provide the correct information is of particular political importance of citizen-oriented media countries that block its citizens a lot of media realities. The feature of this strategy is to attract major readers and listeners who are keen to get the correct information to help them correct erroneous news and questionable and they are given at home.
The Big Lie strategy it means distortion or mutilation media material in order to manipulate public opinion propaganda directed towards him.
Nazi mass media used this strategy effectively as it relyi on the idea that was presented by the “Hitler” in his book as if the lie is a big lie and echoed enough you’ll believe it masses ratifications at least in part because most people lack the imagination to realize that repeating statements are not mean validity(  ).
5- Eeconomic Instruments
economic instruments occupy as a means of foreign policy have an important place in contemporary international relations. This importance of economic instruments came from two factors:
First, the occupation of economic well-being of the peoples of the international community is a prominent place in the priorities of national goals of contemporary governments. Have become economic problems such as unemployment, inflation, and food shortages important issues of contemporary concern to governments, as its existence in power depends on its ability to solve these problems(  ).
The second factor, is to increase economic interdependence between states and the consequent dependence of an increase in the importance and priority of economic instruments as a means of foreign policy.
Tariffs are one of the most important and oldest economic instruments. And imposes tariffs for different goals.
Tarrifs may be imposedd as a way to get financial revenues, as the state has financial problems tariff find a way to get revenue contribute to the support of the state budget.
The tariffs are imposed as a means to protect national products, since the imposition of tariffs on imported goods will increase in price and limiting the rival of local products.
Tarrifs may be also imposed as a means of revenge against the State, where the imposition of tariffs on imported materials from a particular country will indirectly reduce import them and put obstacles in front of their products.
Then there are the cash constraints “Currency Regulations’ means the Government pay their own supervision to distract from criticism abroad either to buy goods or services or for tourism and investment.
And when the government exercised a cash constraint is itself overseeing the licensing of tr
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