Research Study into HR POLICIES PRACTICES AND IMPACT

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Job satisfaction is the feeling of being fulfilled by the demands that any employee requires in terms of physiological, psychological and esteem. It is usually linked with motivation and job design as well because these factors determine the satisfaction level of the employee at the job place. Satisfaction is of intrinsic in nature and affects the person more than any other constraint in the life. Job satisfaction level is the most measured and evaluated constraint in the organization because it is major factor of efficient and effective performance. The employees are considered to be the most fragile component of the organization in terms of satisfaction because of human nature. Organizations give most importance to the satisfaction level of their best employees who are considered to be the valuable assets of the organization.

Human resource department is entitled to manage and control the employees by adopting and implementing different techniques of motivation, hiring, training, compensation plans and all other relating to workforce. They can play an important role in success because job satisfaction is determined by the human resource policies and practices. Job design, job rotation, job enrichment, compensation plans, organizational citizenship behavior and appraisal are the most dominated issue inside the organization for employees. Importance of HR department is of equal to the finance department because these departments work in co-ordination with each other to have a profound impact on business. Public and private sector give valuable consideration to the human resource practices and policies. Survey has been conducted to analyze the importance of different practices and policies of organization HR department and their effect on job satisfaction.

Different organizations have been focused to conduct our survey. The results of the survey will be evaluated and a certain conclusion will be given at the end of the research report.

Research problem

Identification of the relation of HR policies and practices with job satisfaction and the major practices and policies affect the level of job satisfaction of the employees. Job satisfaction is dependent on major factors of the organization policies and rules. The core values and culture determine the course of HR polices of the organization. Due to the large difference in the management styles of public and private sector identification of the criteria for job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction is dependent on motivation and that could be the factor or urging employees to perform well and achieve desired individual and organizational goals.

Objective of the study

The main objective of the study is to conduct research and identify the relation of HR policies and practices on job satisfaction and the major practices and policies that have an impact on the job satisfaction level of the employees. The opportunity is to make the workplace better for employees so that they can achieve maximum by utilizing their maximum knowledge and skills. If the human resource department knows the potential threats they are having in the system than they can remove and refine the system in order to have positive synergy in the workplace that directly increases the efficiency of the organization.

Business world is modifying day by day as the technology and economic environment is altering. Globalization and intense competition in the market leaves no prospect to undermine the employee related issues. All loop holes should be filled that can reduce the efficiency and effectiveness of the employees.

The major problem is reduction in performance of the employees due to many issues and the most demanding one is job satisfaction. Employees cannot work up to the optimum level unless the level of desired satisfaction is present.

Hypothesis

H0= Well structured HR policies has a significant impact on job satisfaction

H1= Well structured HR policies has not a significant impact on job satisfaction.

If there is significant impact of well structured policies on job satisfaction then the identification of those practices and policies.

Chapter Two

Literature review

(Liu, 2010) This study inquired about the major human resource practices that can affect the job satisfaction level of employees of Chinese and foreign companies. He finds out that three major human resource practices namely: job description, performance appraisals, compensation are the practices that are closely related to job satisfaction of employees in the Chinese and foreign organizations.

(Mir Mohammed Nurul Absar, 2010) The study was conducted on the determination of the human resource practices on job satisfaction in context of Bangladesh. Exploratory research methods were adopted and Questionnaire was used for data collection. They find out that human resource planning and training and development has a positive impact on job satisfaction.

(Arunima Shrivastava, 2009)Study was conducted to determine the level of job satisfaction between the private and public sector banks of India. The study used random sample t-test and qualitative analysis to study the difference. Private bank employees perceive greater satisfaction level with pay, social and growth aspects of job whereas public sector employees are more satisfied due to job security. These results signify the impact of human resource policies on job satisfaction.

(Salman Bashir Memon, 2010) Human resource practices and its mediating role in employee retention were investigated and role in competitive globalized economy. Primary data was collected through self monitored questionnaire with the support of secondary data. The findings of the research showed that human resource policies play a crucial role in employee satisfaction that can lead to retention of the employee. Performance appraisals were the most critical factor in modeling or affecting satisfaction level.

(Walters, 2008)In the research proposal, she evaluates the role of human resource practices have on employee job satisfaction that can result in employee motivation, retention or voluntary leaving the organization.

(Alina Ileana Petrescu, 2008) (Steve Bradley, 2004) Purpose was to verify the relationship between job satisfaction and human resource policies. British data from cross-sectional data sheets were used in data collection. Several HRM policies have a profound effect on job satisfaction with the pay and can raise job satisfaction if improved HRM policies and practices are determined.

(Belzen, 2009)Individual and bundled Human resource practices on overall job satisfaction. The accumulation of HR practices has a significant positive relationship and more advanced HR practices have a high overall job satisfaction.

(Guy Paré, 2000) This study tends to test an integrated model of turnover intentions that addresses the unique nature of the IT professionals and examined the relevant HR practices on employment turnover. Results shows that the effective implementation of HR practices shows that it reduces employee turnover because of high job satisfaction

Theoretical framework

Preliminary information gathering

Working Environment

Decision making

Job security

Role Ambiguity

Promotion policy

Relation with Supervisors and subordinates

Communication level with Supervisors and subordinates

Fringe benefits

Term of reference

Training programs

Theory formulation

Job satisfaction is the level of being contended with the job and workplace also. It depends on many factors. It is a serious issue that can cause many problems for an individual as well as to the organization. Job satisfaction arises when the imagined appreciation for the job and actual appreciation coincide with each other. Working environment affects the satisfaction of the employee because if the working condition is not proper and equal to world standards it will hinder the satisfaction. Democratic decision making organization tends to prosper more than the organization having autocratic environment because of motivation an employee get and that increases satisfaction. If job security is high than it adds to satisfaction level and increase it because employee identify it as expected profit of the effort they put in the work. Promotion and appraisals should portray reality and unbiased one. Communication level and relationship with colleagues effect job performance which is owing to satisfaction of the employee. Fringe benefits affect the employee as he or she evaluates them as commitment level of organization towards them. Training programs are usually developed to enhance the working capabilities and skills of the employees and conducting regular training sessions generate a sense of motivation and also job security.

Methodology

Satisfaction can be emotional as well as physical in nature such as monetary benefits. We have conducted research to analyze the impact of HR policies and practices on job satisfaction and major practices having impact on the job satisfaction id there is any.

Dependent and independent variable

Dependent Variable

Independent Variable

Expected Relationship

Job Satisfaction

Working environment

Positive

Decision making

Positive

Job security

Positive

Role ambiguity

Negative

Promotion policy

Positive

Relation with supervisors and subordinates

Positive

Communication level with supervisors and subordinates

Positive

Fringe benefits

Positive

Term of reference

Positive

Training programs

ModerateTable 1.1

Explanation

Job satisfaction is dependent variable that depends on all other variables in the second column and third column represent the expected relationship between the dependent and that specific independent variable. Positive relationship suggests that if one is improved, enhanced or increased the job satisfaction would increase. Negative relationship suggests that if one increases the job satisfaction would decrease. The moderate relationship suggests that the dependent variable is sometimes affected by the independent variable.

Sampling

Technique

Convenience sampling technique was used for sampling because of ease in data collection from various sources required for the research. The organizations in this competitive world tend to avoid giving information easily to the people about their management.

Sample size

Sample area

Mode of data collection

Questionnaires were used in order to gather the data about different employees from different organization.

QuestionnaireQUESTIONAARIE

Questionnaire

Respected Sir/Madam,

We are the students of University of Central Punjab (UCP) which is located at Khybian-e- Jinnah, Johar town, Lahore. This questioner is solely for the academic purpose. It is for our research project and the information provided by you would be kept highly confidential and private.

Gender

Male

Female

Age

Educational Qualification

Bachelors

Masters

Professional

PhD

Post Doc

Experience

0-5

6-10

11-15

16-20

21 & above

Sector

Public

Private

Department

Job

Please choose between the alternatives given against each variable

1 = strongly dissatisfied, 2 = Dissatisfied, 3 = No Idea, 4 =Satisfied, 5 = Strongly Satisfied

1

A.

Did you receive proper job description?

YES

NO

B.

Your job is entitled to you according to job description?

YES

NO

2

A.

Is personal issues affect performance at job?

YES

NO

B.

If yes then, Existence of effective and efficient policy for assisting employees on personal issues that may affect your performance

1

2

3

4

5

3

A.

Team work is very important aspect of the organization performance

YES

NO

B.

Does work and projects assigned to you in teams?

YES

NO

C.

If yes then, do you really feel a part of your team in organization?

YES

NO

D.

At work, I feel that often others exclude from various activities due to my ethnic and cultural background

YES

NO

4

A.

Is the working environment of the organization is democratic?

YES

NO

B.

I feel a part of every decision making in the organization regarding it performance and management

YES

NO

5

A.

Your affiliation with the organization is high

1

2

3

4

5

B.

You are often concerned about losing the job or being laid off

YES

NO

6

A.

Should be there evaluation of field employees on regular basis

YES

NO

B.

Evaluation of employees is done on regular basis in your organization

1

2

3

4

5

7

A.

Organization policies should be properly devised

YES

NO

B.

Implementation of organizational policies within the organization

1

2

3

4

5

C.

Organization’s Pay-for performance policy that rewards good performing employees

1

2

3

4

5

D.

Promotional policies and procedures of the organization

1

2

3

4

5

8

A.

Training is an essential tool for improving efficiency and effectiveness of employees

YES

NO

B.

Working capabilities of the subordinates

HIGH

MODERATE

LOW

C.

Unskilled employees in the organization encouraged to take up training

YES

NO

D.

There are regular training sessions arranged for performance appraisals

YES

NO

9

A..

Communication level between superiors/boss and you

HIGH

MODERATE

LOW

B.

Is it necessary to communicate with the employees issues such as future work prospects, success and failure of the company

1

2

3

4

5

10

A.

Do you believe that interdependency between colleagues affect the performance at job

YES

NO

B.

Presence of organizational citizenship behavior in the organization

1

2

3

4

5

11

A.

Organization functionality and structure

1

2

3

4

5

B.

Facilities and working environment is up to the required standards

1

2

3

4

5

12

A.

New Employee orientation program is an essential tool

1

2

3

4

5

B.

Is there any orientation program in your organization

YES

NO

C.

There is a high level of favoritism in the organization

1

2

3

4

5

13

A.

Compensation policies structure affect performance of the employee

YES

NO

B.

Surveys are conducted to compare how your compensation policies fair against the organization competitors

1

2

3

4

5

C.

Benefit programs provides benefits to employees

1

2

3

4

5

D.

There is a balance between the pay scales

1

2

3

4

5

Thank you!

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