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Automatic Irrigation Robot with Automatic Water Sprinkler System

4016 words (16 pages) Essay in Engineering

18/05/20 Engineering Reference this

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  1. ABSTRACT-

The project is designed to increase an automated irrigation gadget which switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content material of the soil. In the sector of agriculture, use of proper technique of irrigation is vital. The benefit of the usage of this technique is to lessen human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation. The assignment uses an 8051 collection microcontroller which is programmed to get hold of the enter sign of various moisture circumstance of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This is executed by way of the use of an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the microcontroller. Once the controller gets this sign, it generates an output that drives a relay for running the water pump. An LCD show is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display repute of the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made through the use of two stiff steel rods inserted into the field at a distance. Connections from the metal rods are interfaced to the manipulate unit.  In the fast paced world people require everything to be automatic. Our existence fashion demands everything to be faraway controlled. Apart from few things man has made his life computerized. In the world of increase electronics, lifestyles of people ought to be less complicated. Hence to make life easier and convenient, we have made “AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION ROBOT WITH AUTOMATIC WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEM”. A version of controlling irrigation centers to assist hundreds of thousands of people.

2.Overview

This model uses sensing arrangement era with microcontroller to make a smart switching device. The continuous increasing call for of meals calls for the rapid development in food manufacturing generation. In a country like India, where in the economic system is particularly based totally on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, nevertheless we aren’t able to make full use of agricultural assets. The principal purpose is the shortage of rains & shortage of land reservoir water. Irrigation has usually been an ancient exercise which has evolved through so many ranges through the years. Our ancestral farmers in a bid to irrigate their farm looked for numerous methodologies. Manual irrigation the use of buckets and watering cans, flood irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation have been and are still being used today. The current machine has numerous boundaries; leaching off of soil vitamins, erosion due to flooding, lack of water from plant surfaces via evaporation, water wastage that may result to water scarcity in drought areas and manufacturing of bad plants. This problem can be rectified if we use microcontroller based automatic irrigation device in which the irrigation will take place most effective whilst there could be acute requirement of water. The project is designed to develop an automatic irrigation machine which switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content material of the soil. In the field of agriculture, use of proper approach of irrigation is essential. The gain of the use of this method is to reduce human intervention and never ensure proper irrigation. The assignment makes use of an 8051 collection microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture circumstance of the soil via the sensing association. This is executed through using an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface among the sensing association and the microcontroller. Once the controller gets this signal, it generates an output that drives a relay for working the water pump. An LCD show is likewise interfaced to the microcontroller to show popularity of the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made with the aid of using  stiff metal rods inserted into the sector at a distance. Connections from the metal rods are interfaced to the manipulate unit. In the quick paced global humans require the whole lot to be automatic. Our existence style needs everything to be faraway controlled. Apart from few matters man has made his life automatic. In the sector of develop electronics, life of humans have to be simpler. Hence to make life easier and convenient, we have made “AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM”. A model of controlling irrigation facilities to assist tens of millions of people. This model makes use of sensing arrangement generation with microcontroller to make a clever switching tool. The non-stop increasing demand of meals requires the fast development in food production generation. In a country like India, in which the financial system is mainly based totally on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, still we aren’t capable of make full use of agricultural resources. The fundamental purpose is the dearth of rains & shortage of land reservoir water. Irrigation has constantly been an historic practice which has advanced through so many stages over the years. Our ancestral farmers in a bid to irrigate their farm looked for numerous methodologies. Manual irrigation the use of buckets and watering cans, flood irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation have been and are nevertheless being used today. The current system has numerous boundaries; leaching off of soil nutrients, erosion because of flooding, loss of water from plant surfaces via evaporation, water wastage that may result to water shortage in drought regions and manufacturing of dangerous crops. This hassle may be rectified if we use microcontroller based automatic irrigation machine wherein the irrigation will take area most effective whilst there might be acute requirement of water. Automation of irrigation gadget refers back to the operation of the machine with out a or minimum guide interventions. Irrigation automation is justified in which a large irrigated area is divided into Small segments known as irrigation blocks and segments are irrigated in collection to fit the release to be had from the water supply. In this regard, the works that we’ve got surveyed describe the unique forms of computerized irrigation techniques, how they in reality have served the purpose and the primary difference among our venture and those literatures that we’ve contemplated. On this detail, the prevailing works “Applied engineering in agriculture, “Data acquisition gadget and irrigation controller  and “Automation in Micro-Irrigation, employs subsurface drip irrigation the use of  drip tapes and are time based structures wherein irrigation time clock controllers, or timers, are an fundamental part of an automated irrigation machine. A timer is an important device to use water inside the necessary quantity at the proper time. Timers can lead to below or over-irrigation if they’re not efficaciously programmed or the water quantity is calculated incorrectly. Time of operation is calculated in line with volume of water required and the common waft charge of water a timer starts offevolved and stops the irrigation system. It routinely schedules irrigation at random events via the usage of timers in which within the automation for the device and presentations have been not applied. The papers titled ” Feedback Control for Surface Irrigation Management  and “Control and Automation in Citrus Micro-irrigation Systems, employs open loop structures in which the operator makes the decision on the quantity of water to be applied and the timing of the irrigation event. The controller is programmed correspondingly and the water is implemented consistent with the favored schedule. Open loop manipulate systems use both the irrigation duration or a particular implemented extent for control purposes. Open loop controllers normally include a clock this is used to begin irrigation. Termination of the irrigation can be primarily based on a pre-set time or can be based on a designated quantity of water passing thru a drift meter. In an open loop system, the operator makes the choice on the amount of water a good way to be applied and while the irrigation occasion will occur. This records is programmed into the controller and the water is applied according to the desired time table. Open loop manipulate systems use either the irrigation length or a special applied volume for control purposes. The disadvantage of open loop structures is their inability to reply routinely to converting situations in the environment. In addition, they will require frequent resetting to obtain high degrees of irrigation performance.

Figure1: The block diagram of the Automatic Irrigation System

 Figure 1 shows The block diagram of the automatic irrigation system consists of the following components . Step down transformer converts 230V from AC mains into 12V AC by using a centre tap transformer. Transformer selection is based on the fact that regulator ICs require around 11v as input considering dropout voltage, in order to obtain 12v power supply. Transformer steps down ac voltage from 230v ac to 12v ac. It is then given to bridge rectifier. Bridge rectifier converts ac voltage into pulsating dc. It is then given to regulator ICs which output constant dc voltage.

3.Project Scope

Figure 1 work break down structure

 Figure 1 shows the work break down structure for our prototype.

The papers titled, ” Drip irrigation scheduling of tomato and “Design of a Micro-Irrigation System Based on the Control Volume Method, employ volume based systems. The pre-set amount of water can be applied in the field segments by using automatic volume controlled metering valves. It’s depicted that the volume control systems are more advantageous than time control systems. The amount of water these systems supply is fixed irrespective of continuous electricity availability but still time controlled systems are more popular as they are less expensive. Here volume meters are connected, which emits a pulse after delivering a specific amount of water and the controller measures these pulses to keep a check on the supply. The papers titled, “Irrigation and water use efficiency, “Presentation of an Irrigation Management Model for a Multi-cropping and Pattern Setting and “Productivity of irrigation technologies, present a spreadsheet model, that not only provides water budgeting and forecasting.

A multi-plot fields, however additionally optimizes the acreage of every plot making sure that each one the vegetation can be irrigated day by day to fulfill contemporary demands using all the available water and time at some stage in an extended simulation and the prioritization of plots to be irrigated based on uncooked deficit and net revenue. The papers titled,” Pressurised Irrigation structures and Innovative adaptions and “Analysis of application uniformity and stress variation of microtube emitter of trickle irrigation machine describe and signify the different pressurised irrigation technology and behavior comparative analysis in their productiveness, application uniformity and strain versions of microtube emitters used in trickle irrigation structures. The proposed machine is hired the usage of microcontroller. In this regard, the books, “The 8051 micro controller”, “Design with micro controllers , “Hand-Book of micro controllers “Embedded micro controller systems and “The 8051 micro controller, give an outline of the 8051 microcontroller. They have even helped us to advantage valuable programming understanding and practical examples of commands given illustrate how those commands function. Complex hardware and software program software examples are also provided. On this element, the ebook,” Introduction to LCD programming tutorial gives a top level view of the LCD and briefs out the LCD programming strategies. The e-book, “Electronic instrumentation  briefs out the description of the various components required to layout the proposed machine. Our challenge offers with an underground irrigation machine. The predominant drawback of water evaporation taking place at the floor stage irrigation which become discussed above is conquer by means of this approach. In this method numerous sensing arrangements are positioned in the floor stage to determine the moisture percent in the soil. This will optimize the water consumption similarly and will make maximum use of all agricultural aid. The gift proposal is a version to modernize the agriculture industries on a small scale with most useful expenditure. Using this machine, you’ll be able to store manpower, water to improve production and in the end earnings.

INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES

  • I am going to work on dc motors programming with Arduino and its working
  • I am going to work on Bluetooth module .
  • I am going to work on microcontroller.
  • I am working on mathematical analysis for dc motors and tolerance analysis for dc motors.
  • I am working on programming and studying about the working of microcontroller.
  • Fitting of Wires to dc motors and Arduino and battery fitting.

 

4. Project Methodology and Requirements

This project on “Automatic Irrigation System” is intended to create an automated irrigation mechanism which turns the pumping motor ON and OFF on detecting the dampness content of the earth. In the domain of farming, utilization of appropriate means of irrigation is significant. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. The benefit of employing this technique is to decrease human interference and still make certain appropriate irrigation. The circuit comprises of sensing arrangement parts built using op-amp IC LM358. Op-amps are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensing arrangement and when sensing arrangement senses the dry condition then the microcontroller will send command to relay driver IC the contacts of which are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor, if the sensing arrangement senses the soil to be wet. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the signal from the sensing arrangement through the output of the comparator, and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in the Microcontroller. The condition of the pump i.e., ON/OFF is displayed on a 16X2 LCD. The power supply consists of a step down transformer, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed using a capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage regulator which is required for the operation of the microcontroller and other components. The figure below shows the block diagram of Microcontroller based irrigation system that proves to be a real time feedback control system which monitors and controls all the activities of the irrigation system efficiently.

Microcontroller

AT89S52 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel’s 8051 family. AT89S52 has 8KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 256 bytes of RAM. AT89S52 has an endurance of 1000 Write/Erase cycles which means that it can be erased and programmed to a maximum of 1000 times.

Figure 2 Microcontroller

Bridge Rectifier

Bridge Rectifier converts ac voltage into dc voltage. 4 diodes are connected in bridge. Its input is from transformer and output is given to the voltage regulator IC’s. 3.4 Comparator Soil sensing arrangement is used to measure the volumetric water content of soil. It consists of two prongs, which must be inserted in the soil, an LM358, which acts as a comparator and a pot to change the sensitivity of the sensing arrangement.

Submersible Pump

A pump is a tool used to move fluids, which include beverages, gases or slurries. A pump displaces a quantity by using physical or mechanical action, this pump requires 12V DC of electricity supply. A submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor near-coupled to the pump frame. The entire meeting is submerged within the fluid to be pumped. The primary advantage of this sort of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation’s, a trouble related to a high elevation distinction among pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push fluid to the floor in preference to jet pumps having to tug fluids. Submersibles are extra green than jet pumps.

Figure 3 Submersible pump

Voltage Regulator

The LM7805 is a three-terminal positive regulator that is available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with 5V as fixed output voltage. It employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, it can deliver over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Figure 4 Voltage Regulator

LED

LEDs are semiconductor gadgets which might be created from silicon. When cutting-edge passes thru the LED, it emits photons as a by-product. Normal mild bulbs produce mild by means of heating a steel filament till its white warm. LEDs own many advantages over conventional mild resources which include decrease strength consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller length and quicker switching.

Figure 5 LED Lights

LCD

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images, such as present words, digits, and 7-segment displays as in a digital clock.

Figure 6 LCD Display

Relay Switch

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operation.

Figure 7 Relay Switch

  Hardware Requirements

  • Micro controller unit (AT89S52)
  • Sensing arrangement
  • Voltage Regulator
  • LCD display

Software Requirement

  • Programming for Arduino
  • MP lab

Working

The soil moisture sensors that are not anything but copper strands are inserted within the soil. The soil sensing association measures the conductivity of the soil. Wet soil can be extra conductive than dry soil. The soil sensing arrangement module has a comparator in it. The voltage from the prongs and the predefined voltage are compared and the output of the comparator is high only when the soil situation is dry. This output from the soil sensing arrangement is given to the analogue input pin of the microcontroller. The microcontroller

5.Project Plan and Schedule

Figure 8 Gantt Chart

Figure 7  shows the gantt chart for the prototype.

Figure 9 Activity Sheet

Figure 8 shows the activity sheet for the prototype.

Mechanism of the system begins with switching on of the energy supply followed via resetting the microcontroller then the copper wires (which act as sensing arrangement) which will be linked to comparator will sense the dampness of the soil. The output of the comparator will control the operation of the device. If the output of the comparator is good judgment low then the motor might be grew to become on and the repute of the motor as on and that of the soil as dry might be displayed on the 1st and second line of the LCD respectively. Else if the output of the comparator is logic high then the motor may be turned off and the repute of the motor as off and that of the soil as moist might be displayed at the 1st and 2nd line of the LCD respectively.

When the soil is dry, the soil resistance between the high quality supply and the non-inverting enter is excessive resulting in high quality supply to the non-inverting enter much less than the inverting input making comparator output as logic low. This command is given to microcontroller. In this condition the microcontroller outputs logic high that switches on a relay riding transistor because of which the relay is switched on and the pump motor is in ON circumstance. Thus water go with the flow is began

Then, at the same time as the soil is going sufficiently moist, the soil resistance decreases making available a voltage to the non-inverting input higher than inverting enter, so that the output of comparator is good judgment excessive which is fed to microcontroller. In this circumstance microcontroller outputs good judgment low to a transistor which conducts by making the relay OFF and the pump motor stops The machine gives numerous blessings and it can perform with less manpower. The machine materials water best while the humidity within the soil goes beneath the reference. Due to the direct transfer of water to the roots water conservation takes vicinity and additionally enables to preserve the moisture to soil ratio at the foundation region regular to some extent. Thus the system is green and well matched to converting surroundings. The concept in destiny can be superior by way of adopting DTMF technology. This assignment is basically depending on the output of the sensing association. Whenever there’s need of excess water in the desired field then it’ll now not be possible by means of the use of sensing association generation.

For this we will need to undertake the DTMF generation. By the use of this we are able to be capable of irrigate the desired discipline in preferred amount.

Below the individual objectives are explained

1        DC MOTORS

Figure 10 DC Motor

A machine that converts dc power into mechanical energy is known as dc motor. Its operation is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a mechanical force. The direction of the force is given by Fleming’s left hand rule.

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS FOR DC MOTORS.

 

 

Figure 11 Mathematical Analytics (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland, 2007)

Figure 4 shows the mathematical analysis for dc motors working with this analysis we can achieve how much weight it can bear and how much electricity is needed.

Bluetooth module

Figure 12 Bluetooth module

Fig 11 shows the Bluetooth module which is used for the movement of prototype. I am going to the programming for the Bluetooth module and I will study about the working programming.

 

Microcontroller

Figure 13 Microcontroller

AT89S52 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel’s 8051 family. AT89S52 has 8KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 256 bytes of RAM. AT89S52 has an endurance of 1000 Write/Erase cycles which means that it can be erased and programmed to a maximum of 1000 times.

Bibliography

  • AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland. (2007). Mathematical Model of DC Motor for Analysis of Commutation Processes. Retrieved from Głowacz.com: file:
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