Economic And Socio Cultural Impact Tourism Essay

1654 words (7 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

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Nepal is a tourism destination country. Due to its impeccable natural resources and cultural sites, the people from different countries are attracted towards Nepal. Likely, the impacts are created in terms of economy and socio-cultural aspects in reference to tourists inflow. In economy context, flow of job opportunities, foreign currencies, etc are generated that has increased the living standard of people and profitable growth for the country. Moreover, understanding each other’s culture and behaviours has resulted both positive and negative effects. If maintained in terms of sustainability development, these impacts will be beneficial in the long run.

Aims and Objectives of the research

To know the economic and socio-cultural status of tourism in Nepal.

To examine the importance, benefits and impacts of changes in tourism developments.

To find out the possible measures, outcomes and challenges faced in the economy of Nepal.

2.1 Background and issues underlying the research

The perceptual of Nepal’s economy rely on the tourism benefits. Even though, the tourism scenario has created a lucrative effort to improve the daily lives of people in a standard way, it has changed the attitude and behaviours into a westernized one gradually diminishing the old cultural values and traditions. This has enlarged a huge issue for the conservations of cultural society that attracts the foreigners. Mostly the young people of society are largely influenced from western culture with a feeling of superiority among others that has embarked a crucial issue of less culture-follower in future. Moreover, the natural resources are diminished for the provision of services to the travellers. So, the effective tourism plans are necessary to be carried on a way that it protects both the culture and environment in a sustainable run.

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2.2 Justification for the research

Tourism is a great phenomenon in the economy development of Nepal. Without tourism, the economic developments are impossible in Nepal. Besides the positive results for improving the life standards of people and country, more it has created side effects in related to destruction of culture and environment which might be an obstacle in the future economy. Moreover, the misconceptions of imitating foreign life styles for showing superiority among others have downward the real cultural values. The equality between the good economy and respecting culture is important for beneficial tourism progressions.

2.4 Literature Review

According to Agrawal and Upadhyay (2006), has mentioned about the positive effects of tourism in national economy. The sectoral development of infrastructures in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary, increase in GDP and the pattern of spending money by tourists in mostly adventurous, hotels and cultural sectors has helped to collect the foreign lrevenues utilized for overall developmental projects. Whereas, Gautam (2009) has also stated the more earnings of foreign exchange, job opportunities increase revenues in the national economy which is very worth for the overall development of country.

Pandey et al (1995) have depicted more about the local culture and customs. The exchange of gifts from foreigners like cameras, chocolates, clothes etc might change the traditional life style of people. More tourist arrivals means increase in drug addictions, prostitution and significantly diverted towards modernized society. ( pg no. 21-25)

In contrast, Egbali et al (2010) have mentioned about the positive and negative sides of the tourism. Due to the income generated from the foreign currencies, the country will get an advantage to conserve its natural resources and preservation of cultural heritages. Also, the disadvantage of destruction and pollution of natural environment like building the airports, hotels, etc, seasonal work patterns, changes in life style of people to adapt foreign’s culture, the more garbages created by tourists that can lead to more chances of epidemic diseases as well as deterioration of culture.(pg no. 67)

Sofiled(2000) has also claimed that whether the tourism based on developmental or anti-developmental and either effects on lucrative or contradiction. Also, the socio-cultural change is difficult to measure approximately such as loss of culture, corruption and ethnicity may occur intellectual measurement.

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Another Khanal (2011) has argued that even though it effects on lifestyle of people and behaviour, there are more positive effects for it for the future developments in particular regions of Nepal. For example, Bandipur, renowned for its cultural and natural sites. The infrastructures of roads, electricity and restoration of temples are possible due to the incomes from tourism. Although the modernization concept overlooks it but the programmes related to importance of cultural values will influence the people to protect it. (Pg. no. 28-31)

Raghu (2009) has pointed out that tourism also caused direct and indirect costs to the economy. Increased demand for imported goods and products raises the higher price in the shops and it becomes impossible to buy for the consumers. Overdependence on the tourism might create risks in the economic instability and the country has to suffer mainly the local people. More focus on urban areas lead to differentiations in wealth terms and the increase in migration from rural areas. The worst habit like casino will be practised in Nepal even though the people are not allowed to enter but this culture will ruin the economic status of people of Nepal. Likewise, growth in use of alcohol products will be raised. Overuse of historical places like car parkings, road construction, etc will damage that areas but if used in right way then the tourism fund will help to restore these sites and also the development of museums and preference to religious festivals gives positive impacts Hunter and Green (1995) (pg no. 26-27)

Pandit (2012) has also explored that the tourism industry is versatile with its direct sectors including hospitality and food industries, local handicrafts and indirect sectors are uncountable on society. It brings more recreational activities such as parks, entertainment, etc which provides jobs for the people. On the other hand, the economic impacts related to direct (restaurant invoice), indirect (expenditures) and induced (employees’ salaries to spend in their daily lives) impacts. The negative impacts will be inequality among jobs. The people related to tourism sector earn more than others. For example more women are inclined towards sex tourism by Bhatt (2003). On the contrary, the parking fees, hotel and government taxes paid by the visitors will be collected in terms of revenue and contribute to the development of that area and local economy with deduction of imports such as food, secondary supplies, etc according to Godfrey and Clarke (2000). Moreover, they have reflected that tourists are kind of marketing way if they get warmth and hospitality as expected of they will tell to their friends to visit in the country, is a positive challenge.

Also when the two cultures meet together, mostly the host community realizes the importance of their culture because of the appreciation by other ones. The positive attitude develops between them which help to realize them of their importance of their cultural values and start to conserve it. More number of tourist’s arrivals helps to preserve the ancient tradition as they learn and like it and gives more preferences as by Mrababayev & Shagazator (2011).

According to Bushby et al. (2001) have revealed the economic costs related to inflation, opportunity costs, dependency and seasonality where jobs available only part of the year creates negative impacts. They have also predicted the factors of extrinsic and intrinsic influencing socio-cultural impacts. Extrinsic includes type and number of tourists, demonstration effect and intrinsic relates to the demographic structure of employments in the tourism areas. The frameworks for measuring are displacement( eradicating the people who are not following the culture from that area) and involving the community in tourism planning.

As by Page, S.J.(2009) has explored that the analysis of host-guest impacts can be focused on the differences of the nature between the hosts and tourists in terms of social, economic and culture, the ratios, the visibility, speed and intensity of tourism development, etc. and the environmental effects such as architectural pollution, coastal pollution and destruction of eco-systems.

Mathieson and Wall (2006) have mentioned about demonstration effects in terms of socio-cultural impacts. The local people will imitate in terms of foreign language, dressing style and changes in the art forms for the imports.

Theobald (2005) has stated that the less chances for local population to use the luxurious and natural facilities used by tourism as per overcrowding of tourists. Also, the local culture and customs are exploited to satisfy the needs of the tourists. In contrary, ‘demonstration effect’ is replaced as ‘Confrontation effect’ which affects the moral standards of the people. The other effect is ‘culture brokers’ who speak the mixed language of host and guest. Humphreys et al. (2009) have illustrated the economic effects on investments and developments, revenues and incomes, balance and payments. The socio-cultural effects of mass tourism reflected in less developed countries like Nepal such as crimes and social problems. They have suggested that it can be managed through sustainable tourism (good relationships between hosts and guests) and bringing economic benefits to locals.

Nepal is a tourism destination country. Due to its impeccable natural resources and cultural sites, the people from different countries are attracted towards Nepal. Likely, the impacts are created in terms of economy and socio-cultural aspects in reference to tourists inflow. In economy context, flow of job opportunities, foreign currencies, etc are generated that has increased the living standard of people and profitable growth for the country. Moreover, understanding each other’s culture and behaviours has resulted both positive and negative effects. If maintained in terms of sustainability development, these impacts will be beneficial in the long run.

Aims and Objectives of the research

To know the economic and socio-cultural status of tourism in Nepal.

To examine the importance, benefits and impacts of changes in tourism developments.

To find out the possible measures, outcomes and challenges faced in the economy of Nepal.

2.1 Background and issues underlying the research

The perceptual of Nepal’s economy rely on the tourism benefits. Even though, the tourism scenario has created a lucrative effort to improve the daily lives of people in a standard way, it has changed the attitude and behaviours into a westernized one gradually diminishing the old cultural values and traditions. This has enlarged a huge issue for the conservations of cultural society that attracts the foreigners. Mostly the young people of society are largely influenced from western culture with a feeling of superiority among others that has embarked a crucial issue of less culture-follower in future. Moreover, the natural resources are diminished for the provision of services to the travellers. So, the effective tourism plans are necessary to be carried on a way that it protects both the culture and environment in a sustainable run.

2.2 Justification for the research

Tourism is a great phenomenon in the economy development of Nepal. Without tourism, the economic developments are impossible in Nepal. Besides the positive results for improving the life standards of people and country, more it has created side effects in related to destruction of culture and environment which might be an obstacle in the future economy. Moreover, the misconceptions of imitating foreign life styles for showing superiority among others have downward the real cultural values. The equality between the good economy and respecting culture is important for beneficial tourism progressions.

2.4 Literature Review

According to Agrawal and Upadhyay (2006), has mentioned about the positive effects of tourism in national economy. The sectoral development of infrastructures in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary, increase in GDP and the pattern of spending money by tourists in mostly adventurous, hotels and cultural sectors has helped to collect the foreign lrevenues utilized for overall developmental projects. Whereas, Gautam (2009) has also stated the more earnings of foreign exchange, job opportunities increase revenues in the national economy which is very worth for the overall development of country.

Pandey et al (1995) have depicted more about the local culture and customs. The exchange of gifts from foreigners like cameras, chocolates, clothes etc might change the traditional life style of people. More tourist arrivals means increase in drug addictions, prostitution and significantly diverted towards modernized society. ( pg no. 21-25)

In contrast, Egbali et al (2010) have mentioned about the positive and negative sides of the tourism. Due to the income generated from the foreign currencies, the country will get an advantage to conserve its natural resources and preservation of cultural heritages. Also, the disadvantage of destruction and pollution of natural environment like building the airports, hotels, etc, seasonal work patterns, changes in life style of people to adapt foreign’s culture, the more garbages created by tourists that can lead to more chances of epidemic diseases as well as deterioration of culture.(pg no. 67)

Sofiled(2000) has also claimed that whether the tourism based on developmental or anti-developmental and either effects on lucrative or contradiction. Also, the socio-cultural change is difficult to measure approximately such as loss of culture, corruption and ethnicity may occur intellectual measurement.

Another Khanal (2011) has argued that even though it effects on lifestyle of people and behaviour, there are more positive effects for it for the future developments in particular regions of Nepal. For example, Bandipur, renowned for its cultural and natural sites. The infrastructures of roads, electricity and restoration of temples are possible due to the incomes from tourism. Although the modernization concept overlooks it but the programmes related to importance of cultural values will influence the people to protect it. (Pg. no. 28-31)

Raghu (2009) has pointed out that tourism also caused direct and indirect costs to the economy. Increased demand for imported goods and products raises the higher price in the shops and it becomes impossible to buy for the consumers. Overdependence on the tourism might create risks in the economic instability and the country has to suffer mainly the local people. More focus on urban areas lead to differentiations in wealth terms and the increase in migration from rural areas. The worst habit like casino will be practised in Nepal even though the people are not allowed to enter but this culture will ruin the economic status of people of Nepal. Likewise, growth in use of alcohol products will be raised. Overuse of historical places like car parkings, road construction, etc will damage that areas but if used in right way then the tourism fund will help to restore these sites and also the development of museums and preference to religious festivals gives positive impacts Hunter and Green (1995) (pg no. 26-27)

Pandit (2012) has also explored that the tourism industry is versatile with its direct sectors including hospitality and food industries, local handicrafts and indirect sectors are uncountable on society. It brings more recreational activities such as parks, entertainment, etc which provides jobs for the people. On the other hand, the economic impacts related to direct (restaurant invoice), indirect (expenditures) and induced (employees’ salaries to spend in their daily lives) impacts. The negative impacts will be inequality among jobs. The people related to tourism sector earn more than others. For example more women are inclined towards sex tourism by Bhatt (2003). On the contrary, the parking fees, hotel and government taxes paid by the visitors will be collected in terms of revenue and contribute to the development of that area and local economy with deduction of imports such as food, secondary supplies, etc according to Godfrey and Clarke (2000). Moreover, they have reflected that tourists are kind of marketing way if they get warmth and hospitality as expected of they will tell to their friends to visit in the country, is a positive challenge.

Also when the two cultures meet together, mostly the host community realizes the importance of their culture because of the appreciation by other ones. The positive attitude develops between them which help to realize them of their importance of their cultural values and start to conserve it. More number of tourist’s arrivals helps to preserve the ancient tradition as they learn and like it and gives more preferences as by Mrababayev & Shagazator (2011).

According to Bushby et al. (2001) have revealed the economic costs related to inflation, opportunity costs, dependency and seasonality where jobs available only part of the year creates negative impacts. They have also predicted the factors of extrinsic and intrinsic influencing socio-cultural impacts. Extrinsic includes type and number of tourists, demonstration effect and intrinsic relates to the demographic structure of employments in the tourism areas. The frameworks for measuring are displacement( eradicating the people who are not following the culture from that area) and involving the community in tourism planning.

As by Page, S.J.(2009) has explored that the analysis of host-guest impacts can be focused on the differences of the nature between the hosts and tourists in terms of social, economic and culture, the ratios, the visibility, speed and intensity of tourism development, etc. and the environmental effects such as architectural pollution, coastal pollution and destruction of eco-systems.

Mathieson and Wall (2006) have mentioned about demonstration effects in terms of socio-cultural impacts. The local people will imitate in terms of foreign language, dressing style and changes in the art forms for the imports.

Theobald (2005) has stated that the less chances for local population to use the luxurious and natural facilities used by tourism as per overcrowding of tourists. Also, the local culture and customs are exploited to satisfy the needs of the tourists. In contrary, ‘demonstration effect’ is replaced as ‘Confrontation effect’ which affects the moral standards of the people. The other effect is ‘culture brokers’ who speak the mixed language of host and guest. Humphreys et al. (2009) have illustrated the economic effects on investments and developments, revenues and incomes, balance and payments. The socio-cultural effects of mass tourism reflected in less developed countries like Nepal such as crimes and social problems. They have suggested that it can be managed through sustainable tourism (good relationships between hosts and guests) and bringing economic benefits to locals.

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