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Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry
Organizations around the world has been the achievement of cultural diversity within the organization is not a negative aspect, rather can facilitate organizational stalk for glory (Papers4you.com, 2006). However this is not an easy task to manage employees from different cultural backgrounds. However, there are many policy guidelines that can make the task easier.
In a broader perspective, cultural diversity can be managed through communication (creating awareness among all employees about diverse values of peers through communication), cultivating (facilitating the recognition, support and encouragement of success of any employee “with all other workers), and capitalizing (linking diversity to every business process and strategy such as succession planning, reengineering, employee development, performance management and review, and reward systems) strategies (Cascio, 1995).
There are many different innovative ways that organizations have adopted to manage diversity. For example Tabra Incorporation, a small manufacturer of jewelry and accessories inCalifornia composed of modest size, is the composition of the third world immigrants fromCambodia, China, El Salvador, Ethiopia, India, Laos, Mexico, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam and other nations. To recognize the importance of their cultural association, at least 10-12 different flags are still hanging from the ceiling of its main production facility, which represent the country of origin of employees. Viewpoint owner is “I wish that were a little United Nations for everyone to agree and appreciate the culture of others instead of just tolerating it.” (Bhatia & Chaudary, 2003)
If cultural diversity can be managed effectively, there is potential to use diverse workforce benefits the organization. Cox and Balke (1991) argues that multiculturalism is directly linked to the success of the organization as
- Effectively managed the culture of many companies have cost effective competitive advantage
- It helps to promote minority friendly reputation among potential employees
- Various cultural societies help customers to achieve that with a variety of people
- Diverse group of employees are perceived to be more creative and effective problem solving compared to homogenous group
- Ability to manage cultural diversity increases adaptability and flexibility of an organization to environmental changes.
Many examples of organization may be taken in this regard. In Australia, for instance, Hotel Nikko in Sydney has one edge that staff in the areas of the user to connect directly speak a total of 34 different languages. Similarly Qantas Flight Catering has sixty-six nationalities on staff, with various persons born abroad leaders. If committed various “ethnic” cuisines has given Qantas a huge competitive advantage that offers food based on taste and ethnic customer requirements. Moreover Don’s Smallgoods through literacy, language and cultural training increased intercultural communication and increased profits while reducing costs at a time. Similarly, The Cheesecake Factory had made special efforts to understand the quality of packaging and Japanese culture as employees in Asia to help leaders understand the Asian flavors so they can target exports to Asia (Nankervis et al, 2002)
Hence the discussion suggests that it is important to realize that cultural diversity must be considered as a tool for better organizational progress rather than a management problem and if effectively managed, it can be a key to gain competitive advantage and success.
Like other industries in the hospitality sector is facing challenges of diversity and specific opportunities.In 2003, the Department of Commerce, Enterprise and Employment has issued more permits forty seven thousand workers, migrant workers, this was more than eleven and a half thousand different employers and workplaces.According to IBEC hotel and restaurant is the major employer of nationals NONEU with about 23% work in the area.This creates challenges in that the organizations should create and maintain workplaces that evoke a concept of fluidity in their organization will accept and take into account differences in humans.Achieving this requires leadership diversity, the diversity of organizational structures effective and successful planning and execution of decisions of diversity appropriate and timely.
Research: Through research, a number of focus groups were conducted at various locations throughout the country.These meetings brought together representatives of properties and organizations operating within (or connected to) the hospitality industry.Participants included hotel owners, restaurant owners, hotel managers, Catering Managers, human resource managers, supervisors and hotel food and Students & Teachers colleges different host.( Bucher, R. 1999)
The qualitative study was supported by quantitative research in the form of surveys were completed by participants in focus groups.To guide and direct the search for a model (developed in both academic literature and practical experience) was used.As shown in figure one, the framework assesses the extent to which organizations are taking steps to meet the challenges of diversity through assessment and planning dimensions of implementation.
Regarding planning for diversity, the analysis criteria focused on “Diversity Awareness” (or the extent to Whish organizations are aware of diversity and proactively identify opportunities for diversity / challenges in their own contexts) and “Diversity Options” (which basically considers the type of diversity planning and decision making performed by organizations).Regarding the implementation of diversity assessments have focused on “Diversity Imperatives” (the extent to which organizations share the responsibility for diversity and the development of rewarding diversity and effective structures of control) and “The variety of interfaces (which considers the extent to which it is internal and external cooperation on diversity and the degree to which assessments of effective structures were developed).
While many host organizations have begun to take note of the dynamics of diversity change (such as legislation on equality), there seems to be some problems with respect to the ongoing, systematic collection of informationdiversity to feed the decision-making.For example, some research participants have difficulty identifying the nine grounds of discrimination, while others could not detail the cultural composition of staff within their organizations.Research indicates that people in the area of May is not the collection of appropriate information and be sufficiently informed about the diverse and changing needs in the area of diversity.The study also underlines that the host organizations are beginning to bring the dynamic change in the diversity of their own organizations and identify the specific challenges they face.For example, many research participants acknowledged the importance of effective management and diversity have been able to describe the challenges inherent in integrating a diverse staff.
However, while research shows some recognition of the diversity of challenges there are questions regarding the identification of the full scope and range of the diversity of challenges facing those operating in the sector.For example, some research participants saw diversity issues in a purely internal (in terms of managing diverse employees) and fails to recognize the diversity of external challenges that exist with regard to clients (under the lawEquality 2000 discrimination against customers on the basis of nine grounds of discrimination is prohibited and may result in legal challenges).
Questions have also been highlighted regarding the identification of opportunities for diversity.For example, many research participants were able to describe changes in their organizations had done in order to treat or prevent diversity programs (eg the introduction of training or development of policies to denyagainst prejudice).On the other hand, few were able to describe the actions of their organizations had undertaken to take advantage of opportunities for increased diversity (such as development and marketing services to attract new and different segments, thus increasingtheir market share and increase profits).
Finally, research shows that if the home many organizations have engaged in gathering information and identifying problems on a reactive basis, which is less in respect of more proactive measures.For example, some participants in focus groups described how their organizations have made decisions and made changes based on the variety of incidents had already occurred.As reiterated by a research participant “We’re training required because we already had a number of cases.” However there was less evidence of companies collecting information, identifying potential problems and resolvethese problems before they actually arise.
Options Diversity: A number of questions about “diversity of options” have been identified which are: The study emphasizes that host many organizations are beginning to take decisions and to Diversitychoose effective options for diversity change.For example, some host companies are now employing a diverse staff, engage in appropriate training in diversity and development of diversity policies.
However, there are problems concerning the extent to which diversity plans are fully thought through (decision alternatives are not properly developed and evaluated to arrive at the best option for change) and the extent to which the impactdecisions on the chosen variety of other areas of operation is envisaged.For example, some research participants said that they had taken the decision to employ staff nonnational they did not consider the impact this would have on existing national staff.As will be seen by a participant in the research of these organizations now dealing with a whole new set of challenges to the extent that “they have to manage how employees react India” Although the study indicates an evolution towards the decision of thediversity within the area there are questions as to the whole scope and range of decisions (necessary to ensure compliance and effectively manage diversity) may not be in place. For example, organizations invest in Mayresources in training their own employees on diversity issues, but they neglect to ensure that contract staff employed by other agencies (such as door staff) received training sufficient diversity or are not evenaware of the diversity of organizations / equality policies. If this contract staffs are involved in an incident at the diversity of the organization itself can diversity activities softer (such as holding interculturalor days of ethnic foods), but fail to take “difficult decisions diversity” around the developing diversity policy and training initiatives.
Finally, issues relating to the time perspective in current decision making diversity were raised.Because decision making diversity tends to be reactive the long-term perspective necessary to effectively manage diversity in the future may not be in place.For example, some hospitality students who attended the awareness sessions small provision has been made to ensure that students entering the industry are trained on diversity issues.
The imperatives of diversity: A number of questions were raised about the “diversity imperative”, which include the following: Research shows that while the host organizations have begun to assign responsibility for diversitydoes not appear to B happens on a broad base of organization or even holistic. For example, in diversity, some organizations is entirely administered by the HR staff or supervisors and as such does not form partall organizational roles. As reiterated by one participant: “I leave that to my managers and supervisors to manage”
Another problem for the industry centers on the development of reward and effective control structures around diversity.Research demonstrates that when people are not rewarded or controlled then the decision making or the diversity of behaviors effective diversity does not become a priority for these people.As reiterated by a research participant
Interfaces Diversity: A number of questions were raised about “diversity interfaces, which include the following: There is some evidence to suggest that those operating in the sector began to focus on the development ofcooperation on diversity. For example, some host organizations have established committees for diversity while others have regular meetings attended by the diversity of people from different areas and levels of the organization. However, in companies where the responsibility for diversity is attributed to a single person or a service, interagency cooperation around diversity May be a problem. A similar situation can be found at the industry level where there is littleevidence of the diversity of cooperation between organizations (eg information sharing or sector wide regular meetings to discuss issues).
The research also indicates problems in the development of the feedback diversity and effective communication structures.The continuous feeding information back into the decision-making and effective communication is essential if organizations are to learn and benefit from the experience of diversity in the long term.
Awareness of diversity: As indicated in the previous section, research findings indicate a number of questions regarding the “Diversity Awareness”, which includes gathering information on diversity, identification of the diversity of challenges andopportunities (as they relate to the specific context) and the development of proactive diversity measures.
In addressing these issues, the following measures are recommended: Both industry and the corporate level, it is important that the diversity of information is collected systematically, effectively and continuously.To achieve this organizations need to establish what type of data that diversity is necessary (such as information on changes in legislation on equality or diversity of best practices at national or international) where the relevant information canbe obtained (eg, quality Authority systems, Island and the Legal Office directly Equality Investigations) and the degree of effectiveness can be developed to ensure that data is captured and stored in a manner that is conducive to effectivedecision making.
Once the information has been collected, it must be proactively used to permanently identify the full scope and extent of the diversity of challenges and opportunities faced by the particular context.To ensure a complete evaluation every individual in the context necessary to identify the challenges and opportunities affecting their role.For example, those in receipt of a hotel may face problems that center on further implementation where diversity as managers earlier in the hierarchy May be more concerned about planning for diversity (such as developing policies to ensure compliance with equality legislation).Where there is an effect may lead to legal challenges (which follows in May negative reputation legal or financial results).
Options Diversity: As indicated earlier research highlighted a number of Options ‘diversity’ issues such as identification of alternatives diversity decision, decisions of the diversity and the decision of thediversity of perspectives over time.In addressing these questions should be considered:
In the decision of the diversity, it is important that decision alternatives are developed, tested and chosen the best option (as opposed to jumping the decision most obvious or simple solution that comes to mind without thinking fullyoptions through).In the development of alternative organizations should evaluate the decision other case studies (which have addressed similar problems or opportunities), look at what happens in the sectors of hospitality outside India, engage in problemdiversity issues, brainstorm and try to have representatives of all levels and areas of the organization involved in the process of decision making for diversity.
Once a particular change option is selected, it is important to achieve integration and consistency between plans of diversity and other areas of organizational decision making.In our experience, it may happen that the customer service at odds with the plans of diversity policies or vice versa.For example, if a customer refuses to deal with an employee nonnational policy diversity in May prescribe a plan of action (whether the customer is informed that this is discrimination and given no choice but to deal withstaff member) where, as the customer service plan may accommodate the customer called at any time.In achieving coherence between the different body plans, it is important that the impact of the diversity of decisions on other areas of operation is constantly evaluated and that individuals from different levels and areas of theorganization are involved in the process of decision making for diversity.
Organizations must ensure that the full scope and range of decisions Diversity (required to ensure compliance with equality legislation) are taken.Realizing this, it is important that all organizational roles is assessed, including the challenges and opportunities related to these roles are identified and that appropriate decisions are taken on this basis.
Outlook appropriate time should underpin all decisions of the range of decisions (eg in some cases, a short-term perspective is necessary if, as in other prospects in the longer term will be necessary).
Imperatives of diversity: The search results a number of “diversity imperative” issues including the allocation of responsibility for diversity, reward diversity and developing control structures and management support of thediversity. In dealing with these issues, the following are recommended:
By implementing effective diversity plans, it is important that responsibility is spread across a broad organizational base and comprehensive (ie all employees should be responsible for diversity in the context of their own role).In achieving this number of measures are necessary, which include assessment of roles, identification of the nature and level of responsibility appropriate range for each job, the attribution of responsibility to the diversity of individual roles (all employees must be aware of their responsibilities in writing) and consideration of the responsibility for diversity over time .Once people have given responsibility, it is important that there be ongoing evaluation.In this regard, different reward structures (where people are rewarded for positive diversity staffing decision-making or behavior) must be developed.In addition, control structures to discourage people from engaging in the variety of negative behaviors (such as jokes in the workplace or other negative forms of discrimination) should be in place.Political leadership and management support are absolutely critical in facilitating specific responsibilities related to diversity.
Interfaces diversity: As indicated earlier research highlights a number of questions about “diversity interfaces, which include internal cooperation and external diversity and development of structures of the diversity of feedback. Indealing with these issues, the following measures are recommended:
Interorganizational cooperation is important if diversity must be managed effectively.For this purpose, the individual host organizations may establish committees of diversity (composed of people from different areas and levels of the organization), the conduct of the diversity of regular meetings and ensure timely and streamingdiversity TwoWay.
External communication of diversity and cooperation (ie with other organizations in the sector) may be beneficial.To achieve that representatives of different industry groupings should look to meet regularly to share information, solve problems and learn from the experiences of each other.In addition, the information industry of the Cross: “Diversity Working Group” (to act as a support mechanism for the sector in relation to issues of diversity and assist organizations in moving to meet thechallenges and opportunities presented by diversity) should be considered.
The structures must be in place to ensure that the diversity of information is continuously fed back into the hierarchy and in every stage of decision making.In this way, organizations can ensure they continually learn both positive and negative experiences of diversity. (Wrench, J, 2001)
Conclusion and general recommendations: In recent years dynamic diversity change have created new opportunities and challenges for organizations operating in the India economy.This contribution briefly describes the research that was conducted for the India Hotel and restaurant around the Institute of the diversity of challenges faced by those working in the hospitality sector.The study stresses that in view of the diversity of this sector is currently facing a series of questions.Which focus on planning issues of diversity (such as identifying the diversity of challenges, opportunities and make effective decisions for diversity) and aspects of implementation (such as allocation of responsibility for diversityand the creation of internal / external cooperation around diversity). To meet these challenges (both sectoral and organizational level), the following steps are recommended: Systems must be put in place to enable the ongoing collection and processing of information diversity.Mechanisms must be developed to facilitate the proactive identification of the diversity of challenges and opportunities over the long term.Decision diversity effectiveness of decision making must be undertaken (which requires the identification of alternative decisions, choosing the most appropriate option, assessing the impact of decisions on other areas of diversity of thecompany and if necessary by taking a long term approach to decision making).Responsibility for diversity should be allocated to an organizational level and in the context of all the roles.Reward and diversity of effective control structures should be developed and implemented.Supporting diversity and leadership must be provided.Cross-industry cooperation and interaction around diversity should be developed and maintained.The diversity of structures appropriate information needed to facilitate the learning of the diversity of experiences.Training in diversity and diversity management must be part of the curriculum in colleges host.Diversity training and attitude of the company to diversity should be included in the initial training.
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