Globalization is seen as a universal change in the lives of people either positively or negatively. In this essay I will start by defining globalization from different perspectives. As in the argument of some critics, globalization has benefits as well as limitations, Therefore it is necessary to look at those advantages and shortcomings. Another important aspect is the theory of international relations and globalization. Each of this theory emphasise on power but has different notions to its meaning. However, exercising power via globalization is seen as a challenge in the international relations theories today.
Furthermore, institutions of global governance play different role in globalization as to what they are specialized in and known for. Majority of these institutions are determined to achieve their roles despite challenges. These institutions are so vast that they cannot be exhausted. Therefore, in this essay I will focus on the United Nations Organization. It is an institution with several agencies. These agencies are not liable to the United Nations Organization in terms their subsequent activities. But they are seen as part of the United Nations. Therefore, role that these agencies play in globalization is what i will also discuss in this essay.
Moreover, the Millennium Declaration determined to achieve to ten objectives by 2015.The principal objective is ‘halving rural poverty by 2015’ and globalization is seen as a tool to which they will achieve their aim. How they intend carrying out this task is what i will also discuss in this essay. That is strategies used and how it was implemented .Finally, this essay will be concluded by summarising the whole point and
To start with, globalization, as argued in John Baylis and Steve Smith (2001:14), is defined in five different ways, as “internationalization” which connotes the coexistence and reliance on two or more countries.Another is “liberalization” defined as the freedom of trade without government’s restriction.”Universalization” which can be understood as the disperse of knowledge to the world.”Westernization” is portrayed as the American opinion of implementing globalization and lastly “Deterrritorialization” is observed as exchange for ‘geography’ that is territorial area, distance and boarders.
Furthermore, globalization can also be understood as the ‘intensification’ of social worldwide relations that connect localities from distant in a way that the ‘happenings’ in the locals are modified by events occurring at distance of miles away and vice versa. In other words, it is a process of amalgamating peoples of the world into a unified state.(John Baylis and Steve Smith 2001:15)
In sum, globalisation can be defined as an economic, social, and political developed world that has effect on the peoples and societies mostly in the underdeveloped and third world. These latter world has benefited positively and negatively from the events initiated by the developed world. Such benefits includes communication that is the “world wide web,” radio transmission, satellite communication, television communication, “global newspapers”, which has made communication easy and flexible for people..Also the “global franchise Pepsi”, Guinness, “Pizza Hut” and the global economy as well as global disease such as AIDS, Kidney Failure, Cancer ,Etc. They are all features of globalisation. John Baylis and Steve Smith (2001:14-16)
However, as argued in John Baylis and Steve Smith (2001:19), globalisation has advantages and disadvantages In term of its benefit to the world .It has made the ease of communication stress less and affordable. For instance “internet access” allows instant message rather that posting which take more than twenty four hours. Also the electronic mass media communication such as radio, television, telephone communication etc has allowed easy access to information and as well as relating to people within and “far away”. The economy system is seen as a benefit in globalization, Trade and finance are expanding. Foreign currencies like the “US dollar”, “in Euro”, “Yen”, are use all over the world international and in the local countries to purchase goods .Global culture allows interrelation among people from different part of the world to appreciate one and the others culture and religious which avoids ethnic and religious crisis.
Moreover, in the argument of John Baylis and Steve Smith (2001:19).Though globalisation has benefitted the world in enormous ways there are limitations to what it posses. Globalisation seems to be limited to the world it was invented. Other societies that are not in the developed world are still back dated in terms of communication, economy and culture. This is as a result where ethnic and religious crises are still very common.
Furthermore, it is also argued that there are limited companies from different part of the world in the international trade economy where different countries merge as a company to trade internationally, but these are rather done within a particular country. That is the “global economy trade”, “investment” as well as “financial flow” which are within three continents “Europe,” “North America” and Asia.(John Baylis and Steve Smith 2001:
However, in the international relations theory globalization does not represent a transformation of the international system. It represents an adaptation of the means through which international interactions are exercised, combined with an increase in the number and types of actors. Therefore, one can know that globalization exist and matters as part of the structure of international relation because of the effects that it produces. A close look at these effects demonstrates that globalization is neither as independent nor causal phenomenon. Rather, globalization is best understood as a technology facilitated proliferation of the means through which power within the international system is channelled and pursued. What makes globalization a new, and essential, component of the contemporary international security are the increasingly complex conditions under which international actors exercise power. (security Dialogue 2004: 11)
The classical approach to the study of international relations, realism, focuses on the nation-state as a barrier between the international system and the domestic sphere of politics. Domestic politics are seen as separated from the international system, which is characterised as anarchy or the absence of order. Realists focus on the nation-state especially the military and economic capabilities and seek to maximize power toward this end. (Security Dialogue 2004: 11) State must ensure that they can provide for their military and economic safety, and they cannot count on the goodwill of others. Institutions such as international law and formal international organizations might be useful as tools but they are not to be relied upon for security guarantees. (Mearsheimer: 1995). To realists, globalization reflects the hegemonic influence of the major powers in international politics. Realists tend to see proximity creating vulnenerability, which leads to conflict (Waltz, 1979: Measheimer, 2001)
It is therefore argued that globalization, is more complicated than the realist theory alone can account for. That is if globalization is measured as the acceleration of transboundary communication, international networks, the diffusion of power, reciprocity and mutual dependence, and the expansion of universal norms and principles, a different conclusion about contemporary international politics emerges. This trend combined with the proliferation of non state actors such as the formal international organization, nongovernmental organization, and multinational cooperation to alter the playing field of international relations.(Security Dialogue 2004 :12)
Neoliberal institution focuses on the unique conditions of globalization that reflect accelerating interdependence and its impact on how state perceive their interests(Keohane, 2002).In a condition of complex interdependence, state will recognize a mutual demand for cooperation, and new actors will emerge that affect international agenda setting while power becomes more diffused. Traditional measurement of power such as military capabilities will become less valuable to states as they prioritize long term benefits from cooperation over short term tactical advantages(Keohane and Nye, 2001) In recognizing a state based interest in collectively managing a globalized world, states seeks to reduce coordination problems, to establish agreed principles, norms, rules and decision making procedures, to facilitate transparency, to increase the capacity for bargaining and issue-linkage ,to enhance socialization toward an international community, and to lower the transaction costs of collective action.(security dialogue 2004:12)
Another major school of international relations theory, constructivism, draws on social theory of human interaction and posits that the structure and content of international relation are the by-products of social interaction (Wendt, 1994). In this sense, not all states are alike, rather states reflect the social structures around which their peoples coalesce. Just as the domestic content of politics and culture shapes the identity of nation state, so does the nation state simultaneously shape the international environment (Wendt, 1999).
The major paradigms of international relations provide an important basis for examining the relationship between globalization and security. Realists demonstrate that power matters and that there remain some key common goods that only the nation state can supply though realist are challenged to think harder about hoe power matters and how best to understand the new realities of global politics(Brown, 1998). The neoliberal institutionalist school shows that international system is increasingly complex and that states alone cannot fully provide for their own security. Neoliberals are, nevertheless, challenged to demonstrate exactly how cooperation can best be achieved Constructivist remind observers that inter-national relations are a battle not just power, interests, and agenda setting but also of ideas. The importance of material economic gains and hegemony only have meaning in so far as they are ideas given to people and societies. Consequently, people and societies have power to seek positive or negative change for the future of globalization.(security dialogue:13)
From these theoretical approaches to international relations, it is possible to delineate between the risk and opportunities that globalization provides for security provision. Realism suggests that globalization will breed suspicion, vulnerability conflict because the more interdependent people and state become, the more insecure they will be(Waltz:1979)Realism also suggests that the content of globalization reflects the relative distribution of power and favours the dominant international actors.(Security dialogue 2004: Alternatively, neoliberal institutionalism proceeds from basic optimism that managing globalization requires multilateral cooperation and states will define their quest for power in terms of mutual gains. Constructivist help observers recall the importance of identity and reinforce the fact that, while states matter, so does culture.(Huntington)
These major theories of international relations share an emphasis on the role of power though each comes to different conclusions as to its meaning and consequences. Each analytical approach helps students, scholars, and policy makers to understand that the quest for power holds within it the potential for both security and insecurity, for both war and peace. Understanding the new means of excercing power via globalization is thus one of the most fundamental challenges for international relations theory today (Security Dialogue 2004:13)
However, the institutions of global governance play several roles in globalization. The United Nations organization is one of other institutions with several agencies. Therefore, since the United Nations comprises of several agencies. These agencies are not liable to the United Nation in terms of the cabinet or congress.. They are independent of their roles. They are divided into separate regions which include, The United Nations Programme and Office, United Nations Regional Commission, United Nations Specialised agencies, and the Related Organization.
However, the United Nations Programme and Office has the largest number of agencies in which few will be mentioned as well as the role they play in globalization. They are International Trade Center, United Nations ProgrammeHIV/AIDS,United Nations Children’s Fund, United Nations Development Fund for Women, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, United Nations Institute for Training and Research, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, United Nations Office for Project Services, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine, just to mention a few.(United Nations today 2008:12)
The United Nations Development Fund for women is an organization fighting for women rights in all perspective. It protest against “discrimination, violence, gender inequality” and propose women right to “inheritance, work, voice “etc. Its main role includes “ending violence against women” which is a situation to prevent women from being molested, rape, or beaten up as well as “trafficked across borders”. In achieving this they “work across multiple levels and sectors as well as including men as partners in enhancing community ownership”. The agency is also trying to eradicate the spread of HIV/AIDS among women, in collaboration with the National AIDS Council and Ministries which “ensures women access to drugs in order to continue to live healthy.”(United Nations Development Funds: 1-5)
The United Nations Children’s Funds is an organization mainly for children globally. This agency ensures that the well being of children are put to check. Its role basically is to prevent a child from “violence, discrimination, poverty, diseases” and so on. In achieving their aim they work in collaboration with other agencies like the Global Movement for Children which is “dedicated to improving the life of every child” as well as promoting education, equal right for children, and prevent the spread of disease.(United Nation Children Funds 2008:1)
In the United Nations High commission for Refugee, which is a global organization that has its headquarters in continents like Africa, Asia, Europe, America etc. It ensures that the well being of individual are protected locally and internationally. They include the refugees, men, women, older people, asylum seekers etc. As part of their role they raise funds from different organization like the None Governmental organization, Private sectors, Individual Citizens, and also in collaboration with the United Nations for certain amount of humanitarian funding. This helps in terms of achieving their goals. They respond to emergency worldwide where there exists internal war, earthquakes etc. They also see to the right of asylum seekers are observed and not overlooked.(United Nations High commission for Refugee 2001-2009)
The United Nations population Fund is an organization that ensure the well being as well the rights of individual are protected. Her role involves alleviation of global poverty, prevention of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, equal opportunity among citizens of the country, and healthy living. They also ensure abortion is put to stop and save every birth. They also assist countries in the collection of data and population analysis which enable government of a country to take account of the need of future generations, as well as the present. Ensure gender equality among both sex in which women has a major role in which involves good education and health. This enables families, communities as well as the countries benefits from. (United Nations Population Funds: 2008)
The United Nations Development Programmes is a global agency under the United Nations. They assist citizens of different countries in building a better life. They also help to “build and share solution to the challenge of democratic governance” for instance on the 17th of November 2009 they supported the government of Bangladesh “to sustain and build on the achievements of the last decade and to remain on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, also eradication of poverty, and preventing crisis recovery as well as HIV/AIDS.(UNDP)
World food Programme is a global organization whose role involve “fighting against hunger world wide”, “saving the lives of victims at war, civil conflicts” and “natural disasters. It is a voluntary funded organization and also part of the United Nations. They also work in collaboration with the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development as well as Non Governmental Organization. Their main aim is to “save lives and protect livelihood in emergencies”, prepare for emergency, restore and rebuild lives, reduce hunger as well as to strengthen the capacity of countries to reduce hunger (World Food Programme: 2009)
Another group of agencies under the United Nation is the specialised agencies, which includes, the international Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, International Maritime Organization, United Nations Educational ,Scientific and cultural Organization, World Health organization, International Telecommunication Union, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Tourism Organization, among others.
The International Labour Organization “promote right to work, “encourage decent employment opportunities”, “enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue in handling work related issues” The organization helps in the “creation of decent jobs”. It is a global body responsible for “drawing up and overseeing international labour standards as well as working with its member state which includes: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bah ran, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Chad, Columbia, the Congo, Ghana, Greece, Lebanon, Kuwait, Liberia, just to mention a few. To the International Labour Organization Poverty eradication is by ensuring that employment is available to all. (International Labour Organization: 1996-2009)
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural organization is designed to “promote international cooperation among its member states and six associates members in the field of education, science, culture and communication. Its role is to ensure and observe human rights, “mutual respect” as well as “poverty eradication” (UNESCO: 1995-2009).
The international telecommunication Union is an “information and “communication organization where both the governments and the private sectors enhance networks and services. Its role has been “global use of the radio spectrum, “promotion of international cooperation in assigning satellite orbit”. It address the issue of “global challenges” which is the “climate change” as well as “enhancing cyber security” This agency organise “worldwide, regional exhibition and forums”, such as the “International Telecommunication World”, as well as linking together “representatives of governments” and the “telecommunications” including” “international telecommunication Industry” to have exchange of “ideas, knowledge, and technology for the benefit of the global community and in particular the developing world” (ITU: 2009)
The related organizations include, International Atomic Energy Agency, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Preparatory committee for the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization, and World Trade Organization.
The International Atomic Energy Agency is a world’s atomic peace organization. They are in collaboration with their member states as well as other partners globally in order to ensure safety, security, and peaceful nuclear technology. It is an independent international organization related to the United Nations system. These relationships are regulated by special agreement. Their role is to ensure that “safe nuclear materials and activities are not used for military purpose. As part of its role, it helps countries in enhancing nuclear safety and security and to prepare for and respond to emergency as well as “mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology” (IAEA 2003-2009)
The organization in charge of prohibition of chemical weapon is body responsible for carrying out chemical weapons convention. It has been given the task to achieving its objectives. This is to making sure that the provision and that of international verification is carried out. The destruction of chemical weapons is seen as the convention’s highest budget. The proceeds from the state-of-art technology is its major source income in destroying chemical weapons and minimizing the risk of people and the environment at every level and that of transportation and supply of ammunitions.States protect their citizens because of these dreadful and dangerous weapons. They now concentrate on the practical use of chemical weapons for peaceful and capacity buildings. Program funded by member state is also given aid in order for the organization to improve the implementation of chemical weapons to all for peaceful purpose and restricting its prohibition. (OPWC)
The United Nations main role is to ensure that the well being of the people are under control. Also to prevent wars among states, and the need of people are met globally especially in the underdeveloped world . As in the argument in John Baylis and Steve Smith (2001:332). Poverty is seen as a global issue not just in the underdeveloped world. As in the argument of Ruth Lister (2004:1) “deep poverty is not just a phenomenon of the global ‘South’ but exists also within the affluent ‘North’. Therefore, another major aspect in this essay is the role of United Nations as an institution of global governance and the impact of globalization to reduce rural poverty?
The Millennium Declaration summit of which 191 countries are members, made rural poverty reduction as their main objective to be met by the year 2015.The ‘Secretary General of this Summit lay ’emphasis’ on globalization as the tool that will be used in order to meet the need of the poor.(United Nation :2001).Therefore, in achieving their aim the role of the United Nations as well as other agencies are of great importance. Suggestions in admitting other agencies were acknowledge and approved by the ACC in October 2001.which was ‘formulated’ by the United Nations Development Group. Among these agencies are the UNFPA, United Nation Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) World Health Organization (WHO), UNCDP, UNESCO, just to mention a few. As in the argument of the (United Nations: 2001).
Furthermore, it is argued that United Nations Programme in addressing the issue of poverty reduction is a challenging issue. Agencies mentioned above had roles to play in one way or the other. Though, some role could be of major benefit than the other. As the suggestion made by the Millennium Declaration Goals that globalization is a means or “tool” in fighting against rural poverty is to be met therefore, globalization “based good and services”, “financial” “economic”, “social ” as well as “global public goods ” should be seen as benefits in the “rural poor through “enhanced governance system .(United Nations 2001:10)
Moreover, the United Nations major role as an impact of globalization in poverty reduction is argued to be guided in three different levels. These levels includes: the “international”, regional” and the “local level. They are said to be in cooperation with one and the other. It is further argued that each of this level has important role to play in actualizing the aim of the programme, which is the coming together of the United Nations, the “Private and public sectors the civil society as well as the poverty group”(United Nations:
Some of the plans established in accelerating globalization/poverty reduction will focus on improve Governance correlating with PRSPs and UNDAF; an institution to reform and liberalize market programmes for the welfare and protection of the poor. Linked programme for a national ICTD with greater focus on satisfying issues and bringing together the rural and urban. Exporting of crops in the rural area by enhancing its information system. Establish a procedure that will add value in rural production. United Nations:
Among the programmes set up for local poverty reduction are the local awareness programme on availability of goods and services for rural poverty reduction. Establishment of interest point for the community, aid for local governance and splitting into various offices to attend to different poverty groups to global public goods- health, education etc.The quickening of Information Communication Development Technology (ICTD) for various poverty groups will create awareness and tools for information sharing device tools, improve agricultural tools and move to improve productivity akin to socially sensitive local globalization /poverty reduction programme.(United Nations:
The procedure of UN system in dealing with globalization and alleviation of poverty at all levels is on ground and can be used to determine the strategy for the new globalization/poverty alleviation model. The procedures considered range from providing an avenue for debate and discussion that include the intergovernmental processes, expert group meetings; open debate, meetings prepared for major global summits (prepcoms) and various events like the joint session with the G-77, South-South forum. These are primarily arranged through the UN secretariat (especially UNDESA), funds and programme (especially UNDP) and a special agency (especially World Bank Group) which is part of their activities and provide the most important contribution of the UN system to views and approaches emerging. The extent of debate at which globalization rural poverty reduction is discussed varies and depends on the nature of the division and agency.(United Nations:
The UN pays little attention to particular issues on globalization as a factor in rural poverty reduction despite the much discussion on globalization. Another branch is the research studies, statistics and seminars in different publications. The UN provides an enormous technical studies and relevant statistics to almost all the branches of globalization- poverty reduction debate. With the exception of examples given below- the mission of rural poverty alleviation is almost neglected. Other worth mentioning body in this regard are the UN research system and Training Institute that include INSTRAW (rural women and globalization); UNITAR (Globalization issues on how UN system will cope); UNRISD (social impact of globalization) have all produced much important studies to the globalization/poverty reduction debate.
Nevertheless, defining the cause in stance on globalization and rural poverty reduction has been defeated by the UN plan with the exception of the World Bank, UNCTAD and UNDP- but still focus on the wider globalization agenda. This view however, is of significant to developing an assiduous approach and adopting a more socially, acceptable and human form of globalization that will build specific provisions for the nations exempted through different mechanisms such as the WTO, trade negotiations, finance for development, PRSPs etc.
Field level operation of Funds, Progarammes and Specialized Agencies. These have many parts covering many forms of intervention that can always target poverty alleviation. The traditional areas include: Country project activities to yield capacity building, Seminars, Workshops Fellowship Infrastructural development
The implementation of an organized approach to globalization/poverty alleviation is the UN system policy in the field under the UNDAF system. The World Bank via the PRSPs is helping to coordinate the UN system in the field.
Finally, globalization as it is defined is a wide and vast phenomenon that has so much to do and achieve. Considering its characteristics and its functions, it has in one many ways achieve enormously. Moreover, in terms of how the international relations theory and globalization
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