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There are many researchers who have examined on how tourism affects the local people in a destination. They have worked on how to assess the negative and positive impacts of tourism on society. This literature review will be based on the research of the socio-cultural impact of tourism on the local people in Mauritius. The impacts that tourism brings to the local people will be assessed by the use of a questionnaire. This literature review will be completed by searching for journal articles, relevant studies which have been previously done on the topic.
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Overview of Tourism
Tourism is an active and deal process which include direct and alternative relationship between people and originator of tourism products. The interaction between people is the is often the necessary feature which characterizes a tourism experience. These experiences can lead to both positive and negative impacts and this should be controlled in order to maximize the positive impacts and minimize and negative impacts (Sheldon & Abenoja). Positive and negative feature of tourism can be moved to the tourists and the hosts population as a tourism product can only be consumed in a destination.
One of the most influential socially based plan refined to examine the impact of tourism has on local people and the environment in which the local people live is dependent on the work of Doxey (1975), who was able to demonstrate the feeling that local people show as tourism extend and start to use greater area of a local economy over time. (Doxey) also argued that there are basically four levels to be considered when assessing local feelings towards the tourism industry. These are as follows:
Euphoria: This is where tourist come to a destination where they are received with little control and planning in a destination
Apathy: Tourists are accepted by the local people in a destination, commercialization takes place and there is a relationship between groups.
Annoyance: As the tourism industry is being saturated, local people tend to have uncertainty about a location of tourism. Tourism planners increase infrastructure instead of controlling the growth of tourism.
Antagonism: Local people start to become irritated and this is presented to tourists and tourism and planning is restorative.
The number of impacts from tourism is physically wide and it often has the authority on areas beyond those usually linked with tourism (Kreag 2001). It is difficult to measure the exact type and magnitudes of impacts of tourism as they cannot be viewed in a separate way because the effect brought by tourism alone and the effect which has been accomplished by other agents of change such as modernization, development, and the influence of media (Archer & Cooper, 1994; Lickorish & Jenkin, 1997; Mathieson & Wall, 1982).
Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism
According to (Oppermann & Chon, 1997), they argued that the socio cultural impacts should be available in towns and it should be designed in such a way in order to achieve the ideals of sustainable development. The socio-cultural impacts of tourism occur when there is the interaction between the “host”, or local people, and “guests”, or tourists (Smith 1995). However, Glasson, Gofrey and Goodey (1995) argued that the socio-cultural impacts are the “people impacts” of tourism and it concentrates on the day to day changes and quality of life of residents in a destination. It has been stated by (Opperman and Chon 1997) that tourist and the host interactions does not have effect on the hosts and the society of the host, but also it has an effect on the tourists and the tourists’ societies.
Socio-cultural impacts have both positive and negative forms and it is the hosts and the guests who are affected (Cooper et al., 1998; Oppermann & Chon, 1997). Moreover, (Pi-Sunyer, 1973), stated that socially and culturally, tourism has often been victim of social tensions. It can be noted that the principal impacts affected by the tourists and host relationship are the demonstration effect, that is when the behaviour of the hosts community is developed in such a way to imitate the tourists (Boissevain, 1979; Tsartas, 1992). During their stay in a destination tourists interact with the local residents and this interation brings an outcome such as modifications in the quality of life of the host’s community, value system, labour division, family relationships, attitudes, behavioural patterns, ceremonies and creative expressions (Fox 1977; Cohen 1984; Pizam and Milman 1984).
The encounters of tourists and the hosts occur when tourists are buying goods and services from any host individual where there are at the same place and at the same time and where they can exchange ideas and information (de Kadt 1979). Another type of encounter which occur in tourism is where there is a failure in promoting mutual understanding among different nations and stereotypes prevail (Nettekoven 1979; Krippendorf 1987; O’Grady 1990). In addition, socio-cultural impacts of tourism also include change in the language that is used in a destination (White 1974; Brougham and Butler 1977; Jeffs and Tavis 1989; Wallace 1997); growth in the consumption of alcoholics, crime, prostitution and gambling (Young 1973; Graburn 1983; O’Grady 1990). According to Brunt and Courtney (1999) argued that socio cultural impacts of when there is the interaction of tourists-host could be utilized to host residents and was affected by their role and their relationship within the tourism industry.
Communities Perspective of Tourism
Considering the attitude of local people the large range of the positive and negative impacts of tourism on the community at large and individual can be analysed (Fredline, 2004). (Ratz 2002), said that the lives of the host’s community are changed by two major factors which are namely the tourists-host relationship and the development of the tourism industry itself. Local people and foreign companies are encouraged to invest in different types of tourist enterprises (Larsen 1998) and this is looked in such a strategy to motivate economic activities to take place which will make the state become richer. In a host community, not every people perceive the impacts of tourism in the same manner. Researches says that the level of satisfaction of residents in a destination and their attitudes in relation to tourism are conditional on their perception of the impact of tourism.
Cultural sustainability is the maintenance of local values, the way that people live in their environment and identity (Heikkinen et al. 2007). According to (Besculides, Lee, & McCornick, 2002; Simpson, 2008) the cultural and social as aspect of sustainability may be supported by tourism development by granting a change of declining traditional industries appealing infrastructure development promoting pride referring to culture and community, fostering cultural acceptance amongst visitors, keeping cultural heritage, fostering cross institutional acceptance and bring into existence educational favorable circumstances. However, (Liu 2003; Stronza, 2007), argued that tourism can bring up new lifestyles, belief, and values to hosts, and come through changes in the living form of the communities.
Positive socio-cultural impact of tourism
Tourism brings into contribution of an improvement of the social infrastructure in a destination. Cultural development can be considered as a positive impact of tourism. Various situations exist where tourism is the active force behind the preservation and awareness of local culture and traditions. (United Nations, 1996; Jamaica Sustainable Development Network, 2001; Tourism Product Development Company 2005; du Cros; 2001)
Negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism
For some islands, there are negative social impact that are created due to tourism. An increase in the price leads to a fall in the standard of living of the local community. Fishermen are deprived from their occupation. Sometimes locals are prevented to get access to public beaches as most hotels give priority to tourists to enjoy the beaches and therefore locals are left with only part of the beaches. Moreover, there are capacity issues where the beaches are overcrowded which leads to traffic congestion and noise pollution, reverse acculturation and high crime rates also occur (United Nations, 1996; PA Consulting Group, 2007).
Physical influences causing social stress
The physical power that increasing tourism has on a destination can cause social stress because this encounter the local community. Cultural degeneration such as damage to cultural heritage may take place from vandalism, littering, pilferage and illegal removal of cultural heritage items or by changing the historical landscape that surrounds it. Resource use conflicts will arise because there is a competition between the host community and the tourists for making use of prime resources such as water and energy which are limited in supply. Conflicts will arise when there will be the construction of hotels in coastal areas.
As tourism is the movement of people to different places geographically and places of social relation between tourists and the hosts, culture clashes may come forward because of differences in their cultures, ethnic and religious groups, values, lifestyles, languages and levels of prosperity. There will be economic inequality between local people and the tourists as they spend more than they often spend in an economy.
Behaviour of tourists causing irritation
Tourists usually fail to respect local people and their moral values due to carelessness in a destination. They may not respect the locals traditions by taking pictures where they are not allowed to do so and they may also be not well dressed in religious places like temples, mosques, and church.
Jud (1975) stated that amount of criminal movement facing foreign tourists grows as the number of illegal chances increase. He also said that the more tourists arrival in a destination will result in more chances for crime to take place. However, Lin and Loeb (1977) argued that there might not be a certain connection between tourists and criminal activities. Moreover, Bernasco and Luykx (2003) stated that there are three factors which pull crimes against property and these are attractiveness, opportunity and accessibility. As a result if communities do not protect themselves and imperfectly put in order by external agencies, some individuals will precise their personal temperament and devotion towards criminal behaviour. Moreover, Shaw and Mc Kay (1992) stated that a weak organizational form within a community may produce an environment more favorable for criminals against people and vice versa.
Job level friction
There has been a lack of professional training and low-paid tourism jobs such as waiter, cleaner gardening are offered to local people whereas the higher-paying jobs are like managerial jobs are offered to foreigners.
Change of local identity and values
Conventional tourism can bring impact change or loss of recognition and values and leads to influences as stated below:
Commercialization of local culture
Tourism can turn local culture into product and this is when religious traditions, local customs and festivals are diminished to adjust to tourist expectations and this has been called as reconstructed ethnicity.
A destination aim is to satisfy and it risk standardization, accommodation, food and drinks, etc must meet the want of the tourists in a destination
Adaptation to tourist demands
In destination tourists have the desire to buy souvenirs, arts, crafts, cultural manifestations. Craftsmen in many tourists’ destinations have changed their products by designing new types to make them match the new customer’s tastes.
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Increase of Prostitution and sex tourism
According to the WTO (World Tourism Organisation) experts (1994) sex tourism has its principal intention that effect of a commercial sexual relationship. Sex tourism is absolutely tangible encounter in which the partner is not anymore an animated object. Many men go to Asia to choose Asian girls because no communication is possible. Sex workers can be migrant women in a destination from neighbouring countries. Moreover, sex tourism has impacted to an increase in AIDS in India. It has been discovered that upper grade hotels have their supply for sex tourism to take place. Sex tourism is also linked to drug peddlers who search for long vacation tourists at cheap destinations.
The economic impacts of tourism
According to (Loomis and Walsh 1997) businesses and public organizations are progressively showing interest in the economic impacts of tourism at national, state and local levels as the tourism industry contributes to the nation’s balance of payment (BOP) and this provide a great supply of income (Tatoglu, Erdal, Ozgur, & Azakli, 2000). The World Traven and Tourism Council (2012) reported that tourism can be beneficial to an economy in terms of increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Moreover, (Andereck Valentine, Knopf and Vogt 2005) reported that tourism industries can have a positive effect on the economy of a community by effecting diversity, and tax revenue. Furthermore tourism is taken into consideration as a determinant that provides a higher living standard and which effect to attract investors to do investments and tourists to spend which as a result creates greater benefits than costs (Brida, Osti & Faccioli, 2011).
The benefits that tourism bring in an economy
According to (Rithie, 2000; Carolson & Millan, 2002; Getz, 2005) said that the events in a destination tend to improve the infrastructure and development capacity. (Westerbeek et al. 2005, p. 133) reported that when infrastructure is well articulated consisting of physical venues, accommodation and facilities such as transport can lead a an even to success and reducing costs, ameliorating the convenience of spectator, as well as the athlete and long term benefits for the local community when the event ends.
Tourism as a supply of income is difficult to measure, this is because it creates multiplier effect (Clarke et al, 2009; Brida et al, 2010; Rastegar, 2010). Multiplier effect is the abundance of money which is generated due to tourist spending in an economy it increases as it passes through different areas of the economy (Dritsakis, 2008; Boopen, 2006. Tourism does not only leads to employment opportunities but also motivates growth in the primary and secondary sectors of the industry.
Primary tourism sectors namely, lodging, dining, transportation, amusements and retail trade are influenced directly and most of the other sectors are have impacts of the secondary effects.
Direct effect in the economy
These are production changes which are linked with the actual effects of changes in tourism expenditures. An increase in the number of tourists staying in a hotel would lead to an increase in profits due to sales in the hotel sector. Direct effects of tourists spending also include hotel payments for wages and salaries, taxes, and supplies and services.
Indirect effect in the economy
This is the re spending of the hotel industry’s revenues in other behind industries. For example industries which supplies products and services to hotels. Modification in sales, jobs, and income in the linen supply industry shows another area of indirect effects after all connecting hotels to various degrees to multiple other economic sectors in the region.
Induced effect in the economy
Induced effect is the household income earned directly or indirectly by tourism spending. For example employees from the hotel and employees from the linen supply are supported directly and indirectly by tourism, they spend their money in the local region expenses of housing, food, transportation and spending of added wage, salary, or owners income are considered as induced effect.
Indirect effects of tourism on GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
Tourism is a big constituent of the services economy, representing 30% of international trade in services. Taking into account of the revenue, the T20 countries generate nearly 70% of global tourist activity. In addition, the contribution that tourism can make to the growth of the economy is found in its indirect impacts, which in the T20 countries showing over 45% of tourism’s total contributions to the GDP. These indirect impact which are linked both to goods and services bought by the tourism sector and to investment and public spending multiplied by tourism are an important factor of economic growth.
The exchange rate effect of tourism
Tourism is a major foreign currency earner as it supplies the market with foreign currency and this market would not exist if tourism would not be so large. This diminishes the cost of foreign currency below what it would otherwise be.
Creation of employment
According to (Bridenhann and Wickens, 2004), tourism is an industries among many other industries which has the highest power to contribute towards job creation and economic development, especially in rural areas.
Environmental impact of tourism
Negative environmental impacts takes place when the level of visitors in a country exceeds the carrying capacity of an environment or use greater space that is required for an environment. When it is uncontrolled, it brings threats to many natural areas around the world.
The environment quality, natural and man-made is of great importance to tourism. However, the relationship with the environment is intricate. The environmental impact is related with the construction of the general infrastructure in a destination such as roads and airports, and of the facilities of tourism, such as resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses. As the negative impacts of tourism can destroy the environment in the long-term, and these impacts should be minimized. Further literature of the negative environmental impact of tourism is as follows:
The important resources of land are fertile soil, forests, wetlands and wildlife. Due to an increase in the construction of tourism facilities there has been pressure on these resources. Direct impact can be caused by providing tourists with the facilities needed such as accommodation and other infrastructure needed on the environment. Moreover, when there is deforestation, forest often suffers from this disaster.
Air and noise pollution
Pollution is something harmful that begins into the environment and these harmful materials are called pollutants. It can be natural such as volcanic ash. Pollution can be also produced by human activity for example trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water and land.
There are various things that are useful to people create pollution. Cars eject pollutants from their exhaust pipes. Burning coal to produce electricity pollutes the air. Industries and homes spread garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water.
Impacts on Biodiversity
Tourism can cause loss of biodiversity in various ways for example by competing the wildlife for habitat and natural resources. Negative impact on biodiversity can be caused by trampling, stress in animals, import of invading species, destruction of habitats, marine habitat deterioration.
Strain on water resources
Water is one of the important resource that is needed to survive and for a business to continue to operate water is need in the everyday operation of the business. Hotels use water in swimming pools, golf courses and also water is used by the tourists for personal use. Therefore there is a tendency for shortage of water and generating a greater volume of wastewater.
Hotels use huge volume of water. Tourists staying in a hotel use on average 1/3 more water per day than a local inhabitant. The consumption of energy per m2 per year by one star hotel is 157kwh (380 KWh in a four star hotel) (EEA, 2003). However, the infrastructure is not suitable as it has been designed to cope with peak periods.
The role of the UNWTO, (United Nations World Tourism Organisation) towards the environment
In order to prevent the unfavorable impacts of climate change, the IPCC reports 2007 need 25-40% emission reduction sphere for the Annex 1 Parties (industrialized countries) by 2020, compared to the basis year 1995.
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