ASDA was established in 1965 by the group of farmers from Yorkshire, England. ASDA became a subsidiary of the American retail Wal-Mart in 1999. About 78,000 peoples were working in ASDA. The main thing is that all the staffs of ASDA Company/ stores have good knowledge of the products and they know what offers are on. Those staffs who are ready to give customer service do the well preparation to deal with the general enquires. If the member of staff are unsure of the answer of enquires they refers to the senior management. The main aim of ASDA is to produce good and quality products in low prices to the consumers and publics. All the staff members and management of ASDA are trying to fulfil this aim.
Job analysis plays the vital role for the development and the improvement of the company. It is use to describe a process of examining jobs in order to identify their main features, in particular the duties they fulfil, the result they are expected to achieve, the major tasks undertaken, and the job's relationship with other jobs in the companies hierarchy. This case study will explore the basic notations of job design and job analysis to support strategic objectives of the ASDA Company. This study also will focus on competency modelling as well as human resource strategy and its impact on overall corporate strategy for the future direction.
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Likewise this study will explore manpower planning as well as principles related to the demand and supply of labour. Therefore it will help to assess the management requirements in choosing the right personnel, who are capable of completing those tasks that help to the ASDA to achieve its objectives.
Job Design and Job Analysis of ASDA
1. Job Design
Job consists of a set of tasks that are performed by the employee to fulfil the aims and objectives of the company. The content of job is affected by the purpose of the company, the structure of the company, the processes and activities carried out in the company, the technology of the company, environment in which the company operates. Therefore the job design has two aims: first, to satisfy the requirement of the ASDA company for productivity, efficiency and quality of product and service, and second is to satisfy the needs of the individuals for interest, challenge and accomplishment providing for job engagement and commitment to carrying out the job well. ASDA uses the following approach of job design to support strategic objectives.
Job Rotation: Employees can expose to different types of specialized jobs over time from Job Rotation. To provide more techniques and knowledge in different field ASDA uses the approach of job rotation.
Job Enlargement: To increase the numbers of activities in a job and to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work ASDA use this method of job design.
2. Job Analysis
Process of analysis of a work or pursue that profession in the various parts of the structure of the Organization, work activities and the informational content is a job analysis. The purpose of job analysis is to break the job down in to its essential elements and to be flexible about all other aspects of the job. The analysis of job should be done by ASDA to write job descriptions, job specification, to prepare for the organisational structure, to conduct studies of movement and time, to write the knowledge, skills and performance of the employee, etc. ASDA provide various range of management and business areas jobs like Finance, George, Home shopping, Human Resource, IT, Logistics, Marketing, Optical, Pharmacy, Retail, Store development, Store management, Supply, Trading etc.
Training depends on the activities and the information required executing the ASDA jobs. The titles of work are the titles of the corresponding training at ASDA.
Job Description is a narrative statement defining work, i.e., what the employer expects the employee from the point of view of on-the-job performance. As reported by victory (1996), "the description of work [or position description] is a list of responsibilities and functions â€¦ require specific position" (p. 1). ASDA is doing the job description for the following purposes:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Job Description is a narrative statement defining work, i.e., what the employer expects the employee from the point of view of on-the-job performance. As stated by Winning (1996), "the description of work (or position description) is a list of responsibilities and functions ...require specific position" (p.1). ASDA is doing the job description for the following purposes:
To provide information needed in determining the selection criteria.
To inform applicants about the nature of the job.
To ensure that newly appointed staffs understand the primary purpose and principal functions of the job and its place in the structure of the company.
Purpose of Job/ Overall Objectives
Specific Duties and Responsibilities
Physical/ Economic Condition The format of Job Description is given below
Figure No: 1
Job Roles with in the Customer service function in ASDA
The team leader delegate tasks to the lower subordinates in ASDA. The Assistant Manager passes information on to the colleges about what need to be done and give information about dealing with a customer enquiry.
Competencies represent the language of performance. They can articulate both in expected outcomes from an individual's efforts and manner in which these activities are carried out. Also 'Competency is an underlying characteristic of a person that results in effective or superior performance' -Mansfield (1999). Competency modelling is very important to the development and to transfer the good will of the company. The following types of competency are very essential for the good will of the company,
Behavioural Competencies: It represent the type of behaviour required to deliver results under such heading likes team working, communication leadership and decision making.
Technical competencies: Technical competency defines what people have to know and be able to carry out their roles effectively. They are related to either generic roles (group of similar jobs) or individual roles.
NVQ/ SNVQ Competences: It is the fundamental part of the process of developing standards which can be observed and assessed with view to certification.
Human Resource Strategy
To achieve the overall objectives of the ASDA Company Human Resource strategy plays a vital role. Human Resource strategy should aim to capture "the people element" of what the company hoping to achieve in long term, ensuring that
-Right people in right place
-Right mix of skills
-Employees show the right attributes and behaviours
-Employees are developed in the right way.
Management of ASDA Company identifies some plans and strategies before achieving the goals and objectives such as work force planning, succession training, workforce skills plans, employment equity plans, motivation and fair treatment plans, the coordination of approaches to pay and grading across the organization to create alignment and potential unequal pay claims, and Employment issues which impact on staff recruitment retention, motivation etc.
Manpower planning framework
Manpower planning owed its primacy by focusing the business planning and strategy. A Plan represents one of the results of a process that emphasizes on solution of a related problem. In other words plans represent the specified and consistent expression of the company that produced as a result of a rational examination of various issues that affect a company's future. If business strategy and plans find the expression in measurable economic, marketing and production goals, with an implicit or explicit requirement for people, the human resources plan represents a response from a personal and human resource management, so that the necessary supply of imminent to enable the objectives to be met. Hence the Manpower Plan could be expressed in a way that fits the overall business strategy and plan. The rationalized approach to manpower planning is shown in the following figure;
Company's strategy and targets
Company's practices and methods
Man power review and analysis
Internal Forecast External
Adjust to balance
Recruit Retain Reduce
Fig No.2 The rationalized approach to manpower planning
The Process of Human Resource Planning
Business strategic plans: Defining future activity levels and initiative demanding new skills.
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Resourcing Strategy: Planning to gain competitive advantage by developing intellectual capital-employing more capable people than rivals, ensuring that they develop organization specific knowledge and skills, and taking steps to become an employer of choice.
Scenario Planning: Assessing in broad terms where the organization is going in its environment and the implication for Human Resource requirements.
Demand /Supply forecasting: Estimating the future demand for people and assessing the number of people likely to be available from within and outside the company.
Labour turnover analysis: Analysing actual labour turnover figures and trends as an input to supply forecasts.
PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF LABOUR
Supply and demand in the labour market is just like supply and demand for a different service. Is consistent with the law of supply and demand (such as price increases, the quantity required and the quantity rises), the demand has a negative slope and the curve of the supply has a positive slope. As soon as the supply of labour, such as the provision of other services, indicates the number of work or want to offer workers at different prices. The supply curve for each employee will be different if each employee different opportunity costs and preferences. Demand task indicates the amount of work done by an enterprise to different values. The demand curve for each undertaking will differ if each company is faced with different types of work alternates (for e.g. different percentages of potential capital substitution), preferences, demand for the products they produce and alternative employment of resources. Rates of pay only the value of the work and, therefore, like any other market values specified. The intersection of curves of supply and demand in the labour market shows the balance outstanding, or purchase rate for certain types of work. (In a free economy, unlimited government regulation, fees for the same kind of work is the right for purchases). Most people are looking for a job in the job market is affected by factors related to the size and composition of the population. Mainly people and changing population, the age structure of the population, ethnic origin and sex etc. affect overall demand in the labour market. On the other hand, is the sum of the total demand in the labour market shall consist of the sum of the total employment and job vacancies.
Within any areas and at any one time ASDA stores have the jobs that are going into decline because the required skills for those jobs are becoming redundant. In this situation, new and skilled manpower will be emerging and demand for those capabilities should be rises faster than the supply.
Recruitment and Selection process in ASDA
Recruitment and selection are two distinct human resource management activities. Recruitment includes activity soliciting applications from potential employees and selection techniques are used to choose right candidate for right job. Recruitment and selection procedures in ASDA are given below,
Step I - online application
The first step of the selection process in ASDA store is online application. Candidates should complete a number of questions and they should submit their online application form. It may take about one hour to complete, but candidates can save their answers after completing each section to save time. After this, candidate(s) will get an e-mail from ASDA to know the procedure for next step.
Step II - ASDA Reality
In this stage successful candidate(s) of application step will be invited by ASDA to come along their assessment centre which is called Reality. Reality is the best opportunity for candidate(s) to experience what it's really like to work at ASDA and gives insight to the candidate(s) about the role he/she applied for. Candidate(s) will participate in and be observed on different activities in a group and individually.
Step III - interview
The interview is the final step of the selection procedure in ASDA. Successful or selected candidate(s) in interview process will join in ASDA after few days.
Salary and Benefits
ASDA provide negotiable salary to its all the staffs. Also rewards and benefits of having a job with ASDA include: Bonus, colleague Discount, Share plans, Share save plan, Colleague share ownership plan, Pension, Voluntary benefits, Private medical cover, Recognition, STAR Points etc.
Managerial Role in Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection activities of personnel specialists in ASDA can be described in terms of five general roles. Which are given below;
The audit role: Personnel specialists have responsibility for ensuring that all of management carry out those parts of their roles concerned with the effective use of human resource. Checking to established job description supplied by managers reflect the true nature of the tasks.
The executive Role: Personal Management is part of every manager's job, but some personnel activities are carried out by specialists rather than by line managers or supervisors.
The facilitator role: Ensuring that line managers and other involved in recruitment and selection have the necessary knowledge and skills to play their part in this activity effectively.
The consultancy role: This advice to managers on selection decisions.
The service role: Managers need information on which to base decision about the deployment of their staff. Providing managers with response rate data on recruitment advertising to enable joint decisions to be made on the most effective way to attract a pool of applicants is the example of the service role.
Role of legal and organisational requirements in creating a HR plan
Human resource plans are derived from the resourcing strategy and take into account data from a combination of scenario planning, demand and supply forecasting and labour turnover analysis. While creating human resource planning legal and companies requirements play a vital role. Also, while organization have considerable freedom of choice in the type of people they want to recruit, legislation plays a significant role in the recruitment and selection process, particularly in attempts to prevent discrimination on the field of sex, race, disability and age.
The sex Discrimination Act 1975 makes it unlawful to discriminate against a personal directly or indirectly in the field of employment on the ground of their sex or marital status. The race Relation Act 1976 makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person in the field of employment on the ground of their race, colour and nationality, including ethnic or national origin. While legislation and codes of conduct would suggest a certain approach in the UK, differences in job/ occupation being recruited, labour markets and skills availability might cause this approach to be modified. However, factors within the ASDA Company also affect the way recruitment and selection is handled.
Employee personal and managerial effectiveness through a process of personal reflection
Employees are the main part of the successful business. For demand, supply, process, customers service and overall business of the company every employee has the valuable hands. Some important aspects of personal reflections of employee are as follows:
Impact on others: This embraces some essential aspects like speech, dress, manner and reactions, behaviours with the customers etc.
Acquired knowledge or competency of the work: Employee must use their knowledge and experience what they gain and what is necessary for the respective work to solve the problems arising in the ASDA while working.
Motivation: this is concern with the goal-directed aspect of human personality. In the other hand employee have the most important role for the development of the company. If they are not satisfied or not motivated towards the company then the progress of the company becomes quite difficult.
Adjustment: This aspect concerns the emotional status of the employee stability, maturity, ability to cope with stress etc.
Disciplinary rules help to ensure a consistent and fair approach for the treatment of employee. The content of the rules includes
Health and safety
Time keeping and attendance
The main stages of Disciplinary procedure
Step I: If disciplinary action is necessary write to the worker notifying him/her of the allegations and the basis of the allegations against him/ her, invite him/her to a meeting to discuss the matter.
Step II: If indicated by the investigations hold a meeting to discuss the allegations and at the end notify the worker of the disciplinary decision.
Step III: If the worker wishes to appeal, hold an appeal meeting and inform the outcome of the appeal to the worker.
Grievance procedures provide a formal mechanism for the presentation and resolution of employee dissatisfaction.
At first in the informal time the employee should raise the matter with manager if it is more appropriate and then
Step I: If the matter remains unsolved, worker can raise the matter by formal writing to the relevant manager. A meeting will be conducted with the companion, worker and the respective manager.
Step II: If the worker wants to appeal against the decision, a meeting will be conducted between worker, companion and senior manager. The decision should be in written for the legal purpose.
Step III: Again if the worker likes to appeal that decision, a meeting should be conducted between worker, functional director and the union regional officer (if applicable) and the decision should be finalized in written document.
ASDA conduct the job analysis to write job description, job specification, to prepare organizational chart of the company, to write knowledge, skills and performance of the employee, as well as to the feedback back of the company. To achieve goals and objectives of the company ASDA always focus on right candidate in right job, right mix of skills, right attributes and behaviours of the candidates while selecting the employee for the required job. For the good will of the company ASDA give priority on competency of the employee like behavioural competencies, technical competencies, NVQ/ SNVQ competencies etc. For the purpose of improving and securing the ASDA companies human resources, to meet present and future needs; three principal stages can be distinguished such as evaluation of existing resources, forecast of future requirements, and finally action plan. While creating HR plan ASDA Company concentrated on legal role of the government and organizational requirements.
From the above study and conclusion, I would like to suggest some recommendations for the improvement and to increase the business of ASDA Company.
Fair selection process need to be appointed on the basis of skills and competencies as per the ASDA HR requirement.
Job analysis and job design should be conducted in regular basis for the effectiveness as well as to achieve overall objectives of the company.
More training and orientation of the work should be provided to the new or prospective employee mainly in the customers' service and technical sectors.
Best performance appraisal techniques need to be applied for career advancement of the employees.