As the rapid growth of economic and social development, every organization extending their business outside countries. Therefore, every organization must comprehend the culturally diverse. That means to communicate with other people from different background. However, due to different culture or background, sometimes it becomes hard to implement to manage all issues related to cross communication. Nevertheless, every organisation should make practical way how to enhance the cross communication in their firms.
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Through this assignment I will address the barriers of the cross communication. How overcome to the barriers. After that I will discuss about two theories of cross communication. After deeply analysis will learn what barriers come to cross communication on work’s place. In addition. How various culture influence people’s thinking and behaving. How we can improve our capability to communicate with different background.
What are the barriers to effective cross cultural communication? How these might be surmounted?
Cross cultural communication is very essential for evolution and enhancement in globalization.
The success key of various business firms is to be effective cross cultural communication. Therefore, this is imperative for any firms to perceive the culturally diverse in their working place. However there are many barriers to effective communication.
- Misunderstanding – There is no doubt that misunderstanding is the preeminent barrier in business environment. People have vary in culture and language. As a result variations in different culture can conduct the high level of anxiety and uncertainty can end up into the misunderstanding. Therefore misunderstand raise due to anxiety and uncertainty.
- Value and beliefs – Every person have different values and beliefs. Today era, every person believes depends on his region, culture and language. If organization firms do not understand their employee’s values and beliefs result must have barriers in cross communication at workplace.Â In order to make communication channel effectively and efficiently, an organisation should be known the importance of values and beliefs to other culture’s person.
- Languages – Sometimes it seems common when misunderstanding create among people who speak same language. Therefore, it is not astounding that people who belong to the other region, culture and linguistic backgrounds can lead misunderstanding. Moreover, mispronunciation of a word to a lack of specificity can face communications barriers.Â When people speak language intangibly in any organisation, receivers will take huge time to comprehend.
- Stereotypes- Stereotypes is extremely considerable barrier to effective communication. It is an assumptions when person make about others person based on their culture, race, gender, nationality, ethnicity. Basically stereotypes are raise due to lack of knowledge and fear about other person. Stereotypes occurs when a person does not communicate well due to feeling self-conscious or shy of his perceived minority and culture. For Example – The common issues is Black and white in USA.
- Ethnocentrism- Generally it categorized the culture as “us” and “them”. The person who belong to same culture are classify in a group and other culture out of group. It always give the priority to in group. There is a misunderstanding that other culture “out of group” as junior or inferior. Therefore it judge the another person’s culture based upon the standards and values. For instance a business owner may be exclaim to his foreigner client and might call him moron due to his different race, gender, culture and nationality.
- Presentation Style- Sometimes, it depends on culture influences, how people from different countries prefer to receive the information. For instance prepare your presentation according to the culture to which you present. Mostly, European opt their presentation like formal, highlighted with details and minor interruption, Moreover discussion at the end of the presentation.Â Cultures like English speaking their presentation are interesting and interactive. In general Japanese’s prefer more technical background presentation. Therefore, you can’t rely upon your personal framework or presentation. Whenever you addressing the audiences for different background, work according to them or their culture.
Overcoming Communication Barriers.
Notwithstanding, we have pile of barriers. In order to avoid these barriers and make clear cross commination channel in various effective way.
- Cross Culture awareness. – We need to have enhance the awareness of about different culture. To comprehend the foreign culture differences, values, custom and beliefs. After that, we will be able to perceive other cultures and overcoming barriers.
- Knowledge of international Language. – We can enlarge our skills, in addition to learn international language. I personally, believe that culture and language is correlated with each other. For instance my friend form India, he has further plan to do higher studies form Germany. Therefore he is taking the classes for Germany’s culture and language. As a result, no problem will be created for him to communicate with German’s people. Moreover the extra learning will allow to him, how to give respect to other cultures and language.
- Before communication, Clarifying Idea- It must be very clear that if you are sending the information to other background people in business. Your objective and purpose of the communication must be well known what you passing the information to the others and arranging whole the information in effective manner. Until and unless, you’re main idea is not clear behind the whole conversation. The whole information will get into trouble
- Be a Good listener- It has duties for both like sender and receiver that must be a good listener. Sender and receiver, both should have patience, pay attention what they say to each other. Hereby be a good listener can prevent the barriers of cross communication.
- Avoid traditional thinking – Though, you want you improve your thinking abilities you must condone traditional thinking. To allow yourself to get extra knowledge about various way of thinking and comprehend differences. Be a polite and straight forward in communication. This obstacles can avoid the misunderstanding in cross communication.
At sum-up, I’ll must say, deeper knowledge of any culture should be mandatory for everyone. Not only in business sector but also in personal life. Because if you are planning to move in other foreign country, it will help to earn extra bonus with you career. Try to learn, understand other culture no matter what person is or from where they belong. Express your word, message or information clearly in a polite way. Don’t be rude with other cultures people and try to show you willingness that we want to know or understand about your culture. Hereby this willing, deeper knowledge can help us to negative impact on cross communication.
Identify at least two theories of cross culture communication that can shed light on your own experiences of communicating across cultures. What do these theory explain?Â What do they explain to fail?
First theory of cross culture communication.
Primarily I will discuss about Face negotiation theory which is formulated by S. Ting Toomey, professor of human communication at California state university. The theory described about to maintain a face in the society can be part of differences in handling conflicts. How culture differences in people influences to managing the conflicts. Culture differences respond to the conflicts in the society. Generally, it is an idea to maintain a face according to every individual culture. Because face is an identity that every individual keep up in the society as a self-image. Face represents as himself/herself in the society. Two types of people is there, first is Collectivistic and second is individualistic.
There are few reason of Face negotiation.
1. Anxiety over “self-image and other -image”. The value of face for person is necessary to understand and how can be important to maintain a face which reflects to the others.
2. Those who belong to the collectivistic culture, generally they ignore and connect to the conflicts. On the other hand individualistic people, they dominant the conflicts as to maintain the independent image in the society.
3. Every individual has statues in the society. Collectivistic people are born into certain statues whereas individualistic people are less concerned.
There are 5 type of conflicts styles.
- Domination – Indivualistic people approach never bow down.
- Integrating – work together and try to reach the solution, standpoint by individual people.
- Obliging- Collectivistic people approach giving up and do what other says.
- Avoiding- A collectivistic view, stay away from conflicts.
- Compromising – to come to a solution as individualistic view.
Examples for Face Negotiation theory
According to S. Toomey, people face a conflict situations has different form indiualstic people and collectivistic people. Western people are individualistic in nature. On the other hand collectivistic in nature. Individualistic people try to solve in trouble situation and never bow down. Whereas collectivistic people try to avoid the trouble situation and keep away themselves. Different culture have different meaning for instance. A good eye contact as a good gesture of attention and respect in western countries. However in eastern or Asian countries, they take it as rudeness.
Moreover, some what I am against this theory that according to S. Toomey words. Individualistic culture (Western people), never give and Collectivistic culture (Eastern & Asian), compromise with the words.
Drawbacks of face negotiating theory.
- Indivualisitic culture belongs to the the western countries, while eastern countries have collectivistic culture. In spite of culture difference doesn’t explain properly the person behaviour.
- Many people form Eastern or Asian countries living in western countries as permanent residence. Sometimes they follow the same culture like individualistic culture or collective culture vice-versa.
- Due to globalization, the theory was less applicable
- For further search of theory. She found that collectivist culture can also be self-protective like Japanese’s people.
- The theory was updated many times. The latest up gradation was in 2005
I admit, some what I am against this theory that according to S. Toomey words. Individualistic culture (Western people), never give and Collectivistic culture (Eastern & Asian), compromise with the words. As an international student I am in Canada, I was making plan to come in Canada 2013. Due to financial issues I was not able.
After completion my graduation. I joined company. I gathered my self-earning. In 2016 I applied and came here.
What I have learnt to my situation that never bow down to any conflicts. As I belong to Asian countries. According to S. Toomey theory collectivistic culture people like to stay away to trouble situation.
One More example, I have that I met two one person in Canada , one is from South Africa and other, he is from Surrey, BC, Canada. Both they are following SIKH religion. Therefore, it doesn’t matter from where you are and sometimes culture differences don’t explain properly about your personal behaviour.
The second theory I will discuss about culture diversity. Generally, we knows globalization is increasing more and more, here upon it requires more interaction with people from values, believes, background, language, culture diverse. Nowadays we are the part of every country economic. Therefore every company require diversity to exchange more ideas, innovation and become more creative.Â The basic concept of these theory explain about two phases of effect. It has positive and negative impact on team output. The positive impact bring culture diversity and reflect on probable productivity. It brings different culture together to create a peace and brotherhood. Somewhat members of other groups share their beliefs, festive and culture expression.
For Example. On Chinese and Indian Festival Occasion, Canadian university organize their festive like Chinese’s New Year, Diwali and Holy and so on. As a result they exchange their culture experience with each other.
In contrast It has negative impact, so far as it brings complexity between each other culture and not easy to manage. Culture diversity can be double edge sword, if we will not managed on workplace.
It is undoubted that
Drawbacks of Culture Diversity.
- The first drawback of the theory is attitudinal problem which are dislike and mistrust. We can’t ignore theses two issues even in cross communication. Because every society has own identity and culture. Sometimes we first meet with any other culture they express themselves own their culture way. For example. When person from western culture meet and greet to other person, they will kiss check. In Middle East countries People greet you to say, SALAAM.
Every society has own culture style for greeting. Therefore some time we don’t used to with these style. It feels like you strange. But some people dislike this way which is totally different from their culture.
- The second disadvantages of culture diversity theory is pronunciation problem. It includes misunderstanding, inefficiency and inaccuracy. For Example many people don’t familiar with other cultures language. Sometime they don’t understand, what other people say.
For example as an international student I am here in Canada. I am not familiar with few English words or sometime I can’t pronounce some words properly. I am working in gas station as part time. Once day customer came and demanding for one product M&M peanut and I didn’t get his words and thinking he wants Eminem peanut. Personally I realized my pronunciation was not good to comprehend the word M&M. this issues can be common. This kind of issues can
be create misunderstanding and misconception between two people from different background.
What are the implications of your insights for cross-cultural communication in international?
Personally I believe, cross communication is very important not only in business organization but also in personal life. It play a significant role to create a smooth bridge and link between the countries. Cross communication brings new ideas, creativity, exchanging, cooperation and innovation. Various strategies or ideas will make every firm more and more creative, productive.
Moreover In a company has different employee from different culture. Different employee can be authorised for specific work. Person can be assigned to solve those problem which is related to his or her culture background. As a result business will run smoothly and effectively.
Besides every organisation enhancing their business outside the home countries like Vodafone, Tata, Reliance, and Nokia and so on. To order to maintain or make successful business. Every company must to comprehend how to operate business in international level in effective way. For example Ernest and Young an Audit firm it has so many branches across the world. It hire different employee form different background.
Nevertheless, cross culture communication in an organisation is not easy to handle. It could be obstacles for any business in international market
First barriers is Language and second is various thinking pattern.Â Sometime it become harder to manage, when people from different culture society and working together. Every person has own view and thoughts.
An organisation should considering some ways to manage cross communication. First to set up the aims that every employee should make efforts to achieve it. That means everyone from different background has same goals and rewards. Therefore no conflicts of cross communication will come up.
Second, every organisation start to give different language training that everyone will allow to go to international market for dealing and developing new markets with other culture’s people to maintain a cross communication.
To Sum up, although many research has been done to overcome the barriers of cross communication, How to resolve the problem of cross communication. Because a cross communication channel is a reflection to change world. Cross culture communication has enormous benefits and associated by creating impartial and secure atmosphere where everyone has equal prejudice to access the same opportunities and challenges. Cross Communication can be assets or liabilities for us what we opt. It is depend on us. In my opinion, try to learn and consider to other background people to make it effective and relationship.
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