Animal Nutrition, Reproduction, Genetics, and Aging Research Project
Purina’s history started in 1894 when William H. Danforth, Daniel Robinson and William Andrews founded Robinson-Dansforth Commission Company. Purina originally provided food for farm animals. In 1902 the name changed to Ralston Purina (“About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers”).
Purina Farms established the first pet nutrition center in 1926, near Gray Summit Missouri. This center tested the nutrition and taste of Purina pet foods. This center is now the Nestle Purina Pet Care Center in Northwest Missouri (“About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers” nd).
In 1957, Purina introduced Purina Dog Chow. Using extrusion technology this became the first successful dry dog food. During this time Purina still offered canned and wet foods, but dry kibble quickly became popular (Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin 2014).
Purina Cat Chow is introduced in 1963. During this year Purina recognized that puppies dietry needs differ from adult dogs, and introduced Purina Puppy Chow (“About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers” nd.).
ProPlan was introduced by Purina in 1987. This is the first dry kibble to use meat as the #1 ingrediant (“About us”, nd). In 1987 Purina also decided to sell the livestock feed portion of the company, this allowed Purina to focus on dog and cat food (“About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers”, nd).
Koch Industries Inc purchased Purina in 1997. Koch, was and energy and agricultural company and is the United States’ second largest private company. Koch believed that Purina would be a good fit to the agricultural part of the company which included cattle feedlots and an experimental technology that could convert food waste into an inexpensive feed. In March 1998, for a price of $660 million, Koch acquired Purina (Purina Mills, 2019).
In 1988 Purina introduced the first hypoallergenic diet HA. HA was formulated specifically for dogs with food allergies (Pro Plan Veterinary diets, nd).
In 1999 Purina established the first Canine Reference Family DNA Distribution Center which provides help to researchers that are mapping the canine genome (Purina Mills, 2019).
In 1999l, Purina files Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Purina was unable to make an interest payment of $16 million on its public debt. This debt was not guaranteed by Koch and a draft for reorganization was filed. After reorganization Purina was once again an independent company from Koch (Purina Mills, 2019).
Purina product became available worldwide in December 2001, when Nestle bought Ralston Purina (“About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers” nd).
Currently, Purina’s headquarters is in St. Louis Missouri and Jospeh Sivewright has been the Chief Executive Offiicer since 2001. From April 2004-Janurary 2015 Mr Sivewright served as the president of Purina Pet Care North America. In 1985 Mr Sivewright was the Product Manager for Purina Cat Chow “(About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers”,nd)”.
Purina manufacturers food for all life stages including kitten, puppy, senior and adult. Purina Proplan, Purina One, Alpo, Purina Beyond, Beneful are all available in canned and dry formulas
Purina currently makes the following brands of dog food. Purina Dog and Cat chow is available in a dry formula and is available for adults, kittens and puppies. While Moist and Meaty in a semi moist food available for dogs. Purina Pro Plan and Purina One are also available in adult, puppy, kitten and senior formulas (“About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers” nd).
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Purina also offers a line of therapeutic diets called Purina Veterinary Diets these diets are formulated to provide nutrition while meet the medical needs of cats and dogs. These diets include formulas for arthritis, gastroenteritis , diabetes, dental, food sensitivities, inflammatory bowel disease, kidney disease, pancreatitis, weight management, feline lower urinary tract disease, and gastrointestinal disorders ( Purina ProPlan Veterinary Diets nd).
Purina also manufacturers cat litter under the brands of Tidy Cat and Yesterday’s News and litter for dogs called Second Nature.
Purina Pro Plan Savor Adult Shredded Blend Chicken and Rice formula is a dry dog food. This diet is formulated for adult dogs and provides 382kcal/cup of food. It contains 28.1% protein, 37.5% carbohydrates and a fat content of 17.5%. The first five ingredients listed are chicken, brewers rice, whole grain wheat, poultry by product meal and soybean meal (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Chicken is a high-quality protein source for dogs. Brewers rice is whole and broken grains of rice in a digestible grain. This acts as a carbohydrate source and provides energy. Whole grain wheat also provides a source of energy and protein when combined with protein. Poultry by product meat is non rendered clean parts of a poultry carcass it includes necks, feet, and viscera and provides essential amino acids, fats, vitamins and minerals. It also adds flavor to the food. Soybean meal is from finely ground soybeans after the oil has been removes. This also provides an excellent protein source (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Purina EN Gastroenteric Canine Formula is a therapeutic diet recommended for dogs with fiber responsive colitis, large bowel diarrhea, constipation and diabetes mellitus. This formula provides 311kcal/cup. The dry formula contains 22% protein, 44.54% carbohydrates and 111.98% fat. The first five ingredients are whole grain corn, dry beet pulp, poultry by product meal, corn gluten meal and pearl barley (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Dry beet pulp is dried residue from sugar beets that has been extracted during the sugar making process. Dry beet pulp is a source of fiber (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016.
Poultry by product meal Poultry by product meat is the non-rendered clean parts of a poultry carcass it includes necks, feet, and viscera and provides essential amino acids, fats, vitamins and minerals. It also adds flavor to the food (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Corn gluten is a highly digestible source of protein and antioxidants. This is the protein part of the whole corn kernel after the starches and germ have been removed (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Pearl barley is a barley that has been dehulled by machine brushing. The leaves and endosperm have been removed (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Indoor canned food for adult cats, promotes healthy weight, helps control hairballs and is 100% complete for adult cats. It contains 143 kcal/can and provides 11.10% protein, 6.5% carbohydrates, and 3.4% fat. The first five ingredients are water, chicken, wheat gluten, meat by products and liver (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016)
Water is used in canned foods for processing.
Chicken is a source of protein and amino acids and is the flesh and skin without bones and is derived from the whole parts of the poultry carcass (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016)
Wheat gluten provides a source of protein and carbohydrates and is made from removing most of the starch from the grain.
Meat by products provide protein and are non-rendered clean parts, besides meat, derived from mammals. Meat by products may include the organs and blood but can not include hair, horns, hooves, teeth or feces (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Liver is a vitamin and protein source.
Purina ProPlan Focus kitten and rice formula. Is a complete nutritional diet for kittens. Chicken is the number one ingredient and has DHA for brain and vision development. It is rich in antioxidants to help support a kitten developing immune system. This formula contains 511kcal/cup. It has 42% protein, 23.3% carbohydrates, and 18.9% fat. The first five ingredients are chicken, brewers rice, corn gluten meal. Chicken by product meal and animal fat mixed with tocopherol (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Chicken provides a source of protein and essential amino acids and is the clean flesh of a chicken and may or may not contain bones (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Brewers rice is whole a broken grain of rice. It is a digestible grain and a high-quality carbohydrate that provides energy (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Corn gluten meal is the protein part of the whole corn kernels after the starch and germ has been removed. It provides protein and antioxidants. (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Animal fat preserved with mixed tocopherol is from beef, pork or poultry fat mixed with tocopherol. This is a form of vitamin E (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Chicken by product meal is a secondary product and produced in addition to the main product. These items may include heads, feet, viscera. It cannot include feathers or feces. It is a source of protein (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
Given that there is no clear definition as when a dog moves from adult stage to senior sage. There are no nutrient profiles or recommendations for senior dogs by AAFCO or NRC ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin ,2014). A diet that would be appropriate for an 11-year-old dogs that weigh 82 pounds would be Purina ProPlan bright mind adult chicken and rice formula 7+>
Purina ProPlan bright mind adult chicken and rice formula 7+. Is a complete nutritional diet formulated for adult dogs and contains 434kcal/cup. Bright minds contains chicken as the first ingredient, it also includes nutrients to support brain and cognitive health. High levels of protein and fat helps dogs maintain a lean body condition. Rich antioxidants help promote a healthy immune system and Vitamin A and omega 6 fatty acids provide healthy skin and coat (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
To calculate the appropriate amount of this formula to feed an 11-year-old dog weighs 82 pounds is shown below. “Life stage 1.6 is used for an adult altered dog” (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016) and “this formula contains 434kcal/cup (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).”
82 pounds /2.2= 37.2 kg
RER=70 X [ wt. in kgs] 0.75 = 15.06
1054×1.6 = 1687
1687/434= 3.88 cups per day
An appropriate diet for a four-year-old, 11-pound obese cat that is diabetic and needs to lose weight would be Purina OM feline formula. “OM feline is low both fat and calories to help body fat loss while maintaining a lean body mass. This diet has nutritional recommendations for cats with obesity, fiber responsive gastrointestinal conditions, constipation, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia in overweight cats and hair balls. It is contradicted in cats with conditions associated with catabolic states (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).
To formulate the amount of OM feline to feed an 11-year-old obese diabetic cat would be as shown below. “Life stage 0.8 is used for weight loss (Purina Product Guide for Veterinary Clinics, 2016).”
RER=70x [wt. in kgs]0.75
187.2/321kcal/cup= 0.58 cups per day
Part 2 Body Systems
The gastrointestinal tract runs from the oral cavity to the anus. The gastrointestinal tract includes the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach small and large intestines ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
The oral cavity contains the tongue, teeth, along with everything that is requires to digest food. There are two parts to the oral cavity the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The vestibule consists of the space between the outer surface of the teeth and the lips and cheeks. The oral cavity proper is the space bordered by the inner surface of the teeth both laterally and rostrally and by the hard and soft palate ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
The oral fissure is the opening to the oral cavity and includes the lips (Joann Bassert, 2014). Food is brought into the oral cavity by the lips. The cheek walls form the walls of the oral cavity and is made of muscles used for chewing.
The palate acts at the roof of the mouth and had two distinctive parts the hard and soft palate. The soft palate is raised to close off the nasal passage, this prevents food from entering the nasal passageway during swallowing ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
The teeth and the tongue are also found in the oral cavity. The teeth help with the mechanical breakdown of food. This is where food is broken down into smaller pieces.
Salivary glands are responsible for getting saliva into the oral cavity through salivary ducts. Saliva is mainly water but also includes proteins, electrolytes and antibodies. The production of depends on the species and diet of the animal ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
The functions of saliva include lubrication, PH regulation, and enzymatic digestion ( Bassert, Thomas, & McCurnin, 2014).
The pharynx or throat is part of both he reparatory tract and the gastrointestinal tract. This is where food is directed after swallowing. The pharynx prevents food from entering the larynx or trachea ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It is dorsal to the trachea and moves to the left as it travels down the neck and int the stomach. The esophagus is made of folds and it can expand if necessary when food passes through ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).”
“The stomachs is a place to store ingested food, the mechanical and chemical breakdown of for food and the production of the intrinsic fact. The intrinsic factor is required for Vitamin B absorption in the small intestine ( Bassert, Thomas, & McCurnin, 2014).”
“ When the food reaches a semi liquid form it enters the duodenum (Joann Bassert, 2014).”
“The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the start of the large intestine intestines ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).”
The small intestine is a tube that carries semi liquid food from the stomach to the large intestine. The small intestine has three parts the duodenum, jejunum and ileum ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).”
The large intestine includes the cecum, colon, rectum and anus. “The function of the large intestine includes absorption of water, ions, completion of carbohydrates or protein microbial digestion and absorption. The large intestine absorbs most of the water from the semi liquid food which results in a semi solid material called feces ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
Poor nutrition and age can affect the gastrointestinal tract in several ways. In an older animals the mobility of the gastrointestinal tract may decrease leading to constipation. A loss of muscle tone may also lead to difficulty swallowing along with a decrease in salivary secretions. An older animal may also have difficulty absorbing nutrients. This can lead to weight loss because there are not enough of the proper nutrients being absorbed ( Bassert, Thomas,& McCurnin, 2014).
Part 3 Vitamins
Vitamins play an important part in nutrition and body function.
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin and is unique because it can be absorbed from both dietary sources or synthesized by microbes in the large intestines of cats and dogs. The main function of vitamin k is for blood clotting. It is also used in the production of osteocalcin which regulates bony growth. Vitamin K deficiencies can be a result of ingesting anticoagulation rodenticides. The main clinical sign of a deficiency in Vitamin K is spontaneous bleeding. There is no clear definition as when a dog moves from adult stage to senior sage. There are no nutrient profiles or recommendations for senior dogs by AAFCO or NRC daily requirements are unclear because Vitamin K is naturally synthesized ( Bassert, Thomas, & McCurnin, 2014).
Folic Acid is a nontoxic water-soluble vitamin and is a co factor in many metabolic reactions
Folic acid aids in the construction of hemoglobin, protein manipulation, and choline synthesis ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
Folic acid deficiency can result in anemia, diarrhea, and decreased growth. Sources of folic acid include soybean meal, alfalfa, wheat, fish and meat meal along with supplements (Forney, nd ).
Part 4 Minerals
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, it makes up most of the skeleton and teeth. Calcium also aids in muscle contractions, nerve function, milk production, eggshell formation, and cell permeability along with clotting times ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
Calcium can be supplemented as Ca phosphate or carbonate instead of food sources. This is due to dairy products which are CA rich are not typically a major ingredient in pet food ( Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
A deficiency in calcium can result in rickets in young animals, thin or weak eggshells, decreased egg production and hypocalcemia or milk fever (Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
Iron is found in red blood cells and is a component of hemoglobin. Muscles and other body cells also contain iron. The main function of iron is it transport and bind oxygen. It also plays a part in enzymatic reactions (Bassert, Thomas & McCurnin, 2014).
An iron deficiency can result in anemia and poor growth, too much iron can result in gastrointestinal complications and possibly death (Jurgens, 2007).
Five stages of grief
The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. It is important to remember that not everyone grieves the same way. Some people may do these stages out of order or skip a stage (Axelrod, 2019).
The first stage in grieving is denial. When first learning a loved one is terminally sick or has died the first defense mechanism is to deny what has happened. People often think “This isn’t happening, this can’t be happening”. This reaction is common with overwhelming emotions. Denial helps keep emotions at level we can handle. This stage also helps protect us from being overwhelmed and stressed from an onslaught of emotions. This stage is temporary for most people (Axelrod, 2109).
As the denial stage ends, reality and emotions of what has happened sets in. People think they are not ready to accept the reality of the loss. This is a form of vulnerability and is often expressed as anger. This anger can be directed at inanimate objects, complete strangers, healthcare providers, and friends or family (Axelrod, 2019).
This anger may also be directed at the loved one that is deceased. While we know that the person is not to blame, we may resent them for causing us pain and leaving us. This can lead to a cycle of guilt for being angry which can lead to more feelings of anger (Axelrod, 2019).
The normal reaction to feelings of helplessness and vulnerability is to to regain control through a series of “If only” statements, such as:
- If only we had sought medical attention sooner…
- If only we got a second opinion from another doctor…
This is an attempt to bargain. We may try to make a deal with a higher power to delay the reality and pain. This is defense mechanism to protect us from the painful reality (Axelrod, 2019).
Guilt goes along bargaining. We start to believe there was something we could have done differently to have helped save our loved one (Axelrod, 2019).
Depression is common with grief. It is a reaction to practical implications relating to the loss. Sadness and regret are part of depression. We worry about the financial costs. We worry that, in our grief, we have spent less time with other family members that depend on us. This phase may be lessened by clarification and reassurance. We may need a bit of cooperation, understanding, support and a few kind words (Axelrod, 2019).
Since death is often sudden and unexpected, it can be difficult to see beyond the initial anger or denial. This phase is marked by a withdrawal and calm state. This is not a period of happiness and must not be confused with depression (Axelrod, 2019).
Loved ones that are terminally ill, or aging appear to go through a final period of withdrawal. Their behavior reaches a stage at which interaction with friend and family is limited. This limiting of social interaction by dying loved ones may well be their last gift to us (Axelrod, 2019).
There are many resources available that clients can be referred to if they need help processing or coping with a loss. Listed below are five resources that clients may access for support during the grieving process
1) Lou: Lifting others up is a community support group hosted by a local emergency veterinary clinic in Columbia, MD. This group meets once a month and is a great local resource for clients in need of support (“Lou Lifting Others Up, nd”
2) ) Best friends offers a list of websites for grief support which includes hotlines, books and meetings local to the area (“Pet Loss and Grief Support, nd”).
3) PennVet also offers grief support via phone, email and meetings “(Support for you and your pet” nd).
4) The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA)
Offers support for pet loss via phone at (877) 474-3310 (tps://www.petloss.com/phones.htm, 2019).
5) Everlife Memorials offers a list of pet loss counselors by state (Pet Loss Counselors, n.d.)
- About Purina a Company of Pet Lovers. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.purina.com/about-purina
- Axelrod, J. (2019, February 08). The 5 Stages of Grief & Loss. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/lib/the-5-stages-of-loss-and-grief/
- Bassert, J. M., Thomas, J. A., & McCurnin, D. M. (2014). McCurnins clinical textbook for veterinary technicians. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
- Cat Food (2019). Retrieved from https://www.purina.com/cats
- Forney, B VMD Retrieved from https://www.wedgewoodpetrx.com
- Jurgens, M. H. (2007). Animal feeding and nutrition. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Pub.
- Pet Loss Grief Counseling by phone. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.petloss.com/phones.htm
- Purina Mills (2019) Retrieved from http://www.company-histories.com/Purina-Mills-Inc-Company-History.html
- Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.proplanveterinarydiets.com
- Support for You & Your Pet. (n.d.). Retrieved from https//:upenn.com
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