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Causes of EU Integration with America

4169 words (17 pages) Essay in Politics

06/10/17 Politics Reference this

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Farid Muttaqi

 

Question: Which is the relationship between internal European and external (American) motives for the start of European integration?

 

Outline:

Internal motives of EU integration

  • Peace and Stability after WW Second
  • The Global Influence
  • Economical factor
  • High Standards for a better life

External motives (US)

  • The factor of Economy and politics
  • The Marshal Plan
  • The Security factor and the US
  • End Note

The United States has strongly supported the European integration project since its inception as a means to foster democratic states and robust trading partners. The United States and the EU have a dynamic political partnership and share a huge trade and investment relationship.

Internal Motives of Internal Integration

Peace and Stability after WW Second:

A second profit that Europeans coveted was peace and internal strength. This seems to have been particularly significant to the French, and various littler nations as they acknowledged their German neighbours. The French tried to bait Germany into close participation in the years promptly after the war while Germany was still generally feeble; it was suspected that Germany though had completely recuperated the country couldn’t withdraw from these exchange contracts without significant expenses. Germany at this point seeking acknowledgement from its neighbours willingly went along. This yearning for territorial security could be seen in the advancement of forms, for example, the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 it was discerned that supranational control, and international integration of these industries might make it unrealistic for any part country to ambush an alternate. Further due to the imagined monetary ties, hostility against an individual part state might be rendered adverse to the aggressor’s own economy. So, a second unanticipated rationale was maintaining peace, presumably with specific accentuation on discouraging Germany against hostility.[1]

Due to the development of up to date military technology in the XX century, the urgency of this difficulty has developed spectacularly. The huge boost in the number of casualties, the amount of human pain, and financial decimation has reinforced calls for organisations adept of protecting calm, particularly during and after the catastrophes of the two world conflicts. Then, the danger of atomic decimation and self-decimation and the emergence of new nationalisms after the end of the East-West Bloc structure have accentuated this difficulty in new ways.[2]

The Global Influence:

Another important key component is a decline in international leverage. After WWII was over, the countries, particularly Britain and France which were the foremost world powers in the past started to comprehend that they are no longer having sufficient influence in the world if operating alone. The development of the USA and USSR, with their massive populations and geographical domination, had the financial and military power to absolutely engulf Europe in a ‘Cold war’ with force exerted from both sides. It became clear-cut that European governments could just want to control the activities of these key players in Europe provided that they jointly raise their voice.[3]

Both the first atomic tests Soviet Union conducted in 1949 and the Soviet Coup in Czechoslovakia of 1948 has resulted in the atmosphere of urgency. Western and Central Europeans were dreaded by the Soviet take over; Western Germany was perceived as the most vulnerable to Soviet invasions. However, Germany’s friends were not snug with a remilitarised Germany, except for the situation when this would appear in the context of supranational collaboration. This yearn for defence commanded to military alliances, namely the North Atlantic Treaty administration which was put together firstly to keep the Russians out of Western Europe, but furthermore in order to make sure that to Germany does not get too militant inside the borders of the continent.[4]

Economical factor:

The original document which has established the process the of European integration is the Schumann declaration of May 9, 1950. This document was entitled after the France’s foreign minister and motivated by Jean Monnet, a professional and municipal domestic who performed a crucial function in setting up European institutions in the following years. The affirmation proposed that “Franco-German output of coal and steel as an entire has to be put under the joint roof. The later was implied to be the common High Authority, inside the framework of an association open to the participation of the other countries of Europe.” The design was inspired by security, as a way “to make it simple that any conflict between France and Germany becomes not only unthinkable, but materially impossible.” The coal and iron steel output start was characterised as “a first step in the federation of Europe.” [5]

The Schumann declaration has resulted in creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) with participation of the six nations (France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg) in 1951. After that the ECSC was used as the institutional template for two suggested groups: the European Defence Community (EDC) and the European Political Community (EPC), which encompassed the formation of a widespread army, a widespread budget, and common organisations with important legislative and executive branches. The later would have fundamentally amounted to a European federation. This treaty underwent signing by the six nations in 1952 but failed to obtain ratification in the French assembly, and therefore the defence and political groups were not established in the end.[6]

Local integration is routinely examined as one of the leading processes shaping the development of the European finances since World War II. Suppliers to the publications generally take one of the two advances to recognising its effects. The supporters of the idea of the narrative approach issue to influential persons (Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, Jacques Delors), key events (the conclusion to pattern the European Coal and Steel Community or ECSC, sign the Treaty of Rome, set up the Singe Market) and fundamental forces (the fondness of trade goods and banking concerns for trade and economic liberalization, the acquiescence and even support of the joined States for European integration), implying that things would have turned out rather differently if they would not exist. [7]

At the end of World War II, the promoters of European integration accepted that at the roots of the continent’s political and financial ills was its fragmentation in unaligned and unconstrained territory states. The nationwide borders in the beginning of the XX century had been very exorbitant, as authorities raised obstacles to trade and pursued “beggar-thy-neighbour” principles throughout the Great Depression, and chased hard-hitting nationalistic policies leading to conflicts of unprecedented manner. [8]

Europe’s great achievement following the Treaty of Rome was to entire its Common Market which entailed eliminating tariff obstacles to intra-Community trade. However, quantitative restrictions were still utilized to limit trade in perceptive sectors (e.g., farming products made by powerful ranch lobbies, or chosen developed items whose household production was glimpsed as absolutely vital to national security). Obstacles beyond the borders (product standards and guidelines) were furthermore sustained initially.[9]

Economics in a narrower sense can be characterized as one of the purposeful shortfalls: it has become progressively clear that the national markets in Europe were too little for reasonable production methods. Their mutual walling-off was only shrewd on a provisional basis and counting on the specific output part; in the long period, this threatened to outcome in a decrease of productivity and consequently furthermore a loss of the legitimacy of the country.[10]

High Standards for a better life:

The last impetus in the direction of unity, one more relevant in recent years has been the achievement of European integration. The constituent nations of the European Union relish high measures of dwelling, economic significance, steadiness and security. Numerous nations bordering the amalgamation find the benefits of members appealing; in preceding years it has been documented how the countries of south Europe came to enjoy measures of living comparable to those of the formerly more affluent North. No question that this wealth and steadiness is the aim of numerous east European countries that used to be communist have lately searched European Union membership.[11]

External motives (US)

The factor of Economy and politics:

In the timeframe of 6-8 decades the US has played a supportive role in the monetary and political integration of Europe, while people in the USA simultaneously kept ambivalent thought patterns towards the European Union and has preserved specific interaction with distinct nations around the world. People in the USA throughout their history, perhaps inside the colonial time along with the early stages of the republic, already been tightly connected to continental Europe. They have got likewise looked at American integration from the viewpoint in their personal history associated with monetary and political integration and for that reason one may say that they fundamentally looked at the European integration indulgently.[12]

In the beginning several years after the World War II Americans discovered that EU integration if seen as a specific necessity of time can and will lead to make sure that peace is established, as well as stability and democracy are established. Effective US organizations prompted EU economic integration by means of alike policies as the Marshall strategic Plan so as to support and generate the actual orders for prosperity that may assist to be a defensive wall against communism. US enterprise leaders in addition considered the chance of a substantial, wide open EU current market depending on liberal economic guidelines to be a promising and also worthwhile of purchasing. US policymakers thought to be that the materials well-being connected with the United States was significantly connected to the actual prosperity connected with Europe, equally the actual safety connected with the United States was known as intimately connected to EU safety. Generally speaking, EU monetary and also political integration has become great for the United States, mainly because it has additionally been great for Europe.[13]

The actual causes regarding United States help were in reality very difficult in addition to its blurry character. America constantly supported EU integration regarding five motives the earlier had. In rising order, the reasons regarding USA help integrated the following: any desire to put into action federalist United states product within European countries; the trust that a built-in European countries will be better in addition to just rational; the expectation that EU co-operation inside the reams of security in addition to economical spheres would certainly minimize the Germany’s strength; the fact a solid European countries would certainly aid retaining the Soviet Union power. These kinds of causes were characteristic from the 1945-1950 intervals at time America took the lead to promote EU integration, largely within the Marshall Strategy. America seemed to be eventually left behind having minor choice, considering that the United Kingdom in addition to France – the well-known alternatives in order to lead European countries -were of minor aid. Facing that issue, it turned out nearly left to America to supervise the EU post-war reconstruction upon quite a few levels. [14]

The Marshall Plan:

The particular Marshall Plan is usually viewed at the most productive episode in the record from the Cold War containment from the Soviet Partnership as well as communism inside European countries. The particular help to European countries used this economical as well as personal strength involving America to show rear ideological as well as politics menace, so that it was meant since over an endeavour to compliment this economic reconstruction involving European countries. National officials wished to refashion European countries in to a different model from the bundled single-market as well as blended capitalist overall economy of which currently was around in America. Therefore, this Marshall Plan was an expansion involving National household characteristics as well as foreign-policy targets stretching back to National record. Inside the fast ram from the plan’s coverage manufacturers were being this establishments from the Brand new Offer plus the policies from the time between the 2 globe competitions. Since Michael J. Hogan (1987) indicates, the item was to involve European countries into the almost generally overall economy of which shape which existed in America. Together with creating business multilateral, creating stock markets convertible, as well as permitting free-market causes in order to combine economic climates, national policymakers advised their transatlantic counterparts to prepare Western business revenue, financial panels, along with other devices involving capitalist economical setting up as well as regulation which were recognizable for them in America. National help was helpful to expose Western leaders for you to Keynesian tactics involving taxation as well as financial issues. In addition, it aimed for you to Americanize Western creation, promoting as well the engineering techniques. It was wished that this kind of parts as well as sites might make it easy for Europeans to sustain their restoration as well as result in high located expectations. It was wished that a substantial, inner current market, similar to the one which was around in America, might generate economic climates involving range of well as well as increased costs involving production, combining in to a start multilateral program that might likewise always be best for the national organization. Hogan argues that by the means of these kind of as well as linked endeavours, the national leaders tried out for forging some sort of EU local community in which politics concerns might cave in for technocratic alternatives, downplaying redistributive politics battles for some sort of hunt for contributed great quantity – most by having an increased exposure of public-private strength sharing.[15]

The Security factor and the US:

It must not be disregarded that the European countries had been incorporated militarily, along with economic integration. After a couple of world wars have happened, the US was drawn into protection regarding liberal democracy with the European countries. National management had been more certain previously how the safety measures regarding the European countries had been intimately connected to their own safety measures and also well-being. The building blocks regarding armed forces safety measures had been constructed with the particular transatlantic connections. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) for example. National management discovered that EU fiscal and also protection integration included in a compacted internet regarding transatlantic corporations remaking post-World War II European countries. Following disappointment from the EU Defence community (EDC) in the 1950s, people in America made a decision to join the duty regarding protection on their own, even though taking fiscal integration and resultant success just as one alternate route to safety measures. Stanley Sloan offered famous particular battling dynamics from the fundamental transatlantic agreement: along with the US promising continued guidance with EU safety measures in return for a EU motivation to be able to assimilate alone pertaining to equally outside protection and also interior stability. Evolving and also deepening the particular two-centuries-old fiscal connection would likely furthermore provide safety measures by simply leading to politics and also societal hyperlinks that would help to make conflict in between Germany and friends unbearable completely. Consequently, people in America supported EU integration since US people’s representatives presumed that process would likely bind jointly previous predators which will help prevent a different “civil conflict” in Europe. Naturally, one may find those that view the national mind-set in the direction of the European countries in the post-World war II time while a mixture of equally benevolence and also hegemony (according to Brimmer).[16]

Conclusion:

At last, there have been a number of components which have made integration appealing to the peoples of Europe. In the beginning, there were anxieties over the threat of Soviet attack, and worry of a re-armed Germany. Unity was glimpsed as a means of stopping both interior volatility and external aggression. In supplement, from the end of the Second World War right through to the present there has been a desire for financial prosperity, and financial implication on the world view. Finally, it can be seen that harmony has been thriving, the constituent states of the European Union are amidst the world’s most evolved countries, and this is a powerful draw for outsiders to search members. So while the Soviet risk is no longer truth integration is still an appealing prospect for many of Europe’s nations.[17]

Bibliography:


[1]John Taylor 2007, Motives for European Integration since 1945, world issues 360. available at: http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/motives-for-european-integration-since-1945-74142/. Accessed on 28.12.2013

[2] Wilfried Loth. Explaining European Integration: The contribution from Historians, available at: http://euij-kansai.jp/layouts/eu_sub/documents/publication/100508Loth_paper.pdf. Accessed on: 28.12.2013, p 5

[3] Ben Bradley 2012, Post-war European Integration: How We Got Here, e- International Relations. Available at: http://www.e-ir.info/2012/02/15/post-war-european-integration-how-we-got-here/. Accessed on: 28.12.2013

[4] John Taylor 2007, Motives for European Integration since 1945, world issues 360. available at: http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/motives-for-european-integration-since-1945-74142/. Accessed on 28.12.2013

[5] Enrico Spolaore 2013, What Is European Integration Really About? A Political Guide for Economists, Tufts University and NBER (First Draft for the Journal of Economic Perspectives) p 5, available at: http://crem.univ-rennes1.fr/Documents/Docs_workshops_2013/2013-05-30_4_SpolaoreEuro-1.pdf. Accessed on: 30.12.2013

[6] Ibid. p 5

[7] Barry Eichengreen and Andrea Boltho 2007. The Economic Impact of European Integration. Available at: http://dev3.cepr.org/meets/wkcn/1/1679/papers/Boltho-Eichengreen-Chapter.pdf. Accessed 30.12.2013, P 2

[8] Enrico Spolaore 2013, What Is European Integration Really About? A Political Guide for Economists, Tufts University and NBER (First Draft for the Journal of Economic Perspectives) p 2, available at: http://crem.univ-rennes1.fr/Documents/Docs_workshops_2013/2013-05-30_4_SpolaoreEuro-1.pdf. Accessed on: 30.12.2013

[9] Barry Eichengreen and Andrea Boltho 2007. The Economic Impact of European Integration. Available at: http://dev3.cepr.org/meets/wkcn/1/1679/papers/Boltho-Eichengreen-Chapter.pdf. Accessed 30.12.2013, P 15

[10] Wilfried Loth. Explaining European Integration: The contribution from Historians, available at: http://euij-kansai.jp/layouts/eu_sub/documents/publication/100508Loth_paper.pdf. Accessed on: 28.12.2013, p 6

[11] John Taylor 2007, Motives for European Integration since 1945, world issues 360. available at: http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/motives-for-european-integration-since-1945-74142/. Accessed on 28.12.2013

[12] Steven Ekovich 2009. American Views of European Integration: A brief history. The American University of Paris, Department of International and Comparative Politics, Paris, France, available at: http://oliver.efri.hr/~euconf/2009/docs/Session4/4%20Ekovich.pdf. Accessed on: 31.12.2013, p 1

[13] Ibid

[14] Todd Alan Good 2001, Book review, H-Net: Humanities & Social Sciences Online, available at: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5009. Accessed on: 29.12.2013

[15] Ibid. p 6

[16] Steven Ekovich 2009. American Views of European Integration: A brief history. The American University of Paris, Department of International and Comparative Politics, Paris, France, available at: http://oliver.efri.hr/~euconf/2009/docs/Session4/4%20Ekovich.pdf. Accessed on: 31.12.2013, p 9

[17]John Taylor 2007, Motives for European Integration since 1945, world issues 360. available at: http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/motives-for-european-integration-since-1945-74142/. Accessed on 28.12.2013

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