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SUSTAINABLE FUELS LIKE BIOFUELS
University of Toronto – Institute of Aerospace Studies, Toronto, Ontario
I have studied different ways to generate Sustainable fuels like Biofuels. My focus is whether Biofuels can help the future of Aviation industry as a fuel source of energy, is it easy to produce in environmental without damaging it. What are the ways of generating Biofuels. Whether any country is focusing to produce Biofuels in abundant quantity and difficulties faced by them. Following selected papers have been selected to start my work but will not be limited to find various answers throughout the project and can be added when required.
In recent years, it has been seen drastic change in Climate, Natural resources got reduced, and fossil fuels are in the situation of extinction in near future which triggered scientist and researchers to find an alternative source of energy. They came up with an idea of Biofuel which is generated from the waste of trees, sewage, grass, etc. popularly known by Biomass. Biomass is available in abundant quantity in the world as well as cheaper in cost. In this paper, it shows how to produce Biofuel from Biomass for safer world.
This paper talks about the development of aviation biofuels. Aviation biofuel has been tested in various test flights which shows positive result but will take time for commercialized. The constrains which were discussed in interviews with “leading global aviation biofuel stakeholders between October and December 2011” are costly production, feedstocks limitation and lack of policy for aviation biofuel throughout the world having rules and regulation at different countries. Paper discussed how to apply these problems for future development of global market for aviation biofuel.
This paper talks about Biofuels as a transport alternative fuel in Australia because it the 2nd largest about 24% of total energy consumption.Â This large amount of energy demand can be meet with biofuels. It shows different biofuels sources available in Australia which can be produced and used by thinking of future projects.Â In future, how to develop biofuel supply chain from different generations of biofuel.
This paper deals with the implementation of Biofuels in India as a substitute of fossil fuels and target to use biodiesel and bioethanol for the substitution of 20% fossil fuels by 2017. Also, it shows implications for land use, food production in India.
It talks about the use of many algae species to produce biofuels. It also talks about the issue of sustainability of commercial-scale microalgae to produce biofuels with the requirement of environmental conditions.
This paper talks about the advantage of algae over first and second generation biomass feedstocks to produce biofuels. It shows the scope and possibilities of Algal biorefineries and how the future of biofuels will be developed using algae.
In various ways algae is used to produce Biofuels but did anyone wonder whether the production is possible to meet our requirement. In this paper, the author talks about the limitations to commercialization of algae fuels should be learned and addressed for future commercialization.
It is notable that when another source of energy like solar, wind and biofuels usage increases concerns over environmental issues mostly in land use which effects on wildlife. In this paper, it talks about the several uncertainties and limitations to establishing energy production at airports, how to overcome these challenges.
In current situation, microalgae used for energy production seem not to be economically feasible. When microalgae cultivated under stress condition produces high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates has been discussed here.
The extraction of oil consists of various steps which require energy, the cost of biodiesel from microalgae cost more compared to plant oil. Here sustainable approach for utilization as well as emerging cost effective methods has been discussed.
S. Chakraborty, V. Aggarwal, D. Mukherjee and K. Andras, “Biomass to biofuel: a review on production technology,” ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. S254-S262, 2012.
P. K. Gegg, L. C. Budd and S. G. Ison, “The market development of avaition biofuel: drivers and constraints,” Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 39, pp. 34-40, 2014.
A. K. Azad, M. Rasul, M. Khan, S. C. Sharma and M. Hazrat, “Prospect of biofuel as an alternative transport fuel in Australia,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 43, pp. 331-351, March 2015.
N. Ravindranath, C. S. Lakshmi, R. Manuvie and P. Balachandra, “Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environmnet in India,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 5737-5745, October 2011.
M. A. Borowitzka and N. R. Moheimani, “Sustainable biofuels from algae,” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 13-25, January 2013.
J. Singh and S. Gu, “Commercialization potential of microalgae for biofuels production,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2596-2610, 2010.
Y. Chisti, “Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 201-214, September 2013.
T. L. DeVault, J. L. Belant, B. F. Blackwell, J. A. Martin, J. A. Schmidt, L. W. Burger Jr and J. W. Patterson Jr, “Airports offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production,” Environmental Management, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 517-522, March 2012.
G. Markou and E. Nerantzis, “Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: A review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1532-1542, December 2013.
B. Singh, A. Guldhe, I. Rawat and F. Bux, “Towards a sustainable approach for development of biodiesel from plant and microalgae,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 29, pp. 216-245, January 2014.
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