According to Ewles and Simnett and Edelman Mandle , values and principles mean powerful drivers of how we think and behave. These are often a significant element of culture, where they form a part of the shared rule set of a group. Every people's personal values and principles influence their work contribution significantly in health and social care management. There are different types of values like instrumental values, personal values, political values, social values, economic values, religious values etc.
Vilkka (1997) and Edelman Mandle (2005) have stated that instrumental values mean being honest, courage, polite, gentle, well-behaved etc. In addition, these values mean to have a good moral. It has a great impact of work contribution. For example, in a care home employees may need to keep the service users' belongings which are valuable. In this case, they have to be honest. Otherwise, dishonest people may take those materials and flee away. So instrumental values influence work contribution.
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Posner (n.d.) has cited that personal value means dignity, creativity, courage, attitude of care, independence, friendliness etc. It can influence work contribution. For example, a person with good creativity skills can serve the service users in a better way. In addition, if they become friendly and positive in caring, then the service users or the clients will be happier.
The ethnicity of people, tradition, regional ties, linguistic ties, national ties etc. are included in cultural values. For example, if anyone is from white ethnic background, then they will be more punctual where Asian ethnic people are less sincere. Another thing can be, people who are from the Middle East are very honest.
Social values may include equality, justice, liberty, freedom and national pride. These are the values that put the rights of wider groups of people first. As it promotes equality, justice, freedom and liberty then it can impact on work contributions significantly. For example, in a care home there may have employee and service users from different ethnic and national background. Their culture can be different from each other. So, following equality law, justice, national pride etc. improve workplace contribution.
According to Connor et al (2006), work values mean autonomy, dedication, teamwork, competitiveness, trustworthiness, reliability, professionalism, ethics etc. Autonomy means feeling relaxed and confident. It is universal truth that if anyone fell relaxed, ambition, and confident then she or he can play a very good role in work. Another thing is teamwork. It is always better than single work. Dedication has a positive impact as well. Doing favor to someone is called dedication. Health and social care is mainly related to co-operation and co-ordination between the employees and clients. For instant, an employee may not able to handle heavy things. So, in that case if anyone helps him to accomplish his task that is called dedication. It improves work outcome as well.
Trustworthiness and reliability are the two main sources of work effectiveness (Holloway Wheeler, 2002). If the employees trust one another, they can work with free from tension. Because they know whatever the co-workers are doing are correct. Also, they should be reliable so that staff can get help from them whenever it is required.
According to Allison (2001) and Posner (n.d.), professionalism has a significant effect in work contribution in health and social care. If professionals forget about their role and start making close relationship with clients, then it brings very negative outcome for the staff. They may be penalized for breaking organizational law. Sometimes, they chat with their co-workers ignoring the service users. But those follow the professionalism rules, can never do such kinds of things. As a result, clients will be happy and work outcome will be increased significantly. Thus, proffesioanlism influences contribution to work.
Litman (2009) has stated that economic values may include ownership of property, contributing to common good etc. This value means the value around money. According to some people, this is the most important value for work contribution because if the employees are paid soundly, then they must try to give their best. In reverse, if their expectations are not fulfilled, they must not give their best.
Religious values are the other important values. According to Cooper Palmer (1998), these are spiritual values, which means how we should behave, including caring of one another and in worship. Religion views have one of the most significant effects to work contribution. For example, according to Muslim laws, if you do not try to give your best to your employer, then you will be penalised by your god. So, those people who have respect on their religion, they will always try to do better in work. Thus religion values can influence work contributions.
Always on Time
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According to McPartland (1991), principles are the policy, objectives, rules, fundamental norms, or value that state what are the role of an individual, or an organization, or a community. It also makes a distinction between fairness and unfairness. So, it can influence work contribution as well. Some people may have principles which may be directly opposite to organizational principles. For instant, if a conservative Buddhist is told to serve a non-Buddhist client, he/she may not give positive response and it will affect work contribution negatively. On the other hand, if an open minded Christian is told to something that is work related, they will do with 100% positive attitude. Thus, principles influence workplace contribution in health and social care.
1.2 Analyse how your own cultural values and beliefs influence your work in support and care of service users in your work place.
According to Kitayama Cohen (2007) and O'Donnell (2001), different cultural values and beliefs impact support and care of service users in workplace differently. Values and principles include equal rights, diversity, confidentiality, protection from abuse and harm. In addition, personal values are beliefs and preferences, culture, political perspectives, interests and priorities, change over lifespan to date etc.
I have my own culture and beliefs which also influence the care of the service users. For instance, I am not either vegetarian or non-vegetarian. I take all types of dishes which are halal because I am a muslim. So, I may not be interested to serve those people who will eat much haram dishes. But, in the same time I may provide a better service than a Buddhist. The reason of that is most of the Buddhists are non-vegetarian and they are not willing to serve the people who deserve meats. My culture and value has taught me to treat every person equally. It has also taught me to give adult people their freedom. So, I will not discriminate any people. People from any background are same to me. So, I can provide them a good service.
1.3 Explain how development of new priorities targets and legislation impact upon your role as a care worker.
There are a few new developments in legislations, priorities, research, policies, principles and values that can impact upon my role as a care worker. For example, Sex Discrimination Act 1975, The Carers (Recognition and Services) Act 1995, The Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000, The Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004, Disabled Persons Act 1986, Human Rights Act 19980, The Work and Families Act 2006, The Children and Young Persons Act 2008, Care and Support Green Paper, are the legislations and priorities that impact upon my role. Sex Discrimination Act 1975 states that it is unlawful for an employee to discriminate anyone because of their sex. The Carers (Recognition and Services) Act 1995 has given a legal status and some rights to carers. Carers are requested to assess their ability of work under this act. So, as a carer now I do self-assessment and inform it to local council and they take necessary steps. The Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004 is very necessary for all the carers as it ensures their rights. According to this act, authorised people have to assess their needs, give priority to their wishes, and provide training whenever they need. It also facilitated co-operation between care workers and authorities in relation to the services. The government has recently prepared green paper where care and support system will be mentioned. Also, the government has given carers to express their opinion. In addition, they have engaged all the carers, stakeholders, service users, shareholders and members of the public to give their views to improve care plans. So, now I can share everything related to job with authorized persons and work with free of hassle. Thus these priorities and legislations impact upon my role as a care worker.
1.4 Discuss how the changes in personal values have contributed to your personal development
Pavlina (2008) has cited that the changes in personal values and principles have contributed a lot in personal development. For example, if I change my beliefs and preferences then it affects the service users. I used to think that serving the lesbian or gay or people who are not from my background are not good. But when I can come to know the legislations and change my beliefs then I can serve them as well and that is a part of my personal development. As an Asian my culture is different from European culture. So, while serving clients I may have to face difficulty as I don't know their culture very good. But when I will be aware of their culture and views then I can deliver a better service because my cultural value will be changed that time. Thus the changes in personal values have contributed to my personal development.
Produce, monitor, revise and evaluate plans for personal progress in developing the skills and abilities required of a care worker
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2.1 Assess your own preferred learning style and abilities
As a care worker personal progress is very important as it is related to the skills and abilities. According to Jonassen Grabowsk (1993), preferred learning style and abilities vary from person to person. Kolb's (1984) states that, learning style can be concrete experience (feeling), diverging (feeling and watch), accommodating (feeling and doing), active experimentation (doing), reflective observation (watching), assimilating (thinking and watching), and abstract conceptualization (thinking). Learning from experience from outside world can be categorized as assimilating learning style. But usually people can learn four ways and those are watching, listening, writing, and reading. This is called linguistic learning method. Basically I prefer to learn in all ways but it depends what am I learning? For example, if I want to learn how to provide a better service to the service users then I prefer to learn it by linguistic mode and then by assimilating and accommodating because by this way I can read, watch, feel and think that I am doing. Then I have to do that practically. I can take notes as well if I want. The reason of that is there are certain things of learning where practical learning is more important than theoretical learning. After that I like to learn by writing and reading. There are a few things where it seems that easy after reading. But after some time I may forget that because only reading can not stimulate the memory cells most effectively. So to stimulate the memory cells effectively, I need to learn by writing as it stimulates my memory cells better than reading. I miss much information while learning by listening. A diagram of my learning style is given below:
Reading-Writing-Diverging -Accommodating- assimilating
2.2 Produce and justify a personal development plan with short-medium-and long term aims and Outcome
Gallen and Buckle (2001) has noted that acquiring new skills, updating practice, learning, career development etc are the main parts of personal development.
According to them, personal Development Plan (PDP) is important for all types of people whatever they are employee or employer or student. As a care worker or a as student of Health and Social care management personal development plan is vital for me. It can be short term, long term, short-medium-and long term aims. My personal development plan with short-medium and long term aims can be learning IT skills, being well-disciplined, improving presentation skills, negotiation policy, learning human resource management, learning people psychology, different types of acts and legislations related to health and social care, making effective decision, acquiring knowledge about medicine, improving leadership skills and developing communication skills.
IT skill: At this era information technology is the most important thing to learn as it has an effective impact in Health and Social care management. Without learning IT skills none can reach in a good level of their career. In addition, this branch is vast as well. So I have to spend a long time to be efficient of this branch. Now-a-days all information are saved and managed by computers. In addition, in some cases, computers can be used to diagnose the problem of the service users. I need to learn about programming, Microsoft word, Microsoft excel, power point, drawing good diagrams, presenting power point slides etc.
Negotiation policy: this is the area where I must need to improve. For example, when my manager will tell me you are going to be paid this amount of money for your job then I have negotiate with him if I am not satisfied. I have to show him/her the reasons as well why I should be paid more. This is important as money has an influence of employee's mentality and employee with good mentality can provide good service.
Presentation skills: as a social worker I should have good presentation skill what I don't have at all. If I can not present anything clearly to the service users then many misunderstanding will take place. So, I have to avoid this. It is not possible to improve presentation skills by day night. So, I will do a long term plan to improve my presentation skills.
My personal development plan and its outcomes are shown below in the table:
Be able to keep records correctly, create necessary soft wares if necessary.
Make clients understand what services they are going to get
Ensured self betterment
Human resource management
Managing human resource
Law, legislation and acts
Be able to deal with complaints and play by rules.
Be able to take right decision.
2.3 Discuss the arrangements to monitor the progress of your personal development plan.
The progress of my personal development program can be monitored by the outcome and job performances. For example, if I take IT and leadership skill as my personal development plan then it can be monitored by my record keeping skills, saving patients data, handling electronic devices etc. leadership skills can be monitored by the way I am managing people. For example, if hundred employees work under me I have to manage all of them efficiently where ever they are from or who ever they are. In addition, my progress can be monitored by performance appraisal.
2.4 Evaluate your personal development plan in context with your duties as a care worker
Bild Pountney (2007) have shown the necessity of personal development plan of a care worker. So, as a care worker my personal development plan is very important. IT skills and decision making were included in my personal development plan. As a care worker knowledge about IT helped me to keep all medical records digitally. I could find out information from computer or any electronic devices quickly. Decision making was another important thing. For example, if any frail client tells me he can not move and breathe properly. Also, he does not know what happened to him last night. But so far, he knows he did not take any food last night. In that situation, I am to take quick decision otherwise something can happen seriously. So, in context with my duties as a care worker these are essential to include as my personal development plan (PDP).
Analyse the application of principles of professional engagement with service users in a specific setting
3.1 Analyse the nature of different professional relationships in health and social care context
According to Fritz Omdahl (2006), professional relationship is a process by which staffs make relationship with individuals, service users' family and friends, workers with other agencies, colleagues or any authorized persons related to health and social care. Usually, it is focused on some specific principles of an organization. The natures of professional relationships are described below:
Relationship with service users:
All the service users' should be respected as individual and service users' with no mental problem can choose any services those are required.
Service providers are entitled to provide appropriate care to clients without any hassle. In addition, healthcare professionals are not allowed to discriminate anyone while providing service.
Carers, doctors, social workers or any healthcare professionals must ensure service users confidentiality. They are not allowed to disclose any information to anyone unless it harms to their clients.
Every health care specialists, carers or service users will ensure the full autonomy of their clients.
Engagement with co-workers:
A good understanding and work relationship among the staff must be established so that they can work as a team. Martin et al (2009) have stated that, teamwork always ensures good outcome of work.
Health care staff, social workers, carers will share their views and knowledge with everyone which are related to job to provide better service.
Every staff will respect other cultures and may accept the good knowledge from them.
Employers and service providers will work together to keep a workplace with no discrimination, harassment, bully etc.
Everyone will work together to keep a safe workplace.
They will make a work relationship among them but not more than that like emotional relationship. this can harm engagement among the employees.
3.2 Analyse effectiveness of different models of care/support in health and social care settings
According to Heller et al (1999), health care services can be provided by various models e.g. bio-medical model/conventional medical model, bio-psycosocial model, traditional social care model, NHS social care model etc. But in the UK health care services are traditionally delivered by bio-medical model. Every model has particular effectiveness for providing health care which are described below:
According to Srivastava (2007), effectveness of conventional medical model:
Supports are available in terms of healthcare as conventional medical model is formed by the basis of NHS and western health care systems.
Protecting illness and disability becomes easier as health services are mainly geared towards treating the sick and disabled people.
A high value can be ensured in terms of specialist medical services especially in institutional setting or clinics.
This model gives a chance to conduct medical research effectively.
Effectiveness of bio-psychological model:
In 1986 Kleinman and Good have stated that bio-psychological model focuses on the psychological, emotional, social and mental problem. As a result, experts can identify service users' mental needs effectively.
It recognizes that disease or illness can be neither studied nor treated in isolation from social and cultural environment.
It considers the links between socioeconomic deprivation and adverse health e g improving access to health care and reducing health inequalities.
Effectiveness of tradtional social care model (according to Leira, 2002):
It always priorotse the vulnearable groups so that they can get help from the service providers without any hassle at any time.
Service users and their organisations are fully involved in the development and even delivery of services. It also empower the people.
Effectiveness of the NHS social care model:
Glasby Littlechild (2004) has shown that NHS social care model always prioritizes the improvement of care for people with long term conditions.
This model will help to ensure health and social care organisations take an overall structured and systematic approach to improving the care of those long term conditions
The immediate focus should be the introduction of case management for the most vulnerable people with complex long term conditions so that long term hospital admissions can be reduced.
It aims to achieve early detection, good control to minimise effects of disease and reduce complications, improve effective medicine management. It also promotes independence, empowers patients and allows them to take control of their lives. Overally, it improves patients' quality of life.
3.3 Critically analyse own role in promoting individual's choice, ability and right to care for and protect themselves
According to Bradley et al (2009), own role is very important in health and social care workplaces to promote individual's choice, ability, right and to protect the service users. The lists of my plans are given below to implement these things:
As a social care worker I will must protect the rights and promote the interest of service users. This means I will Treat every person as an individual, Respect their privacy and promote the individual views and wishes of both service users and carers. In addition, I will promote equal opportunities, Respect diversity and different cultures and values for service users and carers.
I must strive to establish and maintain trust and confidence of service users and carers. It includes to be honest, trustworthy, Communicating in an appropriate, open, accurate and straightforward way with the colleagues and clients. In addition, I will be relieable and dependant, honoring to service users and carers. Also, I will be adhering to policies and procedures about accepting gifts and money from service users and carers.
I will promote the independence of service users while protecting them from dangers. It means Using established processes to challenge and report dangerous, abusive and discriminatory or exploitative behavior and practice.
I will ask them to give their opinions because people usually feel important if anyone asks about their choice or wish. I may identify their emotional needs as well by this way.
I will talk to the service users cordially about their concerns and interests so that they can express what they want. So, I can be aware of them and can protect them.
(CD lesson 3, page 7, little bit)
3.4 Analyze the dilemmas that may arise in professional relationships and how you would deal with them
In 2005, Tribe Morrissey have noted that, lots of dilemmas can arise in professional relationship e.g. abuse, ethics, challenging behavior, risk, conflicts between values and principles, confidentiality vs. disclosure, values of others etc.
For example, ethical dilemmas can arise frequently in professional relationship. it means people can not understand actually what to do. Though sometimes they are able to take a decision, many questions arise like is it correct that is done? Usually, there are two types of ethical dilemma and one is the Right to Accept or refuse treatment and other one is the Patient Bill of Right. A patient with no mental problem can take his medical decision. They have right to choose whther they will accept death or life. But as a medical professional his/her duty is to ensure client's well-being or save life. So, this is an ethical dilemma. But most of the cases, it is suggested to give priority of the client's wish.
Another dilemma can arise in terms of ensuring client's confidentiality and disclosure of any information. For instant, if a care service user tell his/her carer like this, "I want to tell you something if do not disclose it." After that the carer can come to know that his/her clint is being abused by another carer. By that case, he/she should infrom it to an authorized person to protect the client from abuse but she/he is already told not to disclose it. So, dilemma can arise between confidentiality and disclosure by this way. In this case, the carer should tell it to an authorized person to protect the client from abuse and to ensure safe-guarding and well-being.
4.1 Evaluate own contribution to your work team
Bradley et al (2009) and Leathard (2003) have mentioned that in health and social care every individual's performance is very important. My own contributions as a social care worker are evaluated below:
In my workplace I always inform my colleagues about my activities to an appropriate level of detail.
I always behave in such a way so that it supports the team to be more effective. It means my actions, speech, language, body language, gestures, written and verbal communications are always polite.
I am efficient in computer skills. So, I can handle all the electrical data.
I share my views, ideas and information relevant to job with team members. I also accept other's ideas and information to make team work smoother.
I always offer assistant in a friendly and helpful way whenever it is required.
I suggest clearly if I have any better idea to improve team work at an appropriate time.
4.2 Discuss how your contribution influence the effectiveness of the teams of which you are a member.
According to West (2004) and Snee (n.d.), contribution of every individual has an influence of the effectiveness in a team. My contribution also influences the effectiveness of team work in various ways. For example, I know about the Legislations, Policies and Good Practices which are relevant to health and social care. So, I can provide a very good service to the clients. Moreover, my colleagues often are benefitted by me. As a result, teamwork becomes developed. in addition, I can communicate in a effective way with my fellows. So that, lots of misunderstanding, ambiguity, conflict, backstabbing, and mistrust can be avoided which influence the effectiveness of team work.
I have a clear idea about the role of individual. So, I can specify their roles and they can perfrom according to that and it increases team outcome significantly. In addition, I am aware of different cultures and values and I act in a way what they want. According toâ€¦â€¦. it inspires teammates which are another root of effective teamwork.
I have very good leadership skills and it helps to lead my colleagues. Time management is one of the most crucial skills that I have. So, I do my job in time and I suggest other people to follow me. They also follow me which influences team effectiveness.
Thus my contributions influence the effectiveness of the team.
4.3 Describe the limits of your work role and how these impact on your work with others
According to Heron (1998), every employee has limitations of their roles and responsibility and these are influenced by others. As a care management trainee I have some limitations as well. For example, I am not allowed give any new medication to a service user at any condition. In addition, as I work in management position, I should not involve in care work. I am not allowed to gather any personal information both of colleagues and clients. I should not handle their documents which are supposed to handle by their lawyers. Failing to do any of these has very negative outcome of individual role. Colleagues may not trust and respect. Also, employees may not listen to me and I can be frustrated. As a result, work outcome can be reduced sharply.
4.4 Analyse the barriers for effective team working and how you would contribute minimizing such barrier.
West (2004) and Snee (n.d.) notes that effective teamwork is very important in every sphere of work and there are lots of barriers of effective team work. For instant, poor leadership, interpersonal interactions, poor communication, professional codes, poor team dynamics, high expectations, different priorities, lack of trust, silo thinking, pressure of high accountability can be the barriers of effective teamwork. In the same time, there are many ways as well by which social workers can minimize these barriers.
As a social care worker I am required to work with my colleagues as well as various professionals and it is a daily occurrence for me. These professionals could be doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists laboratory technicians and pharmacists and many other professions. My colleagues and they may be from different cultures and they have different values. So, at the starting level of job all people need to share their views and knowledge and it wastes lots of time.
Leadership has a great impact of team working because almost everything flows from here. It is leader's fault if a team can not perform in proper way. The reasons can be not enough communication among the employees or lack of proper guidance. Sometimes, leaders fail to specify of individual's agenda. So, team members are not aware of their roles and can not perform well which reduce the productivity of team work.
Poor communication and high expectations are the other barriers of effective team work. These cause lots of misunderstanding, ambiguity, conflict, backstabbing, and mistrust among the employees. Employees have to work under stress as well if they have to fulfil higher expectation.
Study from Anon (n.d.) has shown that, poor team dynamics can cause breakdown of team dynamics and team can fail to achieve their goals. Also, absenteeism of employees reduces team dynamics and cut performance of a team.
Ways to minimize barriers of team work:
Trust in all colleagues.
Being respectful to seniors and team leaders.
Communicate effectively with the employees.
Let the employees work according to their ability.
Focus on team as well as individual performance.
Constructive criticism should be improved.
Reducing the absentee rate etc.
Overall, any organization can minimize the barriers by following these things and does excellent team work.
4.5 Discuss how you can contribute personally to the effectiveness of your team
According to Snee (n.d.) and West (2004), every individual can influence team effectiveness significantly by playing their professional roles. My own contribution can influence team effectiveness as well and some of the ways are given below:
Share own views, ideas with co-workers.
Offer help to service users and colleagues whenever it is necessary.
Provide suggestion for the betterment of work.
Respect everyone in the team especially the seniors.
Explaining team roles and goals to every team members.
Being accountable of the profession and suggesting others to follow job principles.
Being well-organized and having good communication skills.
So, I can contribute in team effectiveness by implementing the points those are stated above.