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In terms of biosocial theory people can have behaviors that are both biological and social that are developed by or through a learned process or there environmental motivations. Although, I am no expert in the field, I believe it is true to have both aspects of biological and social learning behaviors; which is the case exampled here with Jeffrey Dahmer. The crimes of Jeffrey Dahmer made the world cringe. Seventeen murders, cannibalism, sex with the dead, a man who made his Milwaukee apartment into a violent and erotic death chamber. Dahmer even tried to create living sex zombies by injecting acid into their brains. Jeffrey Dahmer it seemed was as close to raw evil as the world had ever known.
The first child of Joyce and Lionel Dahmer was born in Milwaukee Wisconsin on May 21, 1960, just before their first anniversary. His name was Jeffrey," it was a very happy time when Jeff was first born and for a couple of months it was as if everything was brand new and very, very enjoyable and happy "(A father's Story). While Jeff's father pursued his Chemistry degree Jeff grew into a bright and loving child. "He was very exuberant, liked to wrestle, would run around and ham it up for the camera and he liked to play with other kids and outgoing" (A father's Story). Jeff was also an extremely curious child who was very in tune with what was around him and always wanted to know what was going on. He had a fascination with animals as a youngster, once four year old Jeff watched his father collect the bones of small animals that had died under the house.
Lionel finished his schooling with a PHD in Chemistry. The family moved to Ohio relocating three times before settling down on a nearly two acre wooded lot in the town of Bath, an hour's drive south of Cleveland. It was then that Lionel began to notice the previous expressive Jeff had become shy and withdrawn. He seemed to be awkward socially and just didn't seem to feel comfortable. To take his mind off the move seven year old Jeff was given a dog, Frisky, who he loved dearly. With people that he knew, his new pet, or the next door neighbor boy he was very relaxed, but there was a shyness and feelings of inferiority that did concern his parents at that time. What the Dahmer's thought their son needed was to feel more involved so they let Jeff choose the name of their second son, Jeff named his brother David. Lionel also encouraged his son to participate in activities that would include contact with other kids. What they thought was that any involvement would lead to human involvement, a forced almost interaction. And on the weekends father and son planted gardens and raised sheep for competitions in 4-H fairs. To commemorate their gardening days young Jeff gave his father a handmade card; it had a picture of his father eating an ear of corn and a poem:
"The squash and the pumpkins can never compare
to the kind of Dad who has curly hair.
This poem is from Jeff and I love you to death." (A father's Story)
When Jeff was ten his mother was hospitalized and treated for anxiety, from there, his parents' marriage began to fail.
Jeff's fascination with nature and small animals continued into his teenage years, when he became curious about what they looked like on the inside, for specimens he collected road kill. Riding around the country roads in Bath carrying garbage bags Jeff searched for carcasses. Jeff brought the road kill he found into the back yard of the house and there in the secrecy of the woods he dissected the animals. His father believes this was a sort of starting point for a downward spiral in Jeff's life and was associated with his puberty. (A father's Story)
Teenage Jeff was discovering that he felt sexually attracted only to men, but the thoughts of sex with men became interlocked with fantasies of killing another man and dismemberment. The fantasies excited him, but they were unspeakable. Around age fourteen or fifteen he began to have obsessive thoughts of violence intermingled with sex and it just got worse and worse. He didn't know how to tell anyone about it so he did not. The fantasies included lying next to an unconscious man, for the first time Jeff's fantasies crossed the line from his mind into action. He devised a plan; he would knock out a local jogger with a bat and lye next to him. On the day he opted to wait for his victim the jogger did not run by. He never attempted the clubbing a second time.
As he entered High School his sexual fantasies traumatized him, to escape he began drinking. On the way to classes in the morning he would fill up a cup with hard liquor at a friend's house. At home Jeff was watching his parent's marriage dissolve. When their arguing escalated to open fighting, he retreated to the forested back yard slapping tree trunks with a stick.
He remained distant with few interests and no close friendships, but he still seemed to have a since of humor. On the High School tennis team Jeff spent most of his time goofing around rather than playing a serious game, but more often than not the jokes were at Jeff's expense. He gained a reputation as the class clown, acting out in a bazaar or unexpected manner became known at his school as "doing a Dahmer". At one point Jeff collected money from classmates in exchange for a show at the local mall. This show consisted of him taking sunflower seeds from a sample vendor and filling his mouth with them and then spits them out at her and yells "I'm allergic, I'm allergic!" and then runs off through the mall. During his junior year Jeff went along on a school sponsored trip to Washington D.C. Jeff suggested that they all go see the Vice President while in Washington and the students and sponsor teacher laughed in disbelief that it could ever happen. Jeff then went to a pay phone and when he returned he announced that they would be seen in the office of the Vice President Walter Mondale in two hours. His slick talking worked; Dahmer had gotten his classmates inside the executive office building to meet with Mondale.
In the classroom Jeff was somewhat of a model student, very polite to adults, dressed very nice, very respectful to teachers, did his work and could have been an 'A' student if he wanted to and other times he would fail a class because he had no interest. He could be over polite with very good manners, Yes Sir, No Sir, when he spoke with teachers. Jeff was perfecting his ability to fool authority figures, but as time went on Jeff became less interested in his performance at school.
No one really knew what was going on in his mind; he didn't open up to anybody, no close friends, and had really slipped away from his social life the older he got in High School. At the school near Bath Ohio Jeffrey remained an alcoholic outcast. His behavior was the subject of criticism from other students. Jeff did not connect or engage with people and if you don't engage with people then you end up internalizing a lot and fantasize; the next step is acting these fantasies out. (A father's Story) A step Jeff was ready to make, he would kill his first victim just after High School Graduation.
For Jeffrey Dahmer the summer of 1978 started with High School Graduation, it would be downhill from there. His parents after years of open and bitter fighting became divorced. Jeffrey's father Lionel moved out of the house in Bath Ohio and into a nearby Motel. Unknown to Lionel, Jeff's mother took younger brother David and moved to Wisconsin and Jeffrey found himself home alone. He was eighteen and like most teens his age he had active sexual fantasies, but his deviated from the norm to include thoughts of killing his lover. Now, the isolation of the empty family home gave him the opportunity to act out those fantasies. Just weeks after graduation Jeff picked up a hitch hiker along the road, it was eighteen year old Steven Hicks. Jeffrey's nightmare had just become a reality. He took Steven back to the house they drank beers and spent a couple of hours just hanging out. Then Hicks said he had to go, but Jeffrey didn't want to be alone. He attacked Hicks knocking him out with a barbell and then he strangled him.
Dahmer had fulfilled his fantasy, but he was coherent enough to know that he had committed a murder and quickly began to hide the evidence. He immediately started dismembering Hicks body with a knife, a skill he had practiced as a young teen with road kill. He put the pieces into trash bags and loaded them into his car in the middle of the night. Jeff was heading for a dump site when he was pulled over by the police for drifting across the center line. The officers asked Jeff what was in the bags and why he was out so late. Jeff was trapped for the first time, but he was ready with a lie. He coolly told the cops he was troubled by his parents' divorce and couldn't sleep so he thought a trip to the dump would take his mind off of things. The police let him go with a ticket. Jeffrey returned home overcome with guilt from the murder. He stashed the bones of Steven Hicks under the house for two weeks then he smashed them to bits with a sledge hammer. Behind the house, Jeff spun in a circle tossing the fragments among the leaves and brush.
In August, Jeffrey's father stopped by the house and asked where his mother was. Lionel then found out that she was gone, gone to Wisconsin. Jeff's father moved back into the house he encouraged Jeff to get a job, but Jeff wasn't interested. He spent his days drinking, even getting himself arrested for public intoxication. Lionel took his son to Alcoholics Anonymous meetings and psychological counseling sessions; however, they had little impact. Nothing could erase the violence and terror his first murder had imprinted on his mind. Only the alcohol could provide relief. By the end of the summer Jeff was still jobless so his dad suggested an alternative, college. He enrolled Jeff at Ohio State, but Jeff spent the entire first semester in a drunken stupor, selling his blood to plasma centers and spending the money on beer. Predictably, Dahmer flunked out and returned home. Upon his return home his father did not welcome him with open arms and highly suggested the Military was his only option at this point. Like all the other choices that had been made for him, Jeff passively went along with his enlistment.
After his basic training was complete he left for an Army hospital in San Antonio Texas where he was given specialized instruction as a field medic. There Dahmer learned more about human anatomy. For one of the first times in his life he was excited about what he was doing, responding to instruction and discipline. After six months in the Army his sluggish body had become lean and strong. Normally shy and reclusive Jeff became outgoing again, even smiling. The mood swing was temporary the Army sent him for a tour of duty in Germany and there once again Jeff emptied bottle after bottle. His superiors noticed and gave Dahmer an early discharge.
He went directly to Miami Beach without contacting his family. Working in a sandwich shop and living out of a Motel. When his booze bills exceeded the room costs Jeff took to sleeping on the beach. He finally called home and explained he was terrified of being in the position he was in and needed money. Again, his dad did not meet his wishes and would only send him a ticket home to Ohio so he could get straightened back out. Lionel tried for a year to help his alcoholic son only to fail. Jeff was sent away to stay with his father's mother near Milwaulkee. There, he seemed to find some stability, at last, making a concentrated effort to turn his life around. He stopped drinking, went to church with his grandmother, and he fought what he believed to be immoral homosexual urges; which eventually lead to his inescapable fantasies about murder. Dahmer even found jobs, first at a blood bank, and then working nights as a chocolate mixer in a candy factory. But, the lifestyle of church going and right living as he called it didn't last. After three quiet years in his grandmother's home Jeff came face to face with his fears.
At the library someone handed him a note offering sexual favors. Dahmer declined, but he would later say that the note was a turning point; it awakened sexual desires deep inside him. Specifically, he wanted the submissive company of another male, he wanted someone to fulfill his sexual needs, but he did not want to be burdened by anyone else's needs. Jeffrey started with a perfectly submissive partner, he stone a store window manikin. The plastic man was kept in his closet and bringing it out to masturbate onto until his grandmother found it and insisted he get rid of it.
On his free nights Jeffrey began exploring gay life in Milwaukee, browsing through porn shops and going to bath houses. The bath clubs catered to men seeking anonymous sex. To make his partners there submissive Jeff gave them drinks laced with sleeping pills. When they fell unconscious he would lie down next to them listening to the sounds of their bodies, their heartbeats, their stomachs. But, the drugging experiments ended when one man overdosed and spent a week in the hospital. Jeff was asked never to return to the club. He then discovered the gay bars and discos of Milwaukee; these would become the killer's favorite hunting ground.
By his late twenties Jeffrey Dahmer was settled in Milwaukee, living at his grandmother's and prowling the city's gay scene. No one suspected that this reclusive loner with boyish good looks was on his way to becoming a psychopathic serial killer. Dahmer could fit in with any group and you wouldn't even think of him to be different or crazy, maybe a bit odd and socially awkward, but not a killer. Especially in the gay community of Milwaukee nobody felt him to be a threat and it is on record that he was deemed as somewhat of a "honey" at the gay clubs, people found him to be very attractive, and even told others he was the kind of guy you looked out for and took care of, the baby. This is why he was so successful because he was not a repulsive individual. He took pleasure in the fact that he was in control of his own little world, that nobody knew what was going on and that he was the master of it.
Dahmer had very specific requirements for his men; he liked long, lean, smooth, muscular, body style. It did not matter if they were white, black, yellow, red or brown if he found them attractive he would try to get them. In November 1987 Dahmer met twenty five year old Steve Tumee at a downtown club called 219. After a few drinks they left the bar for a night at the nearby Ambassador Hotel. Dahmer used an old trick to get Tumee into the submissive state he craved. Sleeping pills were placed in a drink that rendered Steve unconscious. Reportedly, Jeffrey's intentions were to just spend the night next to him. When he woke up his forearms were bruised, chest was bruised and blood dripped from Steve's mouth, Dahmer claims no memory of beating him to death, but knows he must have. Again, Dahmer did not panic; he went out and bought the biggest suitcase he could find. At the Hotel he crammed Tumiee's body into the case, dragged it into a taxi, went back to his grandmother's house and dismembered his body in the basement. This is when Dahmer's obsession went into full swing.
He decided after the second death that he would no longer try to control his desires that he would give full reign to them, yield entirely to them and after that his life became the pursuit of complete sexual pleasure. Dahmer now decided to pursue his fantasies of ultimate control. It was no longer enough to have his partners submissive just for a night; he wanted to keep them that way forever. So, with the intent to murder and then butcher the men he picked up Dahmer returned to the clubs.
At a bus stop outside 219 he met fourteen year old James Stocks Stayder (sp). Dahmer offered him fifty dollars to spend the night with him. They took the bus back to Dahmers grandmothers. While she slept the Jeff and the boy had oral sex. Then Dahmer drugged and strangled him, his preferred method for killing. Jeffrey still states he never really ever wanted to hurt anyone, as interesting as it may sound. That is the reason why he killed everyone by strangling them because not only did he get the power and the thrill of committing the murder, but it was also the most humane way. With the young boy Dahmer further explored his dark fantasies; he hid the body in the basement for a week and continued to have sex with it. Once James body began to decay, Dahmer dismembered him in the basement near a floor drain just as he had with Tumee.
Dahmer was now drinking heavily again especially on the nights he had planned to murder. By the time he would kill he would be stone drunk. He had to drink because his conscience was so strong. This was not a man who didn't know the difference between right and wrong.
Two months after killing James Dahmer picked up twenty one year old Richard Guererro from a Milwaukie bar, again offering him money to spend the night. In a familiar pattern Dahmer drugged him and strangled him. He spent a few hours with the corpse before dismembering it. He then placed the body parts into trash bags for the city garbage collection the next day.
In the summer of 1988 Jeff's grandmother asked him to move out. She was troubled by his late hours, the manikin in his bedroom and now unidentified fowl spells from the basement. He took an apartment on Milwaukie's west side and immediately accelerated his downward spiral when he approached a thirteen year old boy on the street in lured him into the apartment. Inside Dahmer scared the boy by fondling him and the young boy ran from the apartment. Dahmer was convicted of second degree sexual assault charges only. The murders were still only his secret. He was sentenced to one year in a work release program that required him to spend his nights in a prison dormitory while he continued working at the chocolate factory. In the ten days before he began his sentence Dahmer struck again. Jeffrey met twenty six year old Anthony Sears at the gay club Lacage (sp) and killed him. He mummified Sears head and genitals and kept them inside his locker at the chocolate factory. Towards the end of the work release sentence Jeff's father wrote to the judge and urged him to put his son in an alcohol treatment program writing: "I have tremendous reservations regarding Jeff's chances when he hits the streets." (A Father's Story) No program was ordered and Jeff was released two months later.
At this time he moved into another low income neighborhood in Milwaukie. The rent at the Oxford apartments was cheap and the location was close to the gay clubs. On his own again he was free to feed his relentless sexual urges. Within three weeks of his release Dahmer began a one year killing frenzy. He would leave thirteen more families most of them African American searching for loved ones who had simply disappeared. The police too searched in vain.
Once Jeffrey started in his killing spree all of his time, all of his money, and all of his resources, desires, emotions, and thoughts went into his secret world of killing people and keeping them with him. Many times he has talked about trying to fight it even after he had killed a couple of people. Dahmer pleaded with himself that he wasn't going to do it again. Within a month he would be right back out at the bars stalking his prey.
One victim almost got away. Dahmer had drugged fourteen year old Conerach Synthsiphone (sp), the brother of the boy Jeff had been arrested for molesting a year before. As he slept Dahmer went out to buy more alcohol, but while he was gone the teen woke up. He staggered out into the street naked. A concerned neighbor called 911. Police arrived and by this time Dahmer had returned from his beer run. As he had with police in Bath Ohio after his first killing Jeffrey smoothly lied, he told police that the young man was his gay lover who simply had too much to drink. He brought the cops into his apartment and showed them Polaroid's he had taken of the teen, proof he said of their relationship. The police believed that the fourteen year old was of legal age and left him behind with Dahmer. They wrote the incident off as a lover's quarrel. Again, Dahmer had been slippery enough to keep his killings a secret. As soon as the cops left he murdered the boy.
Inside Jeffrey Dahmer's apartment the bodies began to pile up. So, he bought a fifty seven gallon drum and he filled it up with powerful acid to dissolve the dismembered limbs and torsos. After weeks in the acid the remains of Dahmer's would be lovers became sludge he flushed down the toilet or the bathtub drain. For others Jeffrey boiled the skin off their bones on the stove. A sweet bitter odor of death began to infest the building and many tenants traced the smells straight to Dahmer's door.
Dahmer was pathologically lonesome not wanting sexual partners to leave him even after death. He took keep sake photos while removing their flesh and then preserved certain parts. Most serial killers are sexual deviates who are biologically, socially and psychologically sociopaths and they take paths that kill people for their own sexual gratification. Dahmer's was different than that in that he was a true necrophiliac trying to have sex with an unconscious or dead person. It took more and more deviant behavior to satisfy Jeffrey Dahmer's urges. He devised a plan to build a shrine out of skeletons and skulls.
Dahmer through all of this was still in search of the perfect partner; a partner who was completely submissive but alive and not prone to decay. On a few still living victims Jeff used a power drill to open small holes in their skulls, then he injected acid into their brains and none of these experimental zombies lived longer than one day. And in perhaps the ultimate effort to keep his victims with him he began eating their flesh. It made it feel to him that they were a permanent part of him and gave him a sexual satisfaction.
Throughout this ruthless year of killing Dahmer still appeared outwardly normal. With family video documentation it is amazing how he can sit there and appear clean cut, nice clothes, and talking very coherently like he is a normal guy. He was always hopeful about his job and telling everyone how happy he was. It is amazing how another human being can hide such gruesome reality from another human being. But, careful as he was Jeffrey Dahmer was about to run out of good lies.
In July 1991 the City of Milwaukie discovered a serial killer; thirty one year old Jeffrey Dahmer. One man, Tracy Edwards, had managed to escape from the horrors of Dahmer's apartment and flagged down a passing patrol car. When the officers entered the apartment they found eighty three Polaroid's of bodies in various stages of dismemberment. There were more shocking discoveries in the kitchen; there were four fully in fleshed skulls still in the refrigerator. One of the officers said he opened the ice box and heard a scream, he later realized it was he himself who let out that scream in horror of what he was seeing. T.V. news camaras rolled as what was left of the victims was rolled out of the apartment. The fifty seven gallon drum filled with the torsos of three men, a freezer with dismembered limbs and flesh, metal cooking pots with mummified hands and genitals. This time there was no lie Dahmer could tell to save himself.
When arrested Jeffrey Dahmer walked with the demeanor of a defeated man, almost annoyingly like a whining boy. At the police station the detectives began a marathon interview with a suspected killer. Dahmer had first blamed the booze instead of himself, actually stating that he wouldn't have been caught had he not been so drunk, but Jeffrey was now clearly scared. After several hours and the alcohol began to leave his system the terror was clear in Dahmer as throughout the interview the more sober he got the more he realized the gig was up. He was caught and he even cried at several points during the interrogation. He went into a mini rage for a moment and threatened to kill himself and then pouted like a young child. Completely sobered up no one could guess at the gruesome details to follow. Jeffrey Dahmer stated to the investigators: "When I tell you what I am going to tell you, you are going to be famous." (â€¦) Dahmer then spent the next six weeks with detectives recounting the murders of seventeen men, a one hundred fifty nine page confession. It seemed cathartic for Dahmer to get the deeds of the last thirteen years off his chest.
With the information from his confession investigators went back to Jeffrey Dahmer's childhood home in Bath Ohio. They raked up the shattered bones of Steven Hicks, Jeff's first victim. The Milwaukee County Coroner started matching skulls with torsos and the police began the sad task of notifying families.
Jeffrey Dahmer pleaded guilty, but insane. The issue of his sanity would be the sole question before the Jury and the world. Jeffrey himself could not answer why he enjoyed fantasizing about murder and what he did. Jeffrey thought he was the devil. He knew there was something wrong with him but he did not know what it was. However, Dahmer never categorized himself as insane in speaking. The man who walked into the Milwaukee court room in January 1992 appeared completely normal until the words of his confession were read in court. Dahmer's father Lionel sat in the court room beside his second wife Sherry stunned by what he heard. Jeffrey's crimes seemed to be devastating proof of insanity, what else would ever explain a man who had drugged, murdered, had sex with the dead then dismembered, preserved and ate the flesh of seventeen bodies all for sexual gratification.
The law has a very strict interpretation of insanity. Dahmer's defense team had to prove two things one that he indeed suffered from a mental disease and that it kept him from knowing right from wrong. Necrophilia, a compulsion to have sex with the dead is recognized as a sexual disorder, but it does not make one legally insane. The jury did find Dahmer legally sane and before sentencing Jeffrey was allowed to speak for the first time to the families of his victims. Many felt that there was no emotion and questioned if Jeffrey Dahmer had the capability to feel remorse or feelings since he so casually hunted and killed time and time again. The judge sentenced Dahmer to nine hundred and thirty seven year prison sentence, but it would last only a few tormented years.
Jeffrey Dahmer's final home was the Columbia Correctional Institution located in Portage Wisconsin. His former residents at the Oxford Apartments stood as a painful reminder of the lives that ended there. In November 1992 it was demolished. In his prison cell at the age of thirty two Dahmer's life became a conflicted self-examination trying to sort out the blame for his killing nature and seeking Devine forgiveness for it. He had spent time in church as a boy and with his grandmother as an adult, but had lost his religion during the murder spree. Jeffrey Dahmer tried to place the blame on his Atheistic beliefs and the theory of evolution. He believed that if it all happened naturalistically what's the need for a God, therefore, couldn't he set his own rules. Dahmer expressed he was his own person and controlled himself. However, Jeffrey was still a contradiction for he was always quite willing to blame the devil for taking over his soul. The serial killer wondered now what would happen to him when he died. He quickly decided he wanted to be baptized, a reverend came and met with Jeff and reported that on the times that he spoke with him it was as if he was talking to a kid inside a man's body with the ways he would speak and act about things, such as, saying "cool" or "neato" to describe excitement. Jeffrey was eventually baptized in the prison medical facility in the whirlpool.
Dahmer appeared to be making a remarkable transformation in prison. It seemed he was reaching out to others and re-humanizing, but those dark, haunting fantasies were still with Dahmer. Jeffrey Dahmer had spent his entire life as the predator and now in prison he became the prey. The notorious serial killer was a target for other inmates. In August 1994 he was attacked in the prison chapel with a crudely fashioned knife, he survived. But, on November 29, 1994 inmate Christopher Scarver (sp) who called himself "Christ" bludgeoned Dahmer with a metal rod from the prison gym. Jeffrey Dahmer died on the way to the hospital.
The horrible questions that his life of killing posed do continue and they defy answers. It is a mystery of mysteries that will probably never be solved even if he had lived. It's hard when there is no explanation, sure there were red flags in Jeff's life but no one knew about them because he was so secretive and so careful.
When researching the family it becomes clearer that the biosocial model has some validity in the Dahmer psychology. His maternal grandfather was also an alcoholic. This disease, alcoholism is known to pass down from generation to generation through genes. (..) There is no link to if the alcohol caused his murderous spree, or if he drank because he knew he was evil. (Winfree, Thomas L and Abadinsky Howard) Jeff's father was also withdrawn, cold, unemotional, and passive, these are all his words. He was under his mother's watchful eye and control at all times and therefore never really had the environment to express any possible evil from within. Had this not been his father's environment the story may be different.
In his father's book Lionel is dismissive about his failure to see what he thought was in front of his eyes, the seriousness of Jeff's problems, his social departure, his teenage alcoholism, no interests, no music, no girlfriends, no friends, no sports, a disaster at all he attempted. Kicked out of school for alcohol difficulties and never going to any classes, and expelled after one term in College. Discharged early from the Army where he seemed to feel the best in the beginning. Then he goes on to verify what was predicted about his environment throughout his life.
"Even more telling was my mother's tendency to finish things for me. I would start some task, working slowly through it, as I always did, and suddenly my mother would appear, and in a few quick strokes, either of mind or hand, she would finish it for me. Even though done in a helpful, loving manner, it was a gesture that powerfully reinforced my sense of myself as slow and inept [and fostered and infuriating sense of weakness and inferiority" (A Father's Story)
Lionel also admits to having similar fantasies as his son only never acting on the impulse or urges, but never stating if he had the chance to. With this information you can't find why Jeffrey's father would send him away to this same environment at his grandmother's when he abandons him after spending time trying to control him as his mother controlled him.
Jeffrey's environment definitely, as evidenced, affected his personality traits and ultimately without certain environments, such as military, school, or constant home family interaction, that maintained a routine and constant supervision allowed for his mental illness and urges to surface without a check and balance system. Although, I am not an expert in the biosocial theory, it is clear that Jeffrey Dahmer may fit perfectly within this theory. The theory in behavioral and social science that reduces personality disorders and mental illnesses as well as disabilities to be biologically determined personality traits simply reacting to their environmental motivations.