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THE INFLUENCE OF DISTRIBUTION OF ZAKAT, INFAQ AND SADAQAH (ZIS) ON MUSTAHIQ WELFARE IN INDONESIA
Zakat, sadaqah, and infak is a medium income distribution has taught Islam which aims to assist and relieve the burden of the House of mustahik, particularly the poor and needy. The purpose of this study was to examine and measure the influence of zakat, infak and sadaqahÂ (ZIS) to the ability of the economy, and health mustahiq in Indonesia. The research methodology used is the quantitative methods with kuantitatif analysis engineering strategy and qualitative. The results of this study mention funds distribution of zakat, infaq and sadaqahÂ no effect significantly to welfare mustahiq in Indonesia. It is explained that ZIS did indeed yet influential significantly to the well-being of society in General, especially mustahik. Given the Government of Indonesia has not yet been fullest ZIS, and maximize the potential of continued fiscal instrument on the other.
KEYWORDS: Zakat Infak SadaqahÂ (ZIS), the ability of economic, health, and education
Indonesia is known as one of the world’s developing countries have a fundamental problem, namely poverty. Poverty is also very concerned with the quality of civilization, whether economic, social, education, and health.
In September 2015, the number of poor population (population with per capita monthly expenditure below the poverty line) in Indonesia reached 28.51 million people (11.13 percent), reduced by 0.08 million people compared to March 2015 which conditions of 28.59 million people (11.22 percent). The Government budget for programs given poverty reduction more long is getting bigger, but the decline in poverty occurs in a number of less significant.
Government budget continues to given in span of 2009 until 2013 for infrastructure budget and budget poverty. The infrastructure budget in the time span of the average increased 24.89% from Rp76,3 trillion in 2009 to become Rp184,3 trillion in 2013. In addition to the infrastructure budget, the budget also continues to experience increased poverty, which later manifested in various programs for poverty reduction. In the period 2009-2013 the average increase in the allocation of budgetary poverty of 14,64%, i.e. Rp79,9 in 2009 to become Rp136,5 trillion by 2013. But the effectiveness of the poverty program is not able to lower the poverty figures significantly. With the magnitude of the poverty budget, the number of poor population only dropped average amounted to 3.61% within the time range or average about 0.72% per year.
The phenomenon of poverty in Indonesia has been an issue with, not just individual issues or issues of particular groups. Islam looked at that poverty is sunnatullah which should be sought and provided concrete solutions. Equitable income distribution is one of the ways to reduce the level of poverty, especially extreme poverty exist in Indonesia.
The teachings in IslamÂ ZIS provides space for a muslim to anticipate problems in the field of social and moral fields. QS Al Mu’minuun : 1-4, QS. At-Tawba : 103, QS. Al-Baqara : 267, QS. Adz  Dzaariyat: 14, QS Ar Ruum : 39, and QS AL An’aam : 141.
Islam-any concrete solution gives up the existence of the problem of poverty occurs in all regions of Indonesia, namely one with voting funds zakat, sadaqah, and infak. Islamic history records at the time of Caliph Umar bin Abdul Azis, during his reign over the past 2 years 5 months old, ZIS is capable of losingÂ poverty altogether in his country (BMH, 2004). Even the more number of ZIS sent to neighbouring countries (North Africa) is still poor. In addition, although religious obligations is ZIS that is personal, which simply involves muzakki and mustahik, but if managed by the Baitul Maal will provide greater social effects through a multiplier effect for the community in General. The presence of ZIS is the reason to be able to reduce the level of poverty, especially that there are in Indonesia. Given the potential that can be collected zakat Rp217 trillion worth, which unfortunately zakat collected only 1.2% or totaling Rp3 trillion (BAZNAS, 1999). The presence of ZIS is judged capable of reducing the level of poverty of the disadvantaged and mustahik.
ZIS funds collected are then is divided into a number of aspects, such as economic empowerment, improvement of the quality of health care, improving the quality of education, and the improvement of the quality of religious education. It has been implemented by the provider of the zakat Agency either by Amil Zakat (BAZ) and institution of Amil Zakat (LAZ) starting from the central level up to the level of district/city. The next question is how big the influence of zakat, sadaqah infak and against the welfare of society is represented by economics, education and health mustahik.
FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
Based on the description of the background at the beginning of the study, then the specified problem formulation of this study is whether the zakat, sadaqah and infak (ZIS) effect on the ability of the economy, the quality of the health and the quality of education mustahik in Indonesia?
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The existence of this research aims to discover, examine and analyze the influence of zakat and sadaqah infak, against the economic ability, quality health care and quality education of mustahik in Indonesia. And are expected to provide and enrich the insights in economics especially theory of income distribution and welfare, particularly in the development of models of poverty reduction is being taught by Islam, as well as being able to introduce and bring the community in tithe.
A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The theory of related and supporting this Theory is the study of the Optimum Solution by Karim (2002) which showed that the transfer of wealth from the rich to the poor through good consumerist ZIS nor productive will be able to shift the increasing prosperity in both the mustahik as well as pihk-parties muzakki.
Kahf (1979) put forward another theory that says that Islam looks at economic activities as one aspect of the exercise of human responsibilities as ‘ his ‘ Caliph. The more economic activity that it does, then the more noble aspects of life also in maintaining the balance of the other.
ZAKAT, SADAQAH AND INFAK
Zakat is the practice contained in the tenets of Islam, so that mandatory law to go. While infak and sadaqah is not obligatory practice (sunnah) by Allah Swt. Zakat in the Qur’an has called repeatedly for as much as 30 times with 27 times which were juxtaposed with the word Salat (Muhammad, 2005).
Some verses in the Qur’an which explains about zakat:
QS Al Baqarah: 267  which means ‘ o believers, nafkahkanlah (in the way of Allah) most of the good things which thou hast, and part of what we extract from the Earth for us. And you shall choose the bad-bad then you spend them, but you don’t want to pick it up but with the memincingkan eyes of him. And know that God is rich again Most Commendable ‘.
QS Al An’aam : 141, meaning ‘ and he was the one who made the berjunjung gardens and palm trees, the crops, the assortment of fruit, olives and pomegranates similar (and it was) and not equal (it feels like). Eat of its fruit (manifold) when he is fruitful, and tunaikanlah right on the day of picking the result (with gave out charity to the poor); and ye shall not extravagance. Verily, Allâh likes not the extravagance ‘.
THE COLLECTION OF ZAKAT, SADAQAH, INFAK (ZIS)
The function does and continues to experience innovation at institutions of zakat is a function of the collection manager. Factors that should be observed and examined in depth in the exercise of the functions of the collection is knowing the obligatory zakat, keeping trust muzakki or donors with the transparency of the financial flow, and give understanding and insight into the importance of tithe obligation.
CHANNELING ZAKAT, SADAQAH, INFAK (ZIS)
Other functions in the management of ZIS is the function distribution . With regard to the object of research, namely data collection ZIS obtained from financial statements BAZNAS. It needs to be elaborated also its programs along with the ZIS channeling function in BAZNAS.
ZAKAT BECAME AN INSTRUMENT OF WELFARE MUSTAHIK
Zakat is a medium that makes a moral obligation for people to be able to help those who are poor and neglected, so squalor and poverty can be eliminated from the muslim community. Therefore the zakat can be an instrument of welfare as mustahik (Chapra, 2001).
The approach used in this study was the quantitative approach, with quantitative and qualitative discussion of strategy. This is done because this study seeks to measure and figure out how big the influence of ZIS to economics, health and education mustahiq in Indonesia as well as the analysis accompanied description.
OBJECT OF RESEARCH
Objects used in this research is the Fund-raising data infak and zakat, sadaqah (ZIS), as well as the distribution of data obtained from Amil Zakat Agency financial report (BAZNAS) the period 2013 to 2015 that have been audited.
TYPES AND TECHNICAL DATA COLLECTION
The information and data required in this study is secondary data. I.e. data that his acquisition doesn’t have to be retrieved from the source of the information directly. Whereas technical data collection on this study was gathered from several sites wes BAZNAZ and print media are published monthly.
METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
Methods of analysis used in this study is the analysis of factors and multiple regression analysis, as well as the use of secondary data are taken from the monthly financial report on the website of the Central BAZNAS the period 2013-2015.
Based on the background, the outline of the problem, review and research methodology, then the hypothesis is determined as follows:
H1: funds distribution of influential economic program ZIS significantly to welfare mustahik in Indonesia.
H2: funds distribution ZIS influential health programs significantly to welfare mustahik in Indonesia.
H3: funds distribution ZIS influential education programs significantly to welfare mustahik in Indonesia.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
THE RESULTS OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Some testing needs to be done in order to obtain test result data is valid and significant. Following some type of test performed, starting test Nomalitas test Kolomogorov, Heteroskdastisitas, Anova Test (test simultaneously), and the t-test (test of partial data), and test the determinant.
Test For Normality
The results of the test of normality Kolmogorov mentions that data that has been tested is distributed normally. Following the results of sports data. Based on the output of the data above, note that the value significance of 0.848 or 84.8%, greater than 0.05 (5%), so that it can be concluded that the data are tested Gaussian.
Test For Multicollinearity
Multicollinearity test aims to detect non correlated variables.
Based on the results of sports data tells us that the value of the VIF is greater than 0.1, since each value of the variables x 1, x 2 and X 3 consecutive 1.51 value; 1.619; 1.145 so it can be inferred that all the data they no that multicollinearity.
Simultaneous Trials (Test F)
Simultaneous trials conducted to observe the level of influence of the independent variable (free variables) of the dependent variable (the dependent variable) as a whole, or commonly referred to also by analysis of variance. F test show that the value of the Fhitung of 0717 (GIS) with the level of 0550 0550 significance or value can be greater than the value of 0,005 probability. It proves that there is a significant influence on the distribution of funds between ZIS economic program, health and education toward the well-being of mustahik in Indonesia or simultaneously (together) funds the distribution of economic programs at the ZIS, health and education were not significant effect against the welfare of mustahik in Indonesia. It is the Fund’s channelling ZIS has no effect on the economy in General, and Indonesia has no effect against the mustahik well-being in particular.
Partial test (test t)
T-test was used for the level of influence of the independent variables are the dependent variables against partial. The degree of significance was 0.05. If the value is significantly less than the degree of trust then accepted alternative hypothesis, which States that a partially independent variables affecting the dependent variable.
The results of the t-test (partial) shows that:
- Variable distribution of funds to the economic program ZIS (X 1) has a value of 0.264 significance level, meaning that the value is greater than 0.05, then X 1 has no effect significantly to welfare mustahik (Y1).
- Variable funds distribution ZIS for health program (X 2) has the value significance level, meaning that the value of 0.199 greater than 0.05, then X 1 has no effect significantly to welfare mustahik (Y1).
- Variable funds distribution ZIS for education program (X 3) has a value of significance level, meaning that the value of 0.875 greater than 0.05, then X 1 has no effect significantly to welfare mustahik (Y1)
Test Of Determination (R2)
The coefficient of determination is used to find out how big the relationships of some of the variables in the more obvious sense. The coefficient of determination will explain how big a change or variation of a variable can be explained by the changes or variations on other variables.
Multiple linear regression test results show that the coefficient of determination of this study are as follows.
The determination of the test showed that value (Adjusted R Square) 0.26 this case showed that the distribution of the economic program, the distribution of ZIS ZIS economic program and the distribution of the economic program of the influential ZIS 26% against the welfare of mustahik and the remaining 74% is affected by other variables not examined. After a partial test using the Test t, then simultaneous test (test F) using a test Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and a test of determination (R2), the whole test data mentions that the variable distribution of ZIS to progam the economy, channelling ZIS progam for education, and channeling ZIS health progam for no effect the dependent variable i.e. significantly to welfare mustahik.
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis
Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the influence of independent variables namely distribution of funds ZIS program economics, education, health and welfare against mustahik in Indonesia. Multiple linear regression model estimation using SPSS software and obtained the following output results. Multiple linear regression test results show that:
- value (constant) showed the value of 76.2887 variable value pales in the independent (non) zero then the value of the dependent varibel (bound) of 76.2887 in this case if X 1, x 2, and X 3 value 0.00 (zero) then welfare will be increased by 76.3 (rounding)
- the value of the variable X 1) showed a negative sign to the value (-0.274) means any increase in 1 (one) the value of the variable on the X 1 in this case increases 1% X 1 will be menurukan the value of the variable Y (mustahik welfare) amounted to 0.73%
Based on the test results, stated that the independent variable has no effect against the dependent variable was significant, meaning that funds the distribution of zakat, sadaqah infak and economic programs, programs for education and health programs do not affect significantly to welfare mustahik in Indonesia.
This occurs because the first, quantitatively processed data obtained in this study have a disproportionate value between data distribution per capita income data with ZIS, both, the existence of these data reflect the distribution of funds allocation ZIS is not the overall effect on the economic sector, especially in the welfare mustahik. It described the condition of reality in the life of society that ZIS is not able or is still a bit of a Government-run for solving economic problems, health and educational problems of whack most of middle economic community down. Because of limited funds still ZIS management handled by government institutions (Agency Amil Zakat), private (Amil Zakat Institution), and other institutions that shaped the non-profit institutions.
Data distributing ZIS as data to support the independent variable (X) while the per-capita income data used to support the dependent variable (Y). The data used in this study is entirely secondary data is downloaded and retrieved from several sources website, such as websites and website BAZNAS BPS. The data obtained from the ZIS channeling website national data is BAZ quantity value is already reach billions every month, between zakaah and sadaqah infak, it is dominated by funds to charity.
ZIS donations channeled consists of two great post, namely the zakat and sadaqah-infak with details of the Zakah worth Rp 221.262.482.602 and Infak-Sadaqah Rp.47.771.501.771 . Whereas the allocation for each of the programs is to the economic program was Rp 17.442.158.074, for Rp. 25.178.303.286 education programs, and health program worth Rp. 122.735.267.942.
Based on existing result, there the proportion of the Fund gathering ZIS and channeling ZIS, it is clear that actualization of zakat is worth the great Rp269,033,984,373 for the total funds,729 collection,302 Rp165,355 and ZIS for total funds disbursed to the ZIS mustahik and orphaned. But that value when compared with the test results of the study, then it still has little effect against the welfare mustahik. It proves that ZIS did indeed have not effect on the economy of Indonesia, particularly against the welfare of mustahik and the disadvantaged.
Based on the results of research and discussion, then a conclusion can be drawn as follows:
- Channelling ZIS simultaneously (whole) independent variables consisted channeling ZIS ZIS distribution economic, educational and health fields ZIS not channeling effect significantly to welfare mustrahik. Not only simultaneously, but each partially independent variables also explained that the independent variable has no effect significant partially to the dependent variable i.e. the welfare mustahik.
- Initially in accordance with the review of the literature and hypothesis which States that ZIS is able to have significant influence towards the welfare of mustahik, so the next influence ZIS is expected to be a source of fiscal state that can reduce poverty issues such as community multiproblem, education, health, and food shortages.
- in addition to other causes the presence of no effect against ZIS mustahik welfare, because the function and role of zakat in the charity raise funds from the public is not fully effective.
Based on the findings of the study, submitted suggestions which are divided into long term advice and short-term advice among others as follows:
- long term
The presence of no significance influence ZIS against mustahik prosperity caused due to channeling the ZIS value still has a huge gap with a number of potential ZIS capable collected from the public, namely with the potential number of Rp. 12 trillion with the actualization of only 6% range or range of Rp 720 billion at the end of the year 2015. The existence of such phenomena are already supposed to be responded to complaints by the Government to support full, with asking for and oversaw the institution of amil zakat to find causes, to find a way that solutif and realize the potential of ZIS. There are findings that one of the causes of the magnitude of the gap still is the lack of public confidence towards the institutions of amil zakat, good LAZ or BAZ. This occurs because there is a majority of the public of the existence and functions of the institutions of zakat.Thus the Government should, apart from being lawmakers (the regulators), should also make the project to maximize the potential of the ZIS and conduct cooperation with numerous State agencies to do the synergy in the spool and disburse funds of ZIS, by, and for the community.
- Short term
The existence of a Government project involving third parties either State institutions or private, as well as external audit institution, expected program gathering and channelling funds ZIS was able to do with effective and efficient as possible. Channeling ZIS to mustahik may be right on target with the attitude of a fast and responsive. For a wealthy muslim community. In addition to the existence of the obligation of citizens to the ngara, i.e. paying taxes. But there are also religious obligations as a muslim who is able, namely pay zakat. So the law is mandatory when satisfied with awareness and honesty to fulfil his obligations to pay zakat, and with the spread of many agencies already amil zakat and Amil Zakat which is teraudit and is registered with the Government, then the donor can transmit muzakki and Zakat to them.
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