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A supervisor is someone who guides and oversees the work or activities of a student or another counselor. The three major goals of a supervisor include enhancing the skills and knowledge of professional and or student counselors, to ensure the welfare of the clients and maintain control between the client and the student. A supervisor’s responsibility is to mentor and teach students and professionals (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205). The supervisor will challenge, encourage and stimulate a student or professional counselor to help them gain the knowledge to become proficient (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205).
There are different purposes for a counseling supervisor, among them include improving the counselor’s professional and personal growth, encouraging a counselor’s knowledge and advancement of liable counseling services and programs. Among the roles of a supervisor include advocate, case consultant, collaborator and teacher. A supervisor helps counselors explore their counter transference issues. The supervisor support “interpersonal and intrapersonal exploration” of the student or counselor’s teaching and assessment. Supervisors explore diversity issues of counselor, student, and client. (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205).
Model of a supervisor includes developmental approach, models developed for the supervisor and theory-based. When a supervisor works from a theory based supervision model work with students and counselors in the same way of their counseling theory. “Some of the content, focus, and process of supervision are grounded in the supervisor’s counseling model include the developmental approach, models developed and theory based (Smallwood, 2010)
Models of Supervision with Michael Part I
Michael has worked as an intern student for two months under the supervision of Janet. Janet is a theory based supervisor. She uses the person-centered model of supervision (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205). Michael shows a lack of confidence. However, with the person-centered approach, he should gain more confidence because this approach encourages confidence. Janet will use Michael’s experiences to help him gain knowledge of his gain a personal awareness. Janet will not judge his mistakes; instead she will have empathy, and accept his mistakes as a means to learn. Janet will discuss Michael’s difficulties with him as a means of learning from his mistakes.
When Michael shares his concerns with his client, he is letting Janet is aware that he needs and appreciates her suggestions Michael is trying to learn from the way Janet would deal with this situation. Janet may get some ideas from Michael to help him see his own feelings regarding his thoughts (Smallwood, 2010). To help his gain confidence the supervisor works closely with the student and counselor and develops a working relationship. (Smallwood, 2010).
If Janet was a developmental model supervisor, she would encourage Michael to gain confidence by becoming aware of himself and other. She would encourage him to become motivated and gain independence. Michael would be going to Janet for advice because she is the supervisor, and she wants him to be relatively dependent on her. Michael should eventually become more independent and function unaided without seeking approval from his supervisor. (The International Child and Youth Care Network, 2001).
There are eight growth areas that Janet will be helping Michael to attain. These areas include assessment techniques, client conceptualization, interpersonal assessment, intervention, individual differences, professional ethics treatment goals and plans, and skill competence (The International Child and Youth Care Network, 2001).
The discrimination model of supervision is divided into three categorized patient centered, supervisee-centered, and supervisory-matrix-centered. This approach gives the supervisor much authority because their role is “didactic”, allowing the student or counselor to treat the patient. This model focuses on the client, not the student or counselor allows for some interaction between the counselor and the student. In Michael’s case this form of supervision may not work as he has little self esteem or confidence in himself (Smith, 2009)
Part II Importance of Supervision to counselors and professional counselors
The benefits a student or professional counselor gain from supervision include development in personally and professional, gain new strategies, have support, and are given the opportunity to develop professionally (Benshoff, 1992-12-00). Supervision is critical in learning, maintaining and improving professional skills of students and professional counselors. Counselors and professional counselors incorporate their academic training with hands on experience. Supervision also gives counselors the ability to learn about their own style of counseling and examine the strengths and weaknesses. Supervision is also effective in increasing the knowledge of the counselor by giving them the ability to help each other and learn from mistakes (Benshoff, 1992-12-00)
There may be times when supervision is impossible. This is when the counselors work together in what is called a triadic model by rotating the tomes of counselor, commentator and facilitator with peer supervision sections. This helps counselors develop professional counseling skills by implementing them effectively with clients (Benshoff, 1992-12-00).
Supervision helps counselors to learn by teaching or mentoring them. The supervisor challenges, encourages, and stimulates the counselor to give them the knowledge to gain confidence. Supervisors help counselors to develop into exemplary counselors by promoting their personal and professional development by teaching, mentoring, collaborating, and consulting. (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205).
Heading for Conclusion/Summary
Supervision is essential to challenge, stimulate and encourage counselors and professionals by gaining knowledge from advocating, mentoring, teaching, training and collaborating. The focus of counseling supervisors is to facilitate the counselors’ development professionally and personally. Supervisors also consider the diversity of counselors and professionals in the counseling relationship and respect differing opinions and beliefs (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205). There are different models of supervising including the theory based, developmental approach and the models developed for supervision (book). The person centered theory is when supervisors try to build a working relationship with the counselors in order to gain their trust. Supervisors show empathy and genuine concern for the counselor pointing out mistakes, in a way that is not demeaning (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205). A supervisor who correctly uses the person centered theory will help the counselor to have self confidence and the ability to understand the counseling process. When a supervisor uses the cognitive behavioral model they are teaching the counselor appropriate behavior and helping them to develop specific skills needed to allow them to become motivated and gain successful knowledge. (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205). The supervisor assesses the counselor or professional for each issue and helps them work through issues, so they can move on to the next of the three levels. The eight domains of professional counseling that are addressed include assessment techniques, client conceptualization, individual differences intervention skills, treatment goals and plans and theoretical orientation and professional ethics. (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205). Other theories of the discrimination model include Intervention skills, conceptualization skills and personalization skills (Erford, 2010, p. 202-205) .
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