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1.1 Explain Guest's model of hard-soft, loose-tight dimensions of HRM. [P1]
In1987 Guest's said HRM is connected to strategic management of an organisation. Guest gives Human Resource Management model and dimensions of hard-soft HRM. British gas maintain Guest's model like they have training system by they make their employee good at their work. They also have recruitment and selection system for collect their perfect employee. Guest's model has given bellow:
Hard HRM: According to the Storey (1992:29) Hard HRM is the quantitative, calculative and business strategic prospect of managing the census resources in as lucid way for any factor of production as associated with a useful-instrumentalist approach.
Soft HRM: Soft HRM is an assistant with the human relations movement and the employment of individual talents (Bloisi, 2007).
1.2 Review the differences between Storey's definitions of HRM and personnel and IR
Personnel management is that management which includes by job analysis, plan for personal needs, selecting appropriate people for job, mange to train, give right salary and communicate all of the employees of organisation. Human resources management is strategic management of an organisation, to achieve organisation goals and to utilize every employee for achieving organisation goals. There are huge differences between HRM and personnel management. The differences given bellow:
Beliefs and assumption:
Contract: Personnel management or IR contact by writing with delineation while HRM wish to go beyond contract.
Rules: personnel management evaluate of discovering clear rules but HRM maintains can -do outlook impatience with rule.
Managerial task vis-a-vis labour: Managerial task vis-a-vis labour of PM or IR is monitoring though HRM is nurturing.
Nature of relations: Relation of PM or IR is pluralist where HRM is unitary.
Conflict: PM conflict institutionalised and HRM conflict de-emphasised.
Key relation: PM make their key relation with labour management while HRM evaluate customer.
Initiatives: The initiative of PM is piecemeal but HRM is integrated.
Corporate plan: PM corporate their plan marginal to and HRM corporate their plan central to.
Speed of decision: PM takes their decision slowly but HRM can fast.
Management role: Management role of PM is transactional where HRM is transformational leadership.
Key managers: PM or IR specialists mange all thing at PM but in HRM, line manager do everything.
Communication: PM communicates with employee indirectly but HRM communicate directly.
Standardisation: Standardisation of PM is high while HRM is low.
Selection: PM select their employee separately where HRM integrated.
Pay: PM pay their employee by job evaluation though HRM pay by performance.
Job categories: PM has different job categories but amount of HRM is few.
Job design: PM design their job through division of labour but HRM divide by teamwork (Bloisi, 2007).
1.3 Demonstrate that effective judgment has been made to establish a contribution of strategic HRM in achieving the corporate objectives. [P3]
Role of line manager
Introduction: The role of the line manager is to achieve organisations goals. He maintains all of things on behalf of an organisation. In the view of my case study, HR of British Gas has already maintained the role of manager. If he did not maintain the role of HR manager then organisation can not go to their goals.
The role of HR manager: There are some roles of HR manager by which they run an organisation. It has given bellow:
Planning, resourcing and retention: A line manager need to know how many staffs are now working, which department is busier, which department they need some people. When he will indentify this things then he will plan how many staffs he will take and how process he will take. For example Sainsbury is very busy at Saturday and Sunday. So managers of Sainsbury need more staff for these weekend day. And he also need to find out how many staff are good at for operating system. Then he will take decision for taking or recruiting people. This is the planning and resourcing role for line manager. Retention is also important role for line manager. It can be define the retention like some of staffs are recruiting for new staff, but manager have to know to know are they happy for their time being.
Recruitment and selection: When manger will confirm that they need people essentially, in that time they need to find out appropriate people for their organisation, by which he can achieve their organisation goals as well. It is most important role for a manager because if he can not find out right people then he will be failed for achieving organisation goals. To find out right people he need to select more productive people who are very much enthusiastic, good behave and first of all who can help organisation for achieving their goals.
Training and development: To take right people for their organisation manager manage to give training to make appropriate for work. Because new people do not know what is their main responsibilities and operating system. So manager need to know everybody about their job. And he also makes their as good employee for achieving their goals. By training method manager develop their new employee.
Reward remuneration: Employees depend on their organisation for surviving their live. So manager have to pay adequate and equitable. Manger also has to manage reward system like pensions, healthcare, other financially. By rewarding employee get more satisfaction to work. If employees are happier on their organisation then they will work more.
Employee relations: Employees relation is another important role of manager. Because manager have to maintain good relations like good behave, easies with employee, reasonable for all, to consider employee with their life (Bloisi, 2007).
2.1 Review different ways of developing flexibility within the workplace in your organization review and explain a model of flexibility within the workplace and illustrate its implementation in your chosen organization. [P4]
Atkinson's has given model of flexibility:
(Emerald insight, 2010)
2.2 Describe the need for flexibility and the types of flexibility to be considered by an organization and give examples of such implementation in an organization. [P5]
Flexible working is not only part time working but also flexible types of working. British Gas can develop by implementing flexibility. By giving flexibility they can get good response from their employee. In the view of case of British Gas they need to flexibility for getting better result themselves.
Importance of flexibility: An organisation needs to give flexibility to their employee for developing or achieving their goals. There are different side for flexibility. Organisation can give their customer satisfaction as they need by flexibility. By flexibility organisation can give their staff happiness, better staff motivation. Staffs also get more support for surviving their live. By flexibility organisation can rise up their fertility. Staffs are also more ease with one and another. Finally by flexibility organisation can recruit more enthusiastic, skilled people for their organisation (Equality Challenge Unit, 2010).
Types of flexibility: There are different types of flexibility like part-time work, shift time work. Description has given bellow:
Part-time working: Part time working means that type of work where employee works standard time or less than full time hour.
Flexitime: When employees work in a free time of starting, finishing and take break in order to employer.
Staggered hours: Staggered hour can be defined that employee has different starting, finishing and breaking time allowing organisation to open longer hours.
Compressed working hours: Compressed hour means that an employee work 40 hours in a week but he wants to work same hour within 5 days.
Job sharing: An employee who work as a full time worker but he wants to split between another employee who agree to work with him.
Shift swapping: When employee manages their shift among themselves by covering all requirements of organisation.
Time off in lieu: Sometime employee work more hour when organisation get peak activity but when organisation get less busy time that time employee go for time off in lieu.
Term-time working: It can be described that normally in term time employee work in his organisation like 20hour per week but when his or her school, college or university go to holiday in that time employee work like term time.
Annual hours: Annual hour means employee calculates his or her hours annually and the employer decorate shift but employer keep some hours in their hand. When organisation get peak time, then they call them for work.
Zero hours contracts: An employee work that hour which his need that is called zero hour (Business link, 2010).
2.3 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of flexible working practices from both the employee and the employer perspective in your chosen organization. [P6]
Flexible working has advantage and disadvantage. In my case study British Gas should take decision after looking advantage and disadvantage of flexible working. British Gas need to achieve their goal so they Have to take decision is it helpful or not.
Advantage of flexible working: Advantage of flexible working has given bellow:
By flexible working employee can get good health.
By flexible working they can reduce their passion.
By flexible working employee can spend their life happily.
By flexible working responsibilities increase to employee for organisation
By flexible working employee and employer can spend their time with their family.
By flexible working travel costs decrease.
Flexible gives different shift patterns through organisation.
And finally flexible working gives more effective time management.
Disadvantage of flexible working: As flexible working has advantage so that it has some disadvantage which has given bellow:
Sometime employee get downsize salary if he works few hours.
Flexible work creates separation from one and another colleague.
By flexible work employee feel isolation.
Human resource cannot justify honestly the performance of employee.
Flexible works creates drawback to promotion (Prospects, 2010).
2.1.1 Describe different forms of discrimination observed by you within a selected organization. [P7]
Discrimination: Now-a-days discrimination is the common matter through the world. Discrimination means to give the favour one people less than other people by ethnic, religion, sex and so on. British Gas should omit the discrimination through their employee, by which they can be trusted by their employee. There are different forms of discrimination which has given bellow:
Direct discrimination: Direct discrimination is that discrimination where an employ get less favour than other employee to base on age, sex.
Indirect discrimination: Indirect discrimination is that discrimination which is occurs on the requirement process of an organisation.
Harassment: Harassment is unwelcomed conduct which has the effect of violating an employment performance or making agree sieve, disgraceful, humiliating workplace for employment.
Victimisation: Victimisation is occurred to base on some reasons:
Create complaint under ACT.
Do anything which is unlawful or illegal (Law-Now, 2010).
2.1.2 Review how the legislative framework and any proposed changes relating to discriminate in the workplace can be applied by an organisation. [P8]
Legislative framework: Legislative frame work is the process by which an organisation can recruit their employee with equal opportunity and equal opportunity also run in work place. There are some changes relating to discriminate in workplace has given bellow:
In 1970 the equal acts covered the equal pay through men and women.
In 1974 the rehabilitation offenders act mention an individual does not have to reveal criminal offence if the conviction is deemed spent.
In 1975 there is no gender discrimination in marriage and qualification has covered by Sex discrimination acts.
In 1976 race relations act mention that race, ethnic, colour and nationality positive action.
In 1984 and 1998 discover the act of data protection and implement that protection of data its usage and extension.
In 1995 and 1999 the disability discrimination acts has covered the disable people get right commission.
In 1998 the public interest disclosure act maintains protection of whistle blowing.
In 1998 the employment right mention the reformation of the industrial tribunal system.
In 1999 national minimum act rate covered national minimum wage.
In 1999 human rights act mention retreat of human rights.
Finally it can be said that the above discussion can apply for an organisation for legislative frame work (Bloisi, 2007).
2.1.3 Explain a range of current initiatives and practises which focus on equal opportunities in employment. [P9]
British gas need to maintain that equal opportunity policy has given bellow. It needs for this organisation.
A range of current initiatives and practises which focus on equal opportunities in employment has given bellow:
Employer develops an equal opportunities policy, covering recruitment, promotion and training.
They set an action plan with targets so that employer and their staff have a clear idea of what can be achieved and when.
They asses the present position to establish their starting point and monitor progress in achieving their objectives.
They review their recruitment, selection and training procedures regularly, to ensure that they are delivering on their policy.
Employer draw up clear and justifiable job criteria which are demonstrably objective and job related.
Employer develops links with local community groups, organisations and schools, in order to reach a wider pool of potential applicants (Bloisi, 2007).
2.1.5 Compare and contrast equal opportunities and managing diversity at work place. [P10]
Compare between equal opportunities and managing diversity has given bellow:
Base on drivers for change:
Equal opportunity drive externally but managing diversity drive internally.
Equal opportunity rests on proper and sound arguments and managing diversity rests on business case.
Equal opportunity appreciates EO as a cost and it appreciate as investment.
Degree of combination:
Equal opportunities are operational and managing diversity is strategic.
Equal opportunity corporate with process but managing diversity corporate with outcomes.
Sensation of difference:
Equal opportunity sensate as other and managing diversity sensate as asset.
Focus of action:
Equal opportunity focus on group discrimination and managing diversity focus on improvement for individuals.
It is group of initiatives and it is universal of initiatives.
It supported by narrow positivist knowledge base and it is supported by pluralistic knowledge base (His academy, 2010).
3.1.1 Explain different models of performance management in practice. [P11]
Performance management is the subject by which an organisations manager can justify that employees making match organisation goals. It has three parts:
It gives the information what types of idea of performance are consistent to the job.
It can evaluate the relevant idea of employee performance.
It gives the comment by which employee can justify their performance to suit their organisation goals.
Armstrong and Baron (2004) define performance management as "a process which contributes to the effective management of individuals and terms in order to achieve high levels of organisational performance. As such, it establishes shared understanding about what is to be achieved and an approach developing people which will ensure that is achieved."
Functions of performance management: There are three functions of performance management.
Strategic function: Performance management must be able to find where employees are matching their work with organisations goal. For doing this organisation need to know in which place it is occurring. For doing this strategic function they have flexible because of flexibility can change the goal and nature of organisations. Sometime some organisations fail to do this then they like administrative and development function.
Administrative function: Every organisation has to pay their employee and for getting popularity they do promotion, besides this they have to make retention, redundancy. So many of the organisation use administrative function for doing this job.
Development function: By doing development function managers of any organisation can realize when an employee doing his or her job well and can be improve themselves. But normally without performance appraisal it is not possible to measure the poor performance of employee and by this employee also improve them.
Performance appraisal: Performance appraisal is the way by which manager can evaluate and justify the employee performance. By this if employee performance shows poor then manger can improve them.
Objectives of performance management: Shortly an objective of performance is SMART which can be explained by Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant and Time bound (Bloisi, 2007).
3.1.3 Critically evaluate different human resource practices in the workplace. [P12]
Human resource practises in workplace is very important for any organisation. So British Gas needs to practises the human resource for developing their organisation. They have followed the bellow types of practises:
Mandatory meeting with producer and department manger: An organisation have to create meeting with producer and manger about the performance, training need or not, quantity of success and so on.
Recruiting: Organisation have to find out in which department they have to recruit, what kinds of people are allowed to apply and they should give the position which they need. Finally they have to provide their every through their web site.
Open book management style: An organisation have to mange open book management system like sharing the business report and the position of their organisation in market.
Bonuses: An organisation has mange bonuses for employee. By this way employee can know how their performance in organisation and the amount of profit of organisation. It will be helpful for organisation.
360 degree performance management feedback system: It is the feedback for employee to know the performance of their. If any organisation gives this to employee then employee will be touch about their performance which can be bear better result for organisation.
Keeping it legal: Organisation must keep everything legal by which people and employee can trust to the organisation (Archives IGDA, 2010).
3.1.4 Evaluate the impact of globalization on issues such as human resource planning. [P13]
Every organisation has impact of globalisation. British Gas has to maintain and realize impact of globalisation. Impact of globalisation has given bellow:
For globalisation, human resource planning increased economic independence of nation.
Capital, information and technology flows are in the increase.
Organisation competition are going base on innovation.
Organisations of globalisation are large extent and beyond national boundaries.
Human resource can apply for reasonable products or necessary things from other country.
Globalisation has started new technology through the world on human resource planning.
The nature of organisation and employee has changed for this.
For globalisation, human resources have to extend their service section (All Experts, 2010).
3.1.5 Review the impact of different national cultures and practices human resource professionals can employ to manage a culturally diverse workforce. [P14]
British Gas need to know the impact of different national practises and human resource professionals can employ to manage culturally diverse workforce.
Approaches to culture diversity, there are some approaches to cultural diversity. They are knowledge, respect, and search for unity in diversity.
Management workplace diversity: Manager needs to change from an ethnocentric view to a culturally relative perspective. There are different practises that manager can adopt in ensuring effective management in workplace diversity in order to attain organisations goal:
Planning a monitoring programme is the best way to give feedback to employee about their workforce by culturally.
Organising talents strategically about the employee base is another important human resource professional practise.
By motivational approaching organisation can improve their employee performance for getting organisation goal.
Gain sharing means an organisation which gain that should be shared (All Experts, 2010).
Conclusion: I believe that I have written all of criteria from my case study. Finally managing human resource is the helpful for all organisation and employee.