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Job analysis can improve management efficiency for organizations in the way of gathering a comprehensive intelligence to provide comprehensive information of related work. It refers that giving particular job specific provisions and completing the work required determining what course to conduct (CORNELIUS, et al, 2006). Job analysis consists of two parts: the job description and statement of work. Through analysis of the work input, conversion work, work output, work related characteristics, job resources, work environment background, and result the formation of job analysis - job specification (also known as the statement of work). The work of identifying information included job specifications, job summary, job duties and responsibilities, and information of qualification criteria, which facilitate the use of functions for other human resource management.
Job analysis is the basis for human resources management, the quality of its analysis for module of other human resource management has a significant influence. Job analysis is also defined as a system process to identify the skills to complete the work, responsibility and knowledge, which is an important and universal human resource management technique (Schneider,, 2006). It is the cornerstone of all activities for human resource management, which collects information for other human resource management practices, such as selection, training, performance appraisal, compensation design. Enterprises can find the problem, identify gaps through the analysis of existing work, and design work to be more efficiently or incentive, or undo the traditional hierarchical structure, arrangement, and replaced by the organizational structure of more flexible and more liquid.
In most enterprises, especially small and medium enterprises, human resource managers a number of errors for understanding the work analysis: Most companies see work analysis, job descriptions, work flow equivalent as the concepts of work norms, once enacted, the written staff manual system as the company system ,which can not adjust in time as the business development; some departments of enterprises are confusion, responsibilities and rights of managers are unclear, job analysis is useless; some enterprises did not have work design, the internal status defined solely on the verbal description of the direct manager (Jenkins ,Curtin,2006). The reasons of the existence of these errors are that managers of these enterprises do not recognize the importance of the good work design and process design to help businesses gain a competitive advantage.
Why enterprises do Job analysis
The role of business analysis work is: First, it can help organizations to aware the changes. Although we can easily see work as static and stable, but in fact, work constantly changed, people were often engaged in work who will change fine-tuning of work to adapt environmental conditions, or adapt habits of the individual to complete work. The reasons why errors could be happening during the process of job analysis are mainly because of obsolete description. Job analysis process should explore the changes for nature of work in addition to the static definition of work.
Secondly, through a comprehensive job analysis to diagnose the potential drawbacks of the Organization, job analysis provided information of job-related that can help managers understand the work flow, organization exposed the irrationality that can help managers to redesign certain aspects, and improve the efficiency of work.
The work managers reject the unreasonable structure of staff, reduce or waste of human resources, duplication or lack of behavior through the research of staff structure and the staffing management.
Job analysis is also important when primary managers make evaluation of the staff performance, managers must understand each one task of the work to be accomplished, and this process can be regarded as the overall search process for a potential problem of the organizational structure (Arthur, et al, 2005).
Meanwhile, the job analysis is also the foundation of the human resources management. Almost all the human resources plans or programs need to get certain types of information through the work analysis; it affects management of human resources in the following areas:
Job analysis and job design are intrinsically linked, through job redesign to make it more effective
â-Plans of human resources
The process of planning need to gain a variety of information work on the skill level, and ensure adequate staffing to meet the needs of strategic planning within the organization
It must be determined the main duties of job before selection of positions, and candidates must have the knowledge, skills and abilities. This information is obtained through job analysis.
Trainers can clearly recognize what work to do for those were trained to ensure the effectiveness of training, that training helped their work done efficiently
â- Evaluation of Performance
To get the status information for every employee, the purpose is to distinguish the good performance of employees, bonus and forfeit
The individual's skills and aspirations should match emerging opportunities of the organization (LANDY, VASEY, 2006). For example, some corporate employees leave the company for other companies have more important jobs to attract, in fact, within this enterprise has a similar vacancies, but when the company knew it was too late, which reflects the management lack of career planning, and communication channel is not smooth, and result the brain to drain.
It establishes a fair pay structure through the assessment of each work. In order to determine reasonable salaries for each position, it is necessary to obtain information on the work (Goris, et al, 2000). Because the only in this way, it can determine what work should do for enterprises to gain higher returns.
How to Analysis work?
Enterprises resolve the following question by job analysis: "What kind of staff to complete the physical and mental activities? Work will be completed? Where the Work will be completed? how employees accomplish this? Why do this? Complete the conditions of work?
Work of the first companies should choose the right time to do job analysis, in general, it mainly under the following conditions: the new organizational set up, the new work appeared, new technology, new methods, new technology or new system in the work ,it result in organizational change or transition, and so on.
A job analysis process includes:
Before carrying out the work, it should have clearly defined objectives of job analysis , whether job analysis service for personnel selection, or service pay design; whether it service for staff training, or adjusted internal position(Bemis,et al ,1983). Then, it make depth interviews based on the use of different target, and use different approach to job analysis questionnaires, such as job analysis, task analysis checklists, work measurement, sorting, and so on . Job analysis questionnaire is the most widely used by company, and a method of work-flow analysis is also consistent with the Job analysis questionnaire.
â-collect background information,
The information includes the organization chart, flow chart, the current job description, normative systems and other relevant background information. At the same time, it fully understands the company's circumstances, such as personnel, departments, institutions, and business and so on. The understanding of information and organize process will greatly improve the applicability and accuracy of job analysis.
â-Select work samples
It make typical business as a good representative sample of work, first of all ,it comprehensive analysis the samples and then extended to all business enterprises, aimed at improving the efficiency of job analysis
for example, before carrying out work designed, advertising agencies graphic designers should understand: the structure of their work activities under any department, it is necessary understand at first, the ownership structure determines the scope of work of designers and affect the content of their work, for example, designers of programming may have a completely different area of work. .
the posts design on the human capacity, deep and surface quality of the competence requirements are mainly embodied in the skills required to master, have engaged in the kind of quality work, and basic human cooperation and exchanges with the quality(Mathis, Jackson, 2007). At the same time, this post requires essential nature of computer, software, equipment, facilities, and so on, in particular the work environment. Finally, it is a measure of the performance standards that whether the designer's work can be accepted by customer, speed of work completed, work attitude, ability, methods, qualified. It can prepare the next review of information through this post.
â-Review of the information
The work of information reviewed managers is the human resources manager, commissioner, immediate supervisor of work holders. It focuses on the nature of the work, the work function.
â-The most important information in preparation of work instructions and job specification description is the job description and job specification. Job description is a directory list that contained the mandate, functions and responsibilities (Hartley, 1999). Job specification is a directory list that a person must have the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics in order to complete a particular work, which fully reflect the personality characteristics, skills and work background requirements. A standard job description should include the following elements: the work of identification (also known as working name), job description, job contacts, responsibilities and tasks, work competence, performance standards, working conditions, job specifications.
How to apply the work result of the job analysis
Workflow analysis and design of organizational structure, affect the work results of the analysis. It is not right that separated analysis and design from the work of a particular organizational context. Before assigned specific tasks to employees, it should analysis the work at first; this process is the workflow design. Only with the full understanding work of the design process, it determines how to allocate various tasks be accomplished to each separate job.
Job analysis results can provide the basis quantitative indicators for the recruitment and selection, managers better select personnel through an analysis of what needs to be done about this task, how to complete these tasks requires the knowledge, skills, When the manager is ready to find someone to fill a vacancy, he must be accurate understanding possess the characteristics of this position. Meanwhile, the job analysis can also provide the basis for the remuneration of management by job evaluation results, more importantly, it could be in line with organizational change and development .in the transformation stage, employees will feel the pressure from the corporate, the manager adjust the inequality of job stress level by business analysis and job redesign, it increase or decrease its challenging workload. Specifically, the application of the results of job analysis show In the following areas:
It fundamentally rethink and redesign business processes, aiming to greatly improve the cost, quality, service and speed critical, and other realistic performance targets.
Job redesign is means re-identify the specific tasks methods to be accomplished, at the same time, Job redesign determine how the work link with each other. It achieves the link of the work mainly through job enrichment and job enlargement means. Job enrichment is deepen requirements and responsibilities of the work in the vertical level, for example, increased work requirements, fully authorized, carry out feedback skills training. Job enlargement is expand the scope of work in the horizontal level, more work categories for staff, it increase the performance of tasks carried out simultaneously with the full authority.
Job analysis is an important function of human resource management, human resource managers can fully understand the various important business links and business processes of organization and management, it contributing to human resource management functions to truly rise to strategic position. It can better understand the importance of job analysis through analysis of the role of enterprises. It describes the process of job analysis which enables enterprises better application of the results of job analysis.