There are many aspects of organizations in today's business world. Each institution put all its efforts to obtain the maximum market share, profits and competitive advantages in the market. Organizations have a variety of structure, which work according to their needs. These structures collectively contribute to the success of these organizations through effective management and behavior. Organizational Behavior is the study of popular business students these days', and managers, and experts related to the organizational structure and study the behavior of systems behavior and behaviors relevant to any organization to find the best strategies for achieving progress in the future of business and economies. This investigation will see many aspects related to these behaviors, culture and structures of organizations.
2 Dell introduction
Dell is the most innovative company in the computer industry that a successful global networking. In this study, we will find how Dell is the implementation of different strategies for the development of a competitive environment within the company and the structure of some kind with a certain behavior has. Dell is an American multinational company of technology development, and sells and supports computers also associated with some of the products and services. Michael Dell founded Dell in 1984; The company occupies a place as one of the largest computer related. Has 96 000 staff in all parts of the world between the majority in the United States. In 2009, a company that sells personal computers, servers, data storage devices, switches of the network, some programs, as well as computer accessories. Dell now sells and high-definition television, camera, printer and MP three players and electronic, which are built by other manufacturers. The company is known for innovation in supply management and electronic commerce.
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In May 2010 and developed by Fortune magazine as the Dell, the largest 38 in the United States and large corporations 5 Texas. It is also the second largest non-oil. Michael Dell to start selling directly to customers, and computers, Ltd. is trying to understand the needs of clients. It was Michael Dell dropped out of school to keep his chickens the family; also received $ 300,000 for expansion of his family. In 1985 the company successfully produced their own computers with their first design they called the "Turbo PC", which was sold in the United States $ 795. Computers began limited advertising regulations in national magazines for computers, which sell directly to consumers and all of the above the allocation of assembly. Companies are growing more than 73 million dollars for the first year.
In 1988, the company has to change its name to Dell Computer Corporation it would also begin to expand in the world. June 1988 Dell has grown from $ 30 million to $ 80 million. In 1992, Fortune magazine put Dell Computer Corporation's largest 500 companies in the world also announced Michael Dell, chief executive of a smaller company than any Fortune 500 company. Of 1996, Dell began selling computers from its website in 2002, Dell expanded product line of computers to TVs, printers and digital audio players, and portable devices. Lackluster performance, however, in the field of low-end computer prompted Michael Dell to take over as CEO again. Founder and announced a campaign to change the so-called "Dell 2.0," reducing the number of staff and diversifying the company's products. The company obtained the logic of equality in January 2008 to gain a foothold in the market for ISCSI storage. Because Dell already effective manufacturing process, and the integration of equality and logic products in the company in the prices of manufacturing industries to the bottom. In 2009 Peru got Dell systems technology and outsourcing services company founded by H. Ross Perot.
In September 2009, Dell announced its intention to Peru to get the systems (based in Plano, Texas) in a deal at $ 3.9 billion reported. Brought Peru applications systems development and systems integration, and strategic consulting services through its operations in the United States and 10 other countries. In addition, it provided a variety of services business process outsourcing, including claims processing and call center operations. In August 16, 2010, Dell announced its intention to obtain the data storage company 3PAR. On September 2, 2010 the company introduced the Hewlett-Packard $ 33 per share, which Dell refused to match.
In this study, we will see the organizational culture and behavior of Dell. Our products and services include the following: Servers
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Printing and imaging systems
Software and peripheral products
Dell Support Services
Training and certification services
3 Organizational Structures
Organizational structure is defined as "the concept of hierarchical subordination of the entities that cooperate and contribute in the service of a common goal?" I like this definition for several reasons. One is that it is easy to understand and to the point, contrary to the definitions of long ago where during the reading, one forgets the preceding sentence after the transition to the next. The other is that it defines the organizational structure in the form of term spoke harshly to him. Because out of all the requirements for the management and talismans and the organizational structure is just really - a hierarchical structure that puts the position of each employee in the organization.
Organizational structures and thus the total of all material and legal aspects concerning the composition and work of the organization.
While the organizational structure there is still a very old concept, and over the years that have passed to keep pace with the evolution of business models today. The new models also continued to work in crop cultivation, and management processes necessary to keep pace so that the organization can extract the best of its structure. And organizational structures can be divided into the line before and after the bureaucratic red tape. And organizational structures based on the more industrial of the oldest kingdoms on the line in terms of leadership and communication, not only in one direction, from a higher level of authority to the lower level. Lower levels also ordered to obey and not expected to give any feedback. The latest structures that have emerged in the 1970s, and encourage two-way communication, and consideration of proposals to allow lower levels.
The first period of the organizational structure during the mid-1800s, which was dominant until the 1970s. In this era, the one organization that was perfect in itself. The presence of clear boundaries between the organization, suppliers and customers. The next input at the gate of the institution, and the final product turned on or any service he was leaving the organization. Were provided with everything to process internally.
Types of organizational structures mean that the institution is designed organizational structure of the business sector. The basis of the organizational structure can be either functions or to the people. Let's look at them one by one.
4.1 Functional structure
In the functional organization is divided on the basis of tasks performed by them, and this division is in departments such as production, sales and marketing, and management of human resources, accounts, and so forth in each of the departments of art, and the staff implement a range of similar tasks. There is a new structure within each section. For example, a model for marketing management.
4.2 People structure
There is structure to divide the people responsible for the divisions for different products. As the description suggests, this structure will be used by those companies that produce more than one product. For example, you can split the company car to the Division for small cars, and the Division of SUV and truck division, etc.
4.3 Matrix structure
It is quite clear that in very large enterprises that would not be possible to just be one of the two structures. Large institutions, which have a large number of people needed to work the different structure, which is a combination of all structures and functional and the people or the division is based on both in a timely manner. This structure is called a matrix. In the structure of the matrix, and is divided into sections: the first is the organization and then to the departments. Being big companies Dell, this matrix or mixed culture and structures.
The best organizations in the world today are outside the formal organizational structures and trying to form structures minimums. Although very few of today's enterprises have successfully implemented the idea of implementing agencies, and large companies are very simple, it may be an organization where no one is indispensable. And encourages everyone to cross the lines and the official working in other departments of the company that the "Employee destruction."
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Matrix organizational structure that combines two types of organizational structures is a unique combination of structure and people-oriented or purely to serve the people to create a unique combination of the work environment. This organizational structure and design is most useful for appointments when you are working in projects that, in this and professionals working with troops from several distinct, and will be contracted to perform tasks. For example, the matrix organizational structure employed many engineers to perform a similar function in the compilation of their experiences. That is, one where the company produces two kinds of products with the same team of professionals.
Each institution must be done to structure functions in the company correctly. The system aims to achieve in a world of chaos and give the structure and organizational culture so that it becomes possible to effective performance. Organizational structure means that the organization need any kind of hierarchy so that there is an appropriate division of duties and responsibilities of different units can work in harmony at work in order to reach the ultimate goal. This is the need for which was responsible for the formation of several types of organizational structure in the companies. In the following article, however, we must focus on one type of structure and this is the structure of the matrix. If there was any confusion than ever in this issue, read the following article to learn more about the organizational structure and a matrix of what it involves.
Usually, this structure has two or more employers and workers on the project to submit a report to each and every one of them. Therefore in the matrix organizational structure, and the exchange of information becomes mandatory for the implementation of effective and smooth. Each will have the project manager and project from different teams, and is expected to provide him with work. This in turn reports directly to the head of the organization or authority, such as the President proposed Vice-Chairman. There is also a functional management (chaired by Director of the Department) is responsible for maintaining the technical functions of the organization by making sure to maintain a sound and technical progress and excellence through leadership skills and organizational work.
Because of the unique composition of this structure, there are many advantages to be seen. Here are some of them:
â€¢ Dell has a dedicated team is selected on the basis of the merits of their work and the tasks they undertake.
â€¢ Dell needs of the project to build a standard for the recruitment of professionals. Allowing more opportunities for success.
â€¢ The appointment of key people since part of one team are also working within the framework of the other teams, the question of cost-effective because it is less than the cost of the project keep its importance in the Dell corporate culture.
â€¢ Where the structure is not balanced that there will be a proper balance between time, cost and performance in the Dell.
And are thus in conflict resolution â€¢ Del less likely to occur, and even if they do, because they are easily setup hierarchy.
â€¢ Project Manager at Dell is solely responsible for ensuring that the project is completed on time and within budget. Therefore, other than the obvious problems that do not arise, and there is less chance of external factors that affect the project.
â€¢ There is a greater chance of success of the company because a lot of thinking about the various forces working on the project, and thus the pressure on energy and problem-solving capabilities become stronger.
Although there are benefits matrix organizational structure, and there are some disadvantages that one should be aware of as well. Here are some of them:
â€¢ There can be a lot of confusion and conflict if there is ambiguity about factors such as the sharing of resources by teams or team, working in two or more at Dell.
â€¢ You can increase the cost if there was a lot of contract project manager for the job for Dell.
â€¢ Since the key performance in Dil goes this is that there is a lot of power and independence of the decision and the development of team members or even the project manager, then there is access to the delay in the completion of the project.
5 Organizational culture
To make good on our understanding of organizational culture, and we need to know what is culture? Culture is essentially a set of values and customs that were adopted by the people who live anywhere in the world. If we apply this definition of culture with the word 'organization' unprecedented, we are referring to the fundamental principles and values of the organization that is fixed and applies to all staff, without any bias or favoritism. It is the foundation of public and private behaviors and reactions of people in all of this work in the organization.
Organizational culture is not tangible. It can be best understood through the study of behavior and attitudes, values and belief system of employees. It distinguishes colors our perception of the business entity. Any employee to be effective regardless of how efficient if it is unable to adapt himself to the work culture. Organizations with a focus on culture, since the growth and success depends on the type of culture prevailing in the company.Does do not feel threatened by staff members or dear, is there a desire to work, grow, and they do not want to evolve as a group or go their separate ways? Companies such as Dell, organizational culture is rich with some of the innovations of traditional management systems.
5.1 Understanding organizational culture
I do not feel concerned staff as far as securing their jobs? Management is a hard taskmaster? Can answer these questions will help appreciate the culture of the organization. Some organizations encourage employees to start at the base and work towards the top. These organizations are characterized by the presence of a large number of staff who have been with the company for many years. Seniority in these organizations play a very important role and are guaranteed to a certain degree of job security. A culture that promotes work and grow together in some business organizations family.In people for a short period of time before quitting for good. And consideration for managers and hard taskmasters. It is expected that the staff to adhere to strict deadlines. "All work and no play" is the culture of these organizations. Of course also limited the interaction between the staff. May not be a place of work and very friendly or comfortable. There may be intense competition and the people in an attempt to provide the best. Moreover, people may burn out due to stress.
People's expectations of the organization also reflect the organizational culture.
Dell claims and the innovative culture within the main features is the cooperation and ambition. Commitment to unique solutions. It is the base of this culture on merit,
They say all professional functions here as an essential part of the team and succeeded by meeting measurable objectives.
5.2 Types of organization culture
There are the following types of organizational culture in today's business environment.
5.2.1 Standard Culture
Standard in the organization, and emphasizes the implementation of regulatory actions in the right way, in accordance with specific standards and rules. This is the kind of culture for the film, a high level of business ethics. Dell sets standards but does not make from fear horibl for staff to get a job in the nervous system.
5.2.2 Pragmatic culture
In contrast to standard cultures, the focus is on meeting the desire of its customers. In this type of organizational structure, no rules are set by the company, and is given the utmost importance to the needs of the client. Dell is more inclined towards the customers, and can be named as pragmatic.
5.2.3 Academy Culture
In this type of culture, highly skilled workers, and the Organization provides an environment to develop and hone the skills of staff. Examples of this kind of culture, in contrast to hospitals, universities and big companies Dell do not always follow this, but still has a good learning environment where employees tend to stay with the organization, and grow within it.
5.2.4 Culture Club
Employees usually stay with the organization for a long time for an upgrade to a senior position or level. These staff in terms of access, it is necessary to have the specific skills needed and desired by the organization. Examples of this type of regulation and corporate law, military, and Dell do not follow this type.
5.2.6 Castle culture
Staff are not sure whether he will be laid off or not by the organization. In many cases, this organization is subject to tremendous changes. Some examples of this type of culture, and loans, savings, and the big auto companies, Dell does not come in this culture.
5.2.7 Work hard / play hard
This type of regulation does not involve a lot of risks, and organizations originally composed by well-established with the client side to a strong relationship. And selected the most from this type of culture by large organizations that customer service is strong. The organization has been equipped with this type of culture with specialized jargons and qualified with several meetings the group. This is where Dell focuses more they try to get such a culture where there is competition halthy and learning for employees.
5.2.8 Process of culture
This kind of culture does not include the feedback process. In this type of culture, and organization are very cautious about the maintenance of law and commitment to prefer that. This culture provides the consistency of the organization and good for public services.
5.3 Changing work culture
One of the most difficult tasks to be done in the organization, is to change the work culture. Change in organizational culture requires the presence of the Organization to make modifications to its policies, business ethics and management system. It needs to start right from the base functions, which include support functions, and production processes and the floor, which ultimately affect the total production of the organization. It requires a comprehensive reform of the entire system, and preferably not many organizations as a single long and boring, which requires patience and endurance.
6 Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is the sum of personality and cognition, attitudes and job satisfaction, group dynamics, politics, and the role of leadership in the design and organization of work, and the effect of pressure on the work and decision-making processes, and a series of communications company, cultures and climates.
They use a variety of techniques and methods to assess each of these elements and their impact on individuals and groups, and organizational efficiency and effectiveness. "Science and behavior," said Gibson and others (Gibson, et al, 1994) "We have provided the framework and basic principles of the field of organizational behavior every discipline Behavioral Sciences provides a different focus for a bit, and analytical framework, and. Topics to help managers to answer questions about themselves, and the staff is administrative, and environmental forces. "
With regard to individuals and groups, and researchers in an attempt to determine why people behave the way they do.
They have developed a variety of models designed to explain the behavior of individuals. They investigate the factors that affect the personal development, including genetic factors, and situational and environmental development, cultural and social. Researchers also examine various personality types and their impact on business organizations and others. One of the main tools used by researchers in organizational behavior in these and other areas of this study is the study of job satisfaction. And the use of these tools not only to measure job satisfaction in specific areas such as wages, benefits and promotional opportunities, and working conditions, but also to measure the behavior patterns of individual and collective impact of corporate culture, both positively and negatively.
6.1 Organizational behavior and corporate culture
The terms "corporate culture" and "organizational behavior" are sometimes used interchangeably, but in reality, there are differences between the two countries. Corporate culture includes shared values, attitudes, customs and beliefs and other characteristics that determine the operational philosophy of the institution. Organizational behavior at the same time, it can be the Under-stood in some ways and academic study of corporate culture and its various elements, as well as other important elements of behavior such as organizational structure and processes of the organization. Said Gibson, organizational behavior, Ivancevich, and Donnelly (Gibson, et al, 1994), is the "field of study, which relies on methods and theories and principles from various disciplines to find out perceptions of individual values and the ability to learn, and procedures while working in groups and in-house total, and analyze the impact of external of the environment on the organization and human resources, missions, objectives, and strategies for effective managers ... you know what you're looking for in terms of structure, process and culture, and how it was to find the position of the agent, managers must therefore develop diagnostic skills, and must be trained to determine the circumstances of the symptoms of the problem require further attention include indicators of the problem of low profits low quantity or quality of work, and increases in the absence or delay, and negative attitudes of staff members each of these problems is the organizational issue.
Organizational studies, and also pointed to organizational behavior and, organizational theory, and include a systematic study and application of accurate knowledge of how people work within organizations. Dell and unique culture in which companies, and adopt the best suitable strategy to get maximum output and shipping culture of health leading to a high-performance behaviors that contribute to its success and where the employee is responsible with a sense of their property. Although cultural change yields tangible results only with the passage of time, Dell was able to keep track of some immediate improvements and meaningful, as specified in the quarterly evaluation studies told Dell. Management says employees are more likely to support their efforts to achieve a better balance between work and life. Workers also see more clearly the relationship between their functions and objectives of the Dell company. Given an offer compared to the percentage of people who stay in other places Dell rose, despite the fact that 57 percent, it is still as high as does the administration want.
Dell may change its culture in any form of basic shapes? Maybe not. But he was clearly harnessed those positive aspects of the culture that allowed her to come quickly so far.
20, Dell still feels like a "coherent company to start," says Dell. But it will not be too much to admire and relish the company's strength and achievements. "Let's get better. I? M 38 years old now. I want to look back in 40 years and be proud."
6.2 Systems framework
In the framework of the system is also essential that organizational theory, organizations and processes complex dynamic goal-oriented. And Kurt Lewin was particularly influential in developing countries within the perspective of the theory of regulatory systems and the term "systems of ideology", from the disappointment of ethical conduct, which has become an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology. (Ash, 2008) and the perspective of complexity theory to organizations other systems and point of view of organizations.
Systems approach to organizations relies heavily on achieving negative entropy through openness and feedback. Disciplinary look at the illegal and integrated. In other words, it is behind the views of the individual disciplines, and integration on the basis of "code" in common, or more precisely, on the basis of official bodies provided by systems theory. Systems approach gives priority to the mutual, and not to elements of the system. Some of these relations, the dynamic characteristics of a new system for emerge.In recent years, systems thinking has been developed to provide techniques to study ways to complete the comprehensive traditional reductionist methods. In this more recent tradition, systems theory is considered in organizational studies by some of humanity along the natural sciences.
6.3 Theories and Model
Mintzberg on management positions
Rational model of decision-making
Â Garbage can model
6.4 Motivation in organizations
Motive forces, internal or external to the person who raises the enthusiasm and the resistance to follow a specific course of action. According to Baron et al. (2008): "Although the motivation is the concept of a broad and complex, and scientists regulatory and agreed to the fundamental characteristics of the social sciences draw different, as we know the motive set of processes that lead to direct and maintain human behavior towards some goal,"
There are many different theories of motivation such as Dell as they try to apply the best according to the situation, because Dell is also famous for the adoption of a quick way of learning:
* Attribution theory
* Theory of Justice
* Maslow's hierarchy of needs
* Incentives theory (Psychology)
* Model to work in organizations, and emotional
* Theory Frederick Herzberg two factor
* Expectancy Theory
* Organizational culture and behavior
6.5 Organizational cultures and behavior co-relation
One of the most common terms in these days in the management of organizational culture and behavior. In organizational culture, although there are differences in meaning and significance of them on the management of people is very clear. It is mainly related to all these circumstances that require understanding on Organizational Psychology staff, and there are many tools that can be effective for use by the Department in achieving efficiency and the ability to increase the employment rate for workers in the organization.
Culture and organizational behavior associated with each other. These two are interrelated, and affect all the roads other inter-changing. Linked to organizational behavior to examine how employees act as individuals in their organization. These are the key areas in human resources management. Studies of organizational behavior on the behavior of individuals, which are viewed by their organizations. It is about public and private conduct of workers and the response that they made to certain motives. Also expects the individual is important in group dynamics and the team that creates an organizational culture. Managers need to understand their behavior and staff to understand the reason behind their actions in a certain way so that they can later improve it when needed to reduce errors in the work.
Over the years several theories have been proposed for organizational behavior. These theories gave different models of organizational systems. Organizational behavior, and says a shared vision and motivate employees towards the organization's leadership success, and thus are developing an organizational culture intact.
6.6 Relations at workplace
Whether personal or professional, you must be one of building relationships in the workplace. However, fishing is one of how to deal with these relationships because they can lead to success, as well as the fall of the individual in his career. The following are some aspects about the relations in the workplace that one should consider linking with a colleague does not fall again.
It is true that the workplace is where you put it to use all the business acumen and skills that we acquire through training and experience. However, we all know that work is not just numbers and negotiations. Much more about relationships - relationships with colleagues, with the Chairman, and other staff, as well as with business partners. In addition to the relations in the workplace that are based purely on a professional basis, and get emotionally close to coworkers in the workplace is also common.
6.7 Maintaining relationships in the workplace
Dell has different strategies for the establishment of good relations between employees in the workplace. However, it's not just the skills of workers that determines success, but also how they behave and how that behavior is controlled and the organization to get maximum results. Here are some ways the extent that the del tags to monitor and regulate the conduct of the employee inside to maintain a positive image in the workplace:
However, professional and friendly: Managers staff make sure that the employee is at work in their offices. Clear to all that work comes first for them. However, they are not far away in times of needs. This is a good way to build relationships in the workplace and one who stands in a good position.
Professional boundaries: It may start a friendly at first but later in the person can be a problem at work. As long as the problems of professional staff and safe everything is okay for managers of Dell. However, they are careful of this nature. They are used to give a clear signal to colleagues at work they Dodd. They always maintain professional ethics. They make the right balance between professional and personal aspects that are a mantra for success in the workplace.
Avoid gossip: in the workplace communication Dell is desirable and encouraged. However, very limited office gossip is as harmful to the organization and its employees. Indulging in gossip is a waste of time, the main thing. Even Dell managers maintain the system /
Confidence parameters: Although there are said to maintain a professional relationship in the workplace, and everyone's needs for the exchange of ideas that may not all be professional in nature. Each one has a friend in the workplace so there is no problem in the workplace is a friendly Dell so he encouraged more reason Dell is one of the friendly working environment in the industry.
6.8 Impact of Technology
Dell is a global technology leader and has a good fame for modern technology. Always adopt the new technology according to needs. Technology has brought many changes in organizational structures, cultures and behaviors. I have changed the relationship between man last time in the workplace and among organizations because of technology and rapid progress. Companies now have a quick decision and raid-making, communication and implementation of the resolution. Has been changed change management processes and departments now.
Different organizational structures used by man since the creation of human organizations. The right of the people who were hunters and the beginning of military or tribal farmers have some behaviors such as the decision of one man to lead the Pack and will make the distribution of daily functions of each one in the team. Right from ancient times there was a pyramid scheme that is being followed everywhere. Following the appointment and the definition of tasks and people according to their capabilities and learning. Been set for each person to be the lead role in delivery of the different responsibilities that were required for some tasks. At the end there was a strong reporting system structure, where he was under the responsibility of analysis and questions and accountability, and there was a kind of performance evaluation. Community in itself is a formal organizational structure that is selected. Now with the advances in the field of business and human rights organizations also went to the shift that has made all the organizational structures, cultures and behaviors in new forms. Dell is always changing adopted in accordance with needs. Other innovations such as Dell to make adjustments in its culture and structure, and behavior to meet the needs to get the maximum from the market.