APPRECIATION OF NZ$: ITS IMPACT ON SME’s
New Zealand has been considered as a distinguished economy. It is primarily because the economy faced the challenges of international economic depression and was victorious in the same. According to a report by Forbes in the year 2014, the country holds a strong rank among the safe-haven economies in the world. New Zealand’s economy has been a dynamic one (Colombo, 2014). It has experienced appreciation and depreciation of its dollar on a consequent basis. Even in the 1990s and early 2000s New Zealand’s economy acknowledged higher appreciation of its dollar due to higher interest rates which fascinated large number of capital investors (Brash, 2000; Fallow, 2013). But since 2009, the economy is emerged very strongly but this has resulted in rising level of concerns among varied sectors and industries in New Zealand (Fallow, 2013).
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Though a strong appreciation of currency indicates a stable and strong economy but its pitfalls cannot be negated.
In 2011-12, New Zealand’s economy experienced an augmentation of 7 % in NZ $ on a Trade Weighted Index (TWI) Basis (Tarrant, 2012). One of the major reasons behind this is economy’s potential to overcome financial spur created by varied banks across the globe (Tarrant, 2012). Some of the other reasons this currency appreciation are depreciation of US dollars, strong and optimistic credit ratings for New Zealand’s economy by international organizations, stability in international monetary markets, benevolent economic conditions, accelerating interest rates and a centre of attention for capital investments (PwC, 2014; Headey and Fan, 2008). Another reason put forward for this is slackening of economic and monetary policies by various economies (Bernanke, 2010). In this most of the central banks provide for quantitative leverage of either float newly produced currency which results in increased risk exposure at international forum (Tarrant, 2012).
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The appreciation of NZ $ has benefitted the economy by helping the same to control its inflationary rates and trend thus enhancing economy’s stability. New Zealand with its far sighted strategic planning has been able to overcome negative impacts of such financial spur. These rising rates have made it costly for SMEs to procure bank investments and thus discoursing entrepreneurs to a large extent. Out of all the negative impacts, the worst affected due to New Zealand’s money appreciation are trade sectors, exports business and import-competing manufacturers (Tarrant, 2012).
One of the major impacts of appreciation of NZ $ was evident from restricted export activities. Price responsive markets strongly reacted to such currency appreciation which was apparent in form of declining New Zealand exports (Deakins et al, 2013). As a result of this export earnings decline, many companies were forced to withdraw from international markets. This depicted a negative impact on New Zealand’s economy and SMEs. But interestingly companies having strategic approach which catered at developing strong associations with banks and providing adequate time and resources were seemed to be successful.
Another impact of appreciation of NZ $ was visible in form of declining product prices which affected manufacturers and traders to a large extent. Considering the case of dairy in New Zealand, the prices of dairy products fell steeply. Dairy farmers were affected to a large extent mainly because such a price decline meant lower income (Shanghai Daily, 2014). But the situation got managed due to high export demands of New Zealand’s dairy products in China, primarily at higher prices owing to its categorization as a lavish product (Teague, 2014).
With imports becoming cheap, the import-competing organizations are having a tough time in sustaining market pressures. A major chunk of New Zealand’s import is from China. Thus with currency appreciation, Chinese products which are as it is lower priced are easily spreading their tentacles within the economy. Domestic manufacturers are failing to perform primarily because people in New Zealand are offered with large number of cheaper substitutes. This has resulted in a change in disbursements pattern of its population. (Tarrant, 2012)
There has been a dearth of research related to appreciation of NZ $ and its impact on SMEs. In such a scenario it is essential to study such relationships between the two to understand the dynamics of New Zealand’s markets both at national and international frontier. Therefore this study will be interesting along with being useful. This study will provide with an insight to the various SME organizations with regards to sound strategic planning so that they can benefit from such NZ $ appreciation.
- Bernanke, B. (2010). The economic outlook and monetary policy. In Speech at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Symposium, Jackson Hole, (Vol. 27), Wyoming
- Brash, (2000). The fall of the New Zealand dollar: why has it happened, and what does it mean? Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletien, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 22-27
- Colombo, J. (2014). 12 Reasons Why New Zealand’s Economic Bubble Will End InDisaster. Available at http://www.forbes.com/sites/jessecolombo/2014/04/17/12-reasons-hy-new-zealands-economic-bubble-will-end-in-disaster/ [Accessed Sept 18, 2014]
- Deakins, D., Battisti, M., Perry, M. and Crick, D. (2013).Understanding Internationalisation Behaviour. New Zealand Centre for Small and Medium Enterprise Research. New Zealand
- Fallow, B. (2013). Strong NZ dollar only part of the story. New Zealand Herald. Dated 7th Feb, Auckland.
- Headey, D. and Fan, S. (2008). Anatomy of a crisis: the causes and consequences of surging food prices.Agricultural Economics,Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 375-391.
- PwC (2014). The rise and rise of the NZ dollar exchange rate – implications for the New Zealand economy. Available at http://www.pwc.co.nz/news-releases/the-rise-and-rise-of-the-nz-dollar-exchange-rate/ [Accessed Sept 18, 2014]
- Shanghai Daily (2014). Dairy prices, currency appreciation trouble New Zealand producers. Shanghai Daily, dated !9th Aug, Shanghai
- Tarrant, A. (2012). High NZ$ keeping inflation in check, but detrimental to NZ economy, as global central banks print, RBNZ says; ‘Global easing may continue’. JDJL Limited, dated 8th Mar, Auckland.
- Teague, S. (2014). New Zealand dollar caught between safe-haven and EM status. EuroMoney, dated 3rd Sept, UK.
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