The concept of partnership in health and social care and agencies need to be involved in supporting Mr. Smith and his family From the scenario it is clear that Mr. Peter Smith is facing different type's troubles at the same time like financial problems, social problem, physical problem and mental problem. According to Fletcher (2006), Glasby & Littlechild (2004), the partnership working is the most important theme at this time to ensure best outcome especially in health and social care sectors. In order to the solution of this problem, he needs help from different agencies. These agencies can be health care agency and social care agency. For the best solution of his problem all the agencies must work together. The agencies can be housing agency, hospitals, banks, NHS, advisor agencies etc.
Simmers et al (2008) has noted that primary health care agency, secondary health care agency and social care agencies need to be involved to support a person like him and his family. Here General Practitioner, dentists, care trusts, NHS trusts, pharmacists, emergency trusts are included of primary health care agency. As he is fifty years old so first of all he needs to get support from primary health care. It may be nursing home who offers service from free of charge as he is passing his time through financial problem. In addition, he can get financial advantage from emergency funds. After that, it is also seen that he is suffering from type 2 diabetes. So, he should get service from secondary care trust as primary care trust doesn't provide this service and it can be NHS hospital trust or Diabetes UK (Morris, 2006).
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In 2002 Ebony magazine revealed that there is a link between type 2 diabetes and heart attack. Most of the cases, those who have sedentary life style, they suffer from type 2 diabetes. Research has shown that, Type 2 diabetes causes shrinking of the arteries which create barrier in blood supply towards heart and this barrier/blockage causes heart attack.
According to Cutting (2004), individual like Mr. Smith should get support, treatment and advice from British Heart Foundation. This organization works against all types of circulatory and heart disease. It also provides life saving cardiac equipment for free of charge for the non-solvent people. It helps people by providing nursing services, rehabilitation services, and heart support services. If anybody loses their houses because of financial problem, they will be rehabilitated by this organization. So, individual with financial problem can be benefitted by this organization.
In 1986, Hobfoll notes that, physical or psychological illness of male partners may affect their partners. As Mr. Peter has financial problem now so he may have face this difficulty. From the scenario, it is seen that, his wife was hospitalized for depression. So, adequate help from social workers should be available to support them in this situation.
Â From the scenario, we have also seen that Mr. Peter Smith has ten years old boy whose work at school is being worsened after problem in his family. So he should not be stayed with his family any more because it may disrupt his mental health. As a result, he may be aggressive like his parents in future.Â According to law, every child must be kept safe at any types of condition.Â ToÂ ensure this Greater London Association of Directors of Social Services, Metropolitan Police Service, London Child Protection CommitteeÂ and Department of Health, children trusts are working together. According to these organizations, children who are at risk of any types of problems should be looked after by social workers.
Â So, from the above discussion we can realize that to support his family all of these agencies have to work together. Mr. Peter Smith's family will neverÂ get a standard serviceÂ if they don't work together. Â
1.2 Different partnership relationships that may be necessary to deal with the issues facing Mr. Smith and his family and investigating partnership relationships across a range of health and social care services.
According to Peck (2003), people working together mean partnership working. This is a strategy to improve service and communication among the organizations and personnel. For example, a GP should have a good partnership relation with the district nurse and health care provider agencies. Also, As the GPs' are regarded as family physician so they can help clients like Mr. Smith a lot. To ensure this, they should have a strong partnership with almost all types of well-being agencies.
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As Mr. Peter Smith is struggling with several types of problems so help from only GP is not sufficient. After consulting with a GP, he can be referred to get treatment from a physician who will deal with his diabetes problem. Then he may need to be re-housed or to get financial help. A GP can refer him to an emergency trust or a housing company. If they work together, then Mr. Smith's problem will be solved smoothly.
He further shows that, a GP should have a working relationship with social care agencies. Mr. Smith's wife should support her husband during his rainy day. But instead of doing so, the relationship between them was breaking down by the time. To prevent this, Mrs. Smith must be counseled by the social workers so that she supports his husband and her family by this time. At least she should do it for the sake of their child. In this term, London Child Protection Committee can give them a hand. But if it fails anyway, their child can be supervised by the committee directly.
According to NHS (n.d.), the partnership relationship that can be necessary to deal with this can be expressed by the diagram given below:
2.1 Research developments in working in partnership for a range of service users
According to Sallivan & Warner (2004) and Mandelstam (2009), there are a few developments in working in partnership in health and social care such as community care act, national health services, children act etc. These developments will help to improve partnership working in Health and social care. But recently some legislation have been significantly changed for children act. As a result, no child will be victim of neglecting or abusing.
In the year of 2000 one child named Victoria died for starvation, she was neglected by her aunt who was caring to her. Even she was not taken to any social service worker or any doctor. In that time, every inquiry was failure at every level by every organization which came into contact to her. The reason was, in that time organizations did not work together from where Victoria supposed to get help. Instead there was confusion and conflict. Basically, Not only the health and social care agencies are expected to co-operate with each other but they expected to work in collaboration with other agencies e.g. private and voluntary sectors.
Wilson & James (2007) and Douglas (2008) noted that, children act's 1989 was changed and some new legislations were added in 2004 to improve partnership working. It gives the local authorities the leadership role in making arrangements to bring together local partners. The Director of Children's Services and the lead member for children's services will play a key leadership role in bringing together local partners, both statutory and non statutory across the full range of local services. It provides a legislative spine for the wider strategy for improving children's lives. The act amended the law with respect to children's homes, community homes, voluntary homes and voluntary organisations. It also made provision with respect to fostering, child minding and day care for young children and adoption. The overall aim of the act is to encourage integrated planning, commissioning and delivery of services as well as improve multidisciplinary working. This would remove duplication, increase accountability and improve the co-ordination of individual and joint inspection in local authorities. It also sets out how the Local Authority and the partners will improve the well-being of children in their area.
In addition, Anon (n.d.) has shown that National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990, The Mental Health Act 1989 (amended in 2004) have been changed some legislations recently to support partnership working for a range of service users.
2.2 Review evidence of inter-professional practice of working in partnership in a given service user group
According to Ellis et al (2003), inter-personal practice is very important to work in partnership in health and social care. For example, Social workers, NHS, police, children services, elderly care services, disability care services, charity, private or public organizations and other organizations should work together. For example, client like Victoria Colombie may need to get service from a social worker who will help her to protect from physical abuse or neglect. Then she will need to get help from local police or solicitors. So, social workers should have a link with the solicitors. Again, we know that solicitors and police have relationship to work together. She may need support from doctors as well. So, a social worker can refer her to a GP who will deal with her clinical matters. But if anytime she has to face difficulty, then social worker will help her.
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Anon (n.d.) states that, a child may need to get financial help which may not be available from family. So, they should get help children's services or emergency funds from children. It is very usual that children will not know how to deal with this matter. So, firstly social worker will take a note why she/he needs that money. Then social worker can apply for that help.
He further shows (indirectly) that, a child with learning disability may not carry out his/her day to day activity. His/her teachers will not be available for him/her for all day long as well. Then again he/she has to come to support worker who is included to social worker. A teacher should inform to the responsible support worker about her/his progress. A diagram of inter-professional practice of working in partnership for a child is below:
2.3 Review organizational practice and policies regarding working in partnership in health care organizations.
According to Gehlert and Browne (2006), there are some specific organizational practice and policies to work in partnership in health and social care environments as it is a huge field to practice. Organizational practice and policies can be constitutional, private, independent policy and charitable. In health and social care workplaces it is vital to work in partnership as it improves the quality of service. Support will be available for the workers as well regarding any issues. The organizational practice and policies are given below:
Every partner organization has an important part to play in ensuring the service users get the highest quality of care.
To work effectively with partner organizations they must be able to communicate effectively.
Statutory agency policies will ensure a joint commitment through the partnership organizations and promote better relationships. It also promotes race equality, promote cultural matters, and ensure the well-being of community by working in partnership.
Charitable agency policies work together; encourage working for the betterment of people with other agencies.
The aim of private agency policy is to ensure the development of less developing areas along with their partner organizations.
There will have enough staff to communicate effectively in day to day basis.
The aim of independent agency policy is to work spontaneously whenever it is necessary following the legislations. They can take into account other organizations if they want to be involved.
Organizations will share their views and information among themselves to provide better service regarding clients' satisfaction level, special needs, health and safety issues, treatment plans etc.
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2.4 Describe how differences in organizational practice and policies in health and social and health care organizations affect collaborative working.
Differences in organizational practice and policies can affect partnership working significantly and different organizational practices and policies can be charitable agency policy, constitutional agency policy, and private agency policy (Gehlert and Browne, 2006). First of all, organizations have to face difficulty to fix their common goals. Another scholar Miner (2005) has stated that, partner organizations may not manage suitable time accomplish their task all together and conflicts may arise among the partners. Sometimes, the outcome becomes worse than as usual because of differences policies and procedures. In addition, organizational and administrative boundaries can be changed because of their different policies. Usually partnership organizations work in the easiest way by discussing with themselves. Also, they operate their activities in same administrative boundaries. If their practices and policies remain same, they can achieve their targets easily and raise their outcome sharply. But, if there is any change of their practices and policies, they may not cover same area. This will lead partnership to worse. Thus, differences in organizational practice and polices affect partnership working in HSC.
3.1 The possible positive and negative outcomes of the various partnerships working together for Mr. Smith.
According to Glasby & Dickinson (2009) and Martin et al (2009), working in partnership always gives the best outcome. But it has both positive and negative impact on service users. Those are given below:
Employees and service users can discuss about their problems with different specialists. Help is available from the partner organizations whenever it is necessary.
Social workers may not need to go to Mr. Smith to know his physical condition. He/she can gather data from his general practitioner as necessary.
Partnership working can improve the experience and outcomes of service users.
Different organizations working together have complimentary skills, which is usually very cost-effective. It also improves coordination, sharing buildings and human resources.
Different people from different organizations know more than one. As a result, they can access to a wider pool of information, talents and contacts
Service users can get services from everywhere else from the partners.
Partnerships can offer moral support and allow for better inventive brainstorms.
It helps to achieve greater efficiency by reducing duplication.
No service user becomes the victim of neglect if organizations work in partnership.
Staff can discuss about the matter of service users with anyone who is their partner. But the clients may not know whom are they discussing with about their problems. So, it can strike the service users' privacy.
Misunderstanding can occur at any time because Mr. Smith may not know what they are talking about. He can feel unsecured as well.
Sometimes service users may need to wait for their service for long time.
If any of the partnership organization can not respond for any reason then service users may need to face difficulty to get service.
Different organizations have to consult with their partners and negotiate as decisions should not be taken without informing others. So, they need to be more flexible.
There is a chance to leak of personal data if many people can know about this.
There may cause disagreement between organizations or personnel. For example, Mr. Smith should get mental support from a social worker. But if his GP gives him any advice which is controversial to the social worker and the social worker can come to know about this, then conflict may arise between them.
3.2 The potential impact of negative outcomes for the practitioners and organizations that may be involved in Mr. Smith's case if the partnerships breakdown.
Martin et al (2009) and Glasby & Dickinson (2009) note some potential impact of negative outcomes for the practitioners and organizations. Those are given below:
Proper service will not be available for him to get support from organizations.
Service users like him may need to face lots of barriers to get service. For example, they may need to wait for longer time as usual.
Service users may need to waste lots of time and may need to give them their details again and again which is very annoying.
It may impact upon the privacy of service users because they have to give their details to different parties. Sometimes organizations may take their details which may not necessary and then they pass it to third party.
Organizations may need to recruit new professionals which may be expensive. In the same time, service users may not feel comfortable to the new professionals.
Critical and elaborate research regarding wider organizational matters can not be discussed and solved easily.
Children of such family may be victim of abusing or their potentiality may be damaged. For example, from the scenario we can know that the problem of Mr. Smith should be given priority. But his son is facing problem as well. So, NHS, GPs or other organizations should work in partnership with children services. If they do not do it, then it will affect on the children.
3.3 Devise strategies to reduce negative outcomes
According to Wilson et al (2006), some strategies to reduce negative outcomes are given below:
HSC professionals must be recruited for longer period of time. In addition, they can be given more facility so that they do not tend to change their employment status.
No issue should be raised directly concerning employee's performance. It can be discussed with line managers or senior professionals at first.
Communication skills among the employees must be improved.
Clients must be informed what they are going to do.
Clients' rights and privacy must be preserved confidently.
Partnership organizations must not leak any personal details to third party without taking permission.
Clients should build up a strong and effective sense of self.
Health and social care policies and procedures must be followed.
Practitioners' involvement with the clients must be increased. They should share their views as well which is related to problem.
Clients may be given idea about assertiveness, problem-solving and communication skills.
A proper implementation of health and social care codes and practice is essential.
Thus negative outcome can be reduced if partnerships break down.