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Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to those activities and employees that assist the organization to meet its stated operational objectives by providing a motivated, well trained workforce which understands what the business is about, knows where it fits in within the organization and how it can contribute to the organization. Human Resource Management functions within the organization work at two levels (Stredwick, 2005). At the first level, HRM activities are concerned with recruiting, motivating and developing competent employees. Hence, selection procedures are designed to supply the organization with employees with knowledge, abilities, and skills pertinent to their role within the organization in ways that create a sustainable commitment to organizational goals and to ensure a high-performance organization. The second level, HRM activities then motivate the workforce by providing employees with satisfactory pay, benefits and working conditions. HRM professionals also develop individuals to ensure that they possess the knowledge and the necessary skills to be effective employees.
The primary function of human resource management is to increase the effectiveness and contribution of employees in the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. However, the foremost concern for HR Manager is to hire best possible Human resource for company (Nankervis et al., 2005). Choosing what kind of employees yours company will need, how you will obtain them, ensuring that you select the right person for the job, ensuring that the person that you have choose is capable of doing the work that is expected, measuring employee's efficiency and maintain or motivating these employees. Human resource management also engages in the protection of employees. This includes the issue of compensation.
Another concern of a human resources management is to attract potential employees. Attracting potential employees, you need to be able to choose the best applicants. Furthermore, having hired employees, you will need to train them if you expect them to function effectively. once our employees are functioning effectively, we need to ensure that they continue to do so; we need to concern ourselves with their motivation (Storey, 1998). Part of this motivational process involves compensation, deciding how and when to compensate our employees, including decisions about the relationship between the nature of their jobs and level of their compensation. Theories of motivation also point out employees needs for feedback. Therefore, we need to be able to determine when your employees are doing a good job. Understanding of the jobs that yours employees are performing and, to understand their jobs, you will need to do a job analysis. Basically, the job analysis forms the center of the human resource management function. In doing a job analysis, you are essentially gathering information about the jobs in your company.
Job analysis is the development of defining the work, responsibilities, products, services, or processes carry out by or done by an employee or employees (Mondy er al., 1999). Job analysis is evaluating the work you need done in order to complete a job. It is the process of knowing exactly what a job involves in order to establishing the necessary job should be based on observable behaviors or work products. All jobs should be evaluated and recorded. Job analysis improve communication accommodate change and Skill, knowledge, and ability can be defined in operational terms. Job analysis and selecting the right people for your company is important, and every situation is unique. If can demonstrate the strong point of your business and the benefits of the positions you offer, you should be successful in receiving good quality employees to fill job and follow procedures and polices with your company. Policies include employment situations, from hiring to termination, vacations, leaves of absence, and disciplinary procedures. In deciding company policies, one should consider the following issues: the traditions of your company and its continual issues or problems, and past practice what you have done in the past to address a particular employee issue.
Compensation and benefits is another function of HRM. The majority employers develop policies on: at-will employment, pay procedures, benefits including any paid vacation, sick leave, holidays, and other forms of leave, meal and rest breaks, personal conduct, attendance and punctuality, sexual and other forms of harassment, equal employment opportunity, disciplinary procedures, and termination (Boje et al. 1996). In addition, many employers include policies on: performance appraisals, smoking, safety procedures, appropriate dress and appearance, use of communications systems including telephones, computers, e-mail, Internet access, and drug and alcohol use.
With policies company can preside over its employee in a fair and consistent manner. Policies assist employees be aware of what is expected and can prevent misunderstandings about employer policies (Nankervis et al., 2005). In addition, manager and supervisor are better able to implement policies that are clearly communicated in writing. Written policies assist employers document compliance with the employment laws and regulations, like the federal Family and Medical Leave Act require company's to provide written information regarding the employee rights and employer obligations under the Act. By having a policy against sexual harassment that includes a complaint Procedure Company can help protect them against liability for sexual harassment.
A manager must form his company into an organization that can learn from and respond to fast changing environments. This is an ongoing task that requires continual monitoring of new advances in the business world. An important aspect of success is the proper placement of technological developments within the company. Technology enables a manager to direct and control operations in a multitude of business environments. And with the growing availability of technology to all competitors, a manager must properly implement technological initiatives to give his company a market advantage. In a world filled with intense competition, ideas are the ultimate tool of a successful corporation. In order to be recognized and chosen by customers, a company must be both creative and unique. A manager's responsibility thus includes stimulating new ideas and innovations that will push the company forward in the marketplace.
When considering succession planning, human resource development is an integral strategic process which enables knowledge, skills and behavior to be acquired to meet job changes and client requirements in the future as opposed to training which is immediate job improvements. Training employees is very important in preparing them for success. They will need advice on everything from the informal relationships among coworkers to their own specific job responsibilities (Nankervis et al., 2005). It can be helpful to set up a mentor relationship between a new employee and an existing employee who knows the ropes. As well, the mentor will feel complimented when entrusted with the responsibility of mentoring a new co-worker. The best thing you can do while training is to create the kind of environment in which employees are not afraid to ask questions. Such an environment helps employees and managers work together to make the team the best it can be. Take the time to listen to both questions and ideas. Training new employees and reviewing their progress regularly may prevent future problems. Evaluations should start early and continue throughout the employee's career. Performance evaluations should be done on a regular basis for everyone who works in your company. This is especially true for new employees. Going over the job analysis, requirement and description, skill and qualifications the employee will require doing the job successfully.
Furthermore, the human resources manager should also be responsible for the coordination of the Corporation's equal employment opportunity and affirmative action efforts. In order for an organization to develop and promote equal opportunity in the workplace, a proactive rather than reactive approach should be taken when prohibiting discrimination. These types of discrimination include access discrimination, where minorities are prevented from gaining access to jobs held in a high proportion by white males, occupational discrimination, where the majority of people holding a particular job are of the same gender, sexual harassment, and pay discrimination. Prohibiting these acts of discrimination should start first with the adoption of policies that clearly identify the organization's intolerance and consequences of these behaviors, and should follow with strict adherence to the policies.
Addressing safety and health issues in the workplace is also an important function of HRM. NIoSH defines job stress as harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Stress is hard to address since people perceive and handle stress differently; items stressful to one person may not be a problem for someone else. The distress that a person may feel is not a result of what actually exists objectively in the job. It is a result of how the person perceives what is happening. While a certain amount of stress is necessary for human functioning, excessive stress is proven to be harmful to your health. In a general-duty clause, occupational Safety and Health Administration (oSHA) regulations demand that every employer shall provide a hazard-free work environment.
originally employee and labor relations dealt primarily with negotiations with the unions and administering collective bargaining agreements, or maintaining union-free status in those non-union environments in their organizations. Although programs such as profit sharing helped align interests of employees with that of their employers, some degree of conflict is inevitable between workers and management as their interests will not always align. This opens the door for unions to exist and increases the need for good labor relations. As unionization continues to exist, the process of labor relations is very important to an organization as it provides a way manage and resolve conflicts by hearing complaints and negotiating labor contracts between employees and employers.
A successful manager decides if his organization has the strategies, structures, and human resources to be viable on a global level. A manager must instill a commitment to globalization throughout his company. Rather, there needs to be a widespread adjustment of attitude, as well as sweeping changes in operation, to ensure the company's profitability. A successful manager will modify his company's global strategies to suit its resources and capability. This involves setting realistic goals without losing sight of more elevated ones. While a manager should take the limitations of his corporation into account, he must also remember that quality of products and services can achieve goals that mere size cannot. To achieve this, it is critical to match the talents and experience of each employee to the task best suited to him. Different cultures, laws, and market conditions make international operation a complicated process of system engineering. A manager must develop employees that have the skills necessary to interact with people throughout the world. It is therefore the duty of the manager to establish which strategies work best and to follow up with appropriate policies in international marketing, finance, and human resource. Manager needs to clearly outline the challenges and opportunities of an international market and to address the individual talents of each employee.
I feel that Human Resource management course will help me to improve my management skills. It was interested to learn how to perform Job analysis, company policy, recruiting and selecting the human resources. I strongly believe that the HRM course I have conducted will help me in managing a company as a Human Resource Manager. This information will make it easier to maintain good employees and develop a reputation for being a great employer. I have gain knowledge and skills to organize, analyze, enhance, assess and understand the dynamics of business. What I have learned from the course will help me focus on becoming a successful professional in the changing world of business. The courses helped me to build technique in areas of problem solving, communications, decision-making, ethical management and appraisal.