Recruitment And Selection Processes
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In today's world, recruitment and selection policy plays an important role in the workplace around the globe where it is the key success factors in any business. 'Recruitment is the process of seeking and attracting a pool of qualified applicants from which candidates for job vacancies can be selected. However, selection is the process that choosing from a group of applicants the best qualified candidates.' (Stone 2005, pp.187) Both the recruitment and selection are different management functions, but they can lead the employers to identify the right person for the right job. Thus, it also can help in increase effectiveness of organization.
The relationship between employers and employees can seek a big different if compared to past decades. Existing of industrial relations and labor laws has created a protectionism and healthy environment for both parties in the workplace. However, there are still some issues existing in the society nowadays, especially unfair discrimination issue occur in some industries. In fact, those unlawful, unfair treatments or discrimination to the employees may increase the costs and turnover rate in the organization and thus lower the workforce's morale. Without recruitment and selection policy, organization may simply hire workers to fit the vacancy spaces even candidates are lack of knowledge, ability, experience, or skill.
Besides, numbers of foreign labors is increased from year to year whereby help company to save costs by employed labors in low salary. But, this caused unemployment rate increased and thus uncertainty is possible at the same time by increased in such activities like crime, strike, fighting, and so on. With no expertise workers, there is no doubt that organization will carry out low performance and unsatisfied services or products to the users. The inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the organization might affect its' overall performance and reputation indirectly. In order to change the situation and increase the profit, organization may need to make some improvement like give the employees some jobs training and this will increase the costs indirectly. Therefore, it is needed for every organization to ensure that the jobs are suited to offer to workers with abilities by applying recruitment and selection policy to avoid unnecessary expenses.
This research study can help everyone to understand the important of recruitment and selection policy toward the organizations in all industries. The information might able to achieve future goals by clearly define the influential of the policy within the organization. Besides that, organizations can also find this information as for their human resource management improvement.
Furthermore, the general objective of doing this research study is to identify the recruitment and selection policy can help good relations by ensuring that workers are engaged for jobs suited to their abilities and workers can get satisfaction in their jobs. Secondly, this research study can lead to understand how the policy help organization performs in more effective ways in order to make a right choice. Employer need to choose the most suitable employee to help increase performance of organization. Thirdly, it is important to understand how policy creates a healthy workplace by providing fair treatment to everyone for gaining win-win situation in both employers and employees. That mean organization performance can get improvement and employees can get fully satisfaction in their jobs. Lastly, it is needed to study whether the recruitment and selection policy can make changes in human lifestyle such as better or worse, high educated, skillful, knowledgeable, and so on.
2.0 Literature Review
Recruitment and selection are the two important processes under Human Resource department in an organization. Good recruitment and selection policies will ensure a good industrial relation between employees and employers in an organization and also ensured workers are engaged for jobs suited to their abilities. A study made by Hsu Y.R, et al., 2000, found that it is important to have Human Resource managers on the board participating in the development of corporate strategy and that it is important to integrate Human Resource Management policy fully with corporate strategy.
However, there are issues pertaining to recruitment and selection policies in industrial relation between employers and employees. In Anastasi, 1988, p-144; Bible, 1990, Cascio, 1987, p. 132; Hutfcut, 1990; Seymour, 1988; Thornton, in press) studies as cited in Smither J.W., et al (n.d) studies, it says that applicant perceived selection procedures as lacking in validity, or otherwise regarded as offensive or intrusive, are more likely to be viewed as unfair, unethical, or immoral issues resulting in more complaints and court challenges. By perceiving unlawful and unfair treatments by employers, workers motivation level to perform well will be lowered down and in turn will increase the costs and turnover rate in the organization. Besides that, Smither J.W. et al, (n.d), also mention that those workers who does not like an organization's policies, practices, or style is likely to go "job shopping" somewhere else.
Changes in workforce demographics may also increase the difficulty to attract and recruit enough qualified workers. The types of benefits can be influence by the demographic factors as well. For example, medical coverage, life insurance, and retirement benefits will be more likely for older workforce. On the other hand, workers under 30 tend to be more interested in flexibility, technology, and training. Therefore, the policies provide for employees should not a one size fits all approach; organizations can provide employees options for customizing a benefits package to match their individual needs (John C.R., 2009).The research made by Hsu Y.R., et al., (2000) on recruitment and selection policies in Taiwan found that the internal recruitment method are commonly used by the responding firm in Taiwan and may not only motivate workers to perform better and increase their commitment towards the organization, but may also improve their job security through upward or lateral career opportunities. In Sparrow, P. et al., (1994) study (as cited in Hsu Y.R., et al., (2000) mentioned that by using internal personnel sources effectively, it may also allow management to observe and assess the abilities of employees accurately given the accrued knowledge gathered over the employment relationship. This may avoid management from recruiting and selecting workers that are lack of knowledge, ability and experience to fit into the vacancy spaces besides helping the management to maintain good industrial relations with workers.
There is still having some organization discrimination about the union. In the organizational for Economic Co-operation and Development there is declining in union density (Visser,2006; Peetz, 1998). Some of the companies have specific selection criteria to make sure they get staff that are culturally fit with what the companies' culture and wish to avoid employees that have strongly unionized, preferring those from non-union (Rae Cooper, et al.,2009). This show that, in the early stage which is selection, organization already tend to choose those not union and those who are unions no chance to get the job. In addition, some companies recruitment policy have stated that they not to employ union members. At the recruitment meeting, human resource consultants and customer service managers have come out a question that whether the workers worked at company that was heavily unionized company can make a good team fit (Rae Cooper, et al., 2009). Joining the non-union organization, workers are not protected under union and it will relate to more issues like unsatisfied on their working condition, payment, bonus, and others. Furthermore, this will lead to the unfair/unhappiness or workers. So, it can't maintain a good industrial relation between management and workers. There are suggestion that the varied and multilayered de-unionization tactics were not mutually exclusive, as the "soft" and informal human resources policies only hidden away the more clear and proper plan by employers to break collective representation at the workplace level ( Rae Cooper, et al., 2009).
Multinational enterprise (MNE) has facing the problem that in different countries the Human resource procedures are different. Multinational enterprise facing difficulty to transmit their employee relations practices between contrary units operating in different countries. MNEs are important agents in transmitting industrial relations and other employment relations practices across national and cultural borders argued by Sparrow et al, 1994. The improvement in working conditions introduced by the collective agreement since 1989, lower the labor turnover. Organization should not be underestimated the importance of recruiting suitable individuals into an organization (Tony Royle, 1999). Recruit suitable employees into an organization can help increase the performance of organizations and lower down the turnover in the organizations. However, an organization is able to take benefit of employees who share common traits, kicking out those who may question managerial right, have notions of worker solidarity and an interest in trade union representation (Royle, 1998).
3.0 Content analysis
Recruitment and selections policy plays vital important role in ensuring that the organization recruiting the qualified workers for job which are commensurate with their abilities. Recruitment and selection is usually central workforce development issues and challenges for the growing and smaller organization nowadays. The employers or human resources should always define the qualifications and experience that needed for the vacant job clearly by ensuring that the applicants' skills or abilities that employed are fit with the job. There are always two primary issues that should be concerned by the recruiter or employer which are discrimination that due to the use of informal methods of recruitment and possibility that selection process being skewed by the initial recruitment phrase. Sometimes, discrimination is happen indirectly and unconsciously throughout the procedure. When discrimination occurs, the employer may miss the opportunity of getting the appropriate applicants that suited with the job. Thus, fair and equity recruitment and selection procedures need to be emphasized to ensure that all applicants have equal employment opportunity so that the company can employ the most suitable applicants for the job that match with their ability. In additional, there are three steps should be taken by the organization which are develop an up to date job description, develop effective recruitment strategy that concern the recruitment sources and recruiter and evaluate the recruitment strategy. Recruitment process and methods also need to check regularly and evaluate now and then.
In order to ensure that the candidate engage to the job that suited with their abilities, the employer may explain term and conditions of employment to applicant before they are engaged for the job. By explaining the employment condition to the applicants, they will know more about the job scope and determine whether they are engage for the right job. At the same time, it helps to decrease the tendency of industry relation problems occur at anytime. Besides, selection techniques also plays crucial role in getting right person for the job. The employers must always make sure that the selection is based on suitability for the job and ensure that the recruitment processes are carried out by the competent recruiters that are experience and knowledgeable in human resources field. Once the applicants are proceeding to selection phrase, the individual or panel interview, test, role play activity or reference check will be carried out. Job knowledge test helps to measure the understanding of applicants regard to the job (Compton, 1996).
The organizations are encouraged to follow competencies model in recruiting and selecting the applicants as it seeks to identify abilities needed to perform job well rather than focusing on applicant personal characteristics. Moreover, the employers of organization are most likely applying internal recruitment method which is filling the vacancy by transfer or promotions before recruit from outside. These can be supported by the example of recruitment and selection in Australia. In Australia, recruitment from within method is commonly practice by the organization (Nankervis et al., 2002).Filling the job vacancy through transfer or promotions will helps the organization to save up some additional recruiting, selecting and training cost as current employee knows the organization well. Advertising and recruitment agencies are also widely used by organization in Australian as these recruitment methods help to reach large audience of applicants (Gill, 2000). Furthermore, existences of recruitment agencies help the organization to match the applicants' abilities with the job vacancy. During the selection phrase, the organization in Australia will emphasize on interview, tests and reference check. Interview is important step in selection (Compton, 1996) and common selection tools for many companies ( Huffcult & Arthur, 1994).
In China, recruitment methods such as advertisement, job fairs, and corporate co-ordination are being practice by organization while for the selection techniques, Interview, tests and behavioral events are exercised by the organization. For example, increasing use of interactive role play during selection phrase helps to ensure that the applicants are engaged for the job that matched with their abilities. Selection phrase is important as it is "process of choosing from group of applicants that individual best suited for particular position (Mondy & Noe, 1993). Thus, the effectiveness of recruitment will definitely has impact on the efficiency of selection process.
Jakob Bjurgert and Johan Karlsson from University of Gothenburg conducted a case study to get insight of hotel industry in Gothenburg, and examine whether internal recruitment could be a key success factor and if it solely could motivate employees. They investigate whether internal recruitment strategy sufficiency to be an incentive compensation system, and find out any difference of view on incentive system in the hotel industry, between the employees and the managements. They found that there are two different types of employees existing, where the first category employees were young and eager climbing the carrier ladder. For them, internal recruitment solely works as an incentive compensation plus motivation to stay in the company. Regarding to the second group, they were those mainly care about a stabile income and job security. Those employees simply less concern about promotion, but would rather appreciate a higher salary.
Results from their evaluation also shown discrepancy between the managements' and the employees' view of the incentive system. An incentive compensation system existed in hotel did not works as motivational factors which from employees' viewpoint, it was rather as a guideline to behave well service-minded manner.
Merchant and Van d.S. (2007) described an incentive compensation system in terms of monetary and non-monetary rewards. Non-monetary rewards often consist of promotion, personal independence, rising in rank or position, autonomy, and recognition. Incentive compensation system aims to tie rewards to performance valuations. The system informs and reminds workers about what results are important, and motivates them to achieve these results. Incentive compensation systems are important for a firm in order to drive employees put more effort into their job. It is also personnel-related in terms of attracting the right person for the working place. Internal recruitment is one of the most popular incentive systems and become an old tradition in the hotel industry, as one of the non-monetary rewards.
It is important for hotel industry in the service sector to have served minded employees. The industry is strongly dependent on their staff because they who are the frontline serve the customers and were important marketing tools. Motivation is needed as a force to push up performance. Through incentive compensation systems the hotel managers can design individual programs to motivate, retain and help attracting employees. (Karthik N.,Li M.,Zhaob X.,2006). However, increase the rewards can be devastating because the employees will then concerning more about the bonuses than to serve best quality to the customer.(Bjurgert J.& Karlsson J.,2010)
The work in a hotel is characterized by low status or low salaries, having intensive tasks and few chances to get promoted. Thus, motivation is one important tool to affect the behavior of the employees. To achieve motivated employees in the hotel industry, factors such as good salary a safe workplace, possibilities to get promoted and a good working atmosphere need to be fulfilled.(Simon T.&Enz C.,1995). Zeithaml, V.A and Bitner, M.J. (2003) stated that before company recruiting a new employee, it is vital to analyze to see whether the potential employee is motivated to work in a service minded way.
The hotel industry has a high labor turnover, due to long business hour, and minimum wages offered. New recruitments and learning processes cost time plus money, and company also loose competence and productivity. Nevertheless high turnover help s companies to lower down cost by offering employee the minimum salary when they first enter the company. Thus it is interesting to examine whether it is possible to stimulate and motivate employees solely through internal recruitment.
Employees have to be motivated for the right thing, which is connected to the company's goals and visions. Increase worker's salary and increase their responsibility and recognition when worker being internally recruited. The management needs to know how to motivate their employees with rewards. It is also important that the employees know how they are judged and how they should effort to reach these rewards.
HRdictionary.com defined internal recruitment as the process of filling vacancies by recruiting staff from inside the company . According to Dessler G. (2010), the advantage of internal recruitment is getting more commitment from current to the company. Morale may also rise if employees see promotions as rewards for loyalty and competence. Moreover, inside candidates require less orientation and training than outsiders.
At Gothenburg, internal recruitment in the hotel industry is frequently practiced by large hotel chains, where the supply of workers is large, and most positions are standardized.(Bjurgert J.& Karlsson J.,2010). Most of the job advertisements go through via internal and external portal, where both internal and external applicants have a chance to getting the job. Even though they also advertise externally, most positions are filled with internal candidates. This could be explained by the size of the company, and high supply of candidates.
In this study we can conclude that a good recruitment and selection policies will ensure a good industrial relation between employees and employers in an organization and can also help to identify that job can suit with the skills and abilities of employee. A good recruitment and selection process can give employer and employee achieve win-win situation. Recruitment and selection processes are main factor can help organization get successful in their business. In order placing a right people in right job is very important. This is because when worker enjoy satisfaction with their job, while can improve performance of worker. Thus, it also will help to improve overall performance of organization.
In the recruitment and selection process, employer needs to pay more attention and aware on the skills, abilities, knowledge, and experience of candidates. Employer should be aware those requirement of candidates, so that can fully apply in the organization and integrate in the organization culture. Besides, those skills can effectively help in improve performance and profitability of organization. In additional, employee can also get fully satisfaction in their job because their skills can fully apply in job.
In my opinion in the view point of employer, before start recruitment and selection process, employer must have clear idea about what kind of employee they want to seek and what kind of experience a potential employee to have had. It can help employer to raise success rate in the selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Thus, employer also need to make sure what organization can offer will fix what job applicants desire such as salary, work hours, working conditions, working environment and so on. It can help in reduce the probability employee which recruited and will leave in the short period.
Employer can provide recruitment agency or recruitment consultant to carry out company recruitment and selection process. Employer just needs to simple describe out what kind of employee they desire to get. After that, recruitment agency will help employer to make interview with all job applicants and then help them to find out the most suitable person.
Next, in the view point of employee, before interview candidates should be ready to provide feedback of any kind of questions and prepare to answer different kind of questions during that interview. Before the interview, candidates need very clearly know about what kind of job they interested in. Furthermore, candidates can try to identify what kind of question may ask by employer and they need to how answer question to show their skills and abilities to get the job.