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Domestic violence is also known as spousal abuse, domestic abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) or child abuse. It is therefore defined as abusive behaviors by either one or both partners in a relationship. Such intimate relationships include: family, dating, marriage, cohabitation or friends. Domestic violence take many forms such as physical aggression or abuse (biting, kicking, throwing objects to a partner, hitting, restraining, slapping, shoving), or threats, stalking, intimidation, dominating or controlling, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, economic deprivation and passive abuse which is also known as covert abuse such as neglect. These abuses if constantly repeated can lead to self harm, mental illness and an attempt to commit suicide.
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Drug abuse is also known as substance abuse; it is referred to as a maladaptive behavior of the use of drugs and alcoholic substance that is dependent. Some of the drugs which can be abused include: bhang, cocaine, alcohol, methaqualone, benzodiazepines, opioids and amphetamines among others. Using these drugs regularly can lead to permanent addiction, social, physical and psychological harm which can be irreversible if not treated at the early stages.
According to the research conducted, drug and alcohol abuse have a direct correlation between these emerging domestic violence issues. The research findings indicated that, domestic violence is caused by high rates of drug and alcohol abuse used by these violent and arrogant people. Batterers abuse drugs and alcohol which in turn increase the probability of domestic violence. Drug abuse and domestic violence interact and they are correlated hence both of them should be addressed simultaneously. A few cases of domestic violence can offer adequate guiding and counseling or health services programs for drug and alcohol abusers.
Spousal abuse is a wider issue including sexual abuse, psychological abuse or emotional abuse, verbal abuse, financial abuse, economic abuse and physical abuse. The research shows that the perpetrators of spousal abuse can either be the female or male as can be the victims. However, most of the data collected after conducting research shows that, abused victims are mostly female and battered men cases are rare. Drug abuse was rated as the major cause of this problem brought about by the abuse of drugs. A partner who is abused can become lame, die and lack social power of interaction hence staying an isolated life from his or her friends.
Gender of assailant
In most cases, women fall victims of murder by an intimate partner either in a marriage, cohabitating, dating or in a friendship. A research conducted in United States of America (USA) shows that; out of 1,642 cases reported, three quarter (1,218) are female and only 424 are male who are killed by their intimate partner. This is regardless of which partner (male or female) started the violence. According to the analysis done by Dr. Martin, F. from California State University in the department of Psychology, it indicated that women are more physically aggressive than their male counterparts in the relationship. However, research carried out by Kimmel Michael found out that, men are the main cause of domestic conflicts and violence; because women overestimate the use of violence as men underestimate it. On the other hand, the National Institute of Justice on its studies found out that, men are abused by women equally or even more than they abuse women. In both studies, it does not give facts on who started or initiated the violence or conflict.
Straus and Gelles found out that, domestic violence resulting from drug abuse is usually mutual with both partners brawling and responding equally. Women have been known to use weapons while fighting (domestic violence) whether by throwing frying pans, plates, cups or mugs. It has also been proven that, women can seek assistance from other people if they are determined to kill their intimate spouse; however, such incidences are not counted as domestic violence but murder. There are three common types of domestic couple violence associated with drug abuse and these are: common couple violence (CCV), violent terrorism (IT) and mutual violent control (MVC). The common couple violence arises when either of the partners or both try to control the behavior of his or her spouse lashing out at the other partner with hostility. Intimate terrorism is more common type of violence and it is not mutual hence will involve serious injuries and bruises. It may include psychological and emotional abuses if one partner is dominant and he or she is under the influence of drugs.
Barrett, Meisner and Stewart, Sharper. What constitutes prescription drug misuse: problems and pitfalls of current conceptualization? Pittburgh: Pittburgh Publishing Press, 1999 (3) 260-28
Barrett and Steward (1999) in their book have mentioned the drugs and alcohol abuse and how it causes domestic violence. Both of these authors explain the measures to be taken in order to combat domestic violence. This is very important when analyzing the causes of drug addiction and the negative effects to ones spouse and other family members. The authors too have given statistics on the research conducted in America in the last twenty years. The research findings as explained by the authors show that drug abuse and domestic violence is on the rise.
With the evidence of research findings, it makes this book effective and reliable to its audience because of the facts articulated. This book is essential because it explains the causes and effects of the abuse of drugs on the family members especially between two partners (husband and wife). The findings as expressed by the authors target the entire community (family members, relatives, neighbors and friends) because drug abuse and domestic violence take place in the community where people live. The information in this book is effective because it explains the negative effects
Ferraro, Kathleen. Domestic Violence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 5, Issue 45, September/October 2008, Pages: 34-46
The journal by Ferraro (2008) explains how domestic violence has been promoted by drug and alcohol abuse by some members in the family. The article by Ferraro, 2008 have provided proven research evidence that men abuse drugs and alcohol at a high rate than women. The author has also made it clear that, stress and difficult economic and financial situation are the major reasons for most people to abuse drugs. However, in this article, the author has failed to explain other negative effects of drug abuse apart from domestic violence. The author too has targeted (audience) the youths, parents and community at large by ensuring that the journal is affordable to the majority of these audiences. This makes the journal to be reliable and effective with well researched information. The journal has given types of domestic violence and the definition of drug abuse and domestic violence. The author has used simple, clear but easy to understand terms so as to make the information on drug abuse and domestic violence to be comprehended easily by all users.
Follingstad, Daniel. The Role of Emotional Abuse in Physically Abusive Relationships. Journal of Family Violence, vol. 4, Issue 5, January/February 1998, Pages: 107-120
This journal of family violence by Follingstad (1998) is another essential and useful article in my research; on effects of drug abuse and alcoholism on domestic violence. The author of this journal has vividly brought out how drug abuse can affect relationship in the family. He has also elaborated that women and children suffer most in the family from emotional and physical abuse than men. However, he has indicated that, some men too are victims of domestic violence but not at a high rate as women experience. This journal will be effective and reliable when analyzing the effects of drug and alcohol abuse because, it gives a general understanding on the causes and effects especially to those in an intimate relationship and other family members. The author has evidence on the drug and domestic violence collected from the research he conducted in many countries such as Germany, United States of America, France, Canada, Nigeria, Singapore and Iraq. This article will help me give an elaborate conclusion because of the facts contained in it. This article is important because it targets all people in the society including youths, men, women, children, married and people in any form of relation who may fall victims of domestic violence.
Jaffe, Hellony. Drug addiction and abuse. Journal of Drugs and substance abuse, vol. 4. Issue 12, November/December 2002, Pages 50-69
This is an article by Jaffe (2002) about drug addiction and abuse; it has given facts on drug and substance abuse. The author has connected ideas and gave elaborate information that concerns the society on the negative effects of the drugs and alcohol. The journal also exemplifies into the health concerns of the people and mostly on the domestic violence caused by those who misuse the drugs such as cocaine and bhang. Jaffe’s research findings have been used to educate people especially the youths who are in school to avoid using illegal drugs. From an analysis of this journal, one is able to realize and appreciate how it has helped many people change their lives and attitude towards drugs. It is clear that, the author of this article is systematic and direct to the point in expressing his views and ideas. This is actually good because the journal has addressed main issues on drug abuse and domestic violence and how to deal with this problem. This journal having systematic information ensures that its audience gets reliable information hence ensuring effectiveness during implementation of recommendations the author suggested.
The journal could have dwelled more on negative effects of drugs on their health instead of focusing only on domestic violence because it could have assisted drug addicts to change their attitude towards drugs. These journal findings are effective and reliable because of the evidences from the research conducted by the author of this journal.
Jolivet, Christie. Prevention of anti-social and violent behavior. Journal of violent behavior, vol. 2, Issue 7, March/April 2005, Pages 56-76
In this journal, Jolivet has in-depth information on prevention of anti-social and violent behaviors which are caused by the drug addicts in the community. The author has given evidence of the domestic violence in various countries. She collected this evidence, from interviews she conducted and the questionnaires she distributed to people in different countries. Her research findings are therefore reliable in writing the proposal on the effects of drugs and alcohol abuse on the family members on domestic violence. This journal by Jolivet has broad and deep exemplification of the current or recent domestic violence from different countries. This makes her journal effective since the information contained targets those who are married because most abuses occur in the family.
The author has explained how bad company (friends), media (radio, TV and magazines) and lack of set societal moral values and norms have contributed to an influence on people to indulge in drugs. The author has explained ways of curbing or combating illegal drugs from reaching many people. She has emphasized on guiding and counseling programs to be introduced in all villages, churches and schools as a way of helping people who are already drug addict and those who have been physically or emotionally abused in the past. Guiding and counseling married couples on domestic violence will help reduce such incidences by 87%. Therefore, her findings are effective and reliable since she has suggested the most possible and practical solutions to this problem together with the research findings.
Nutt, King. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. Journal of Domestic violence, vol.6, Issue 8, April/May 2003, Pages 80-103
This is a journal by an author called Nutt. In his article, the author has criticized the authorities especially the government; he expressed his concerns that the governments has failed to apply the appropriate laws to arrest and prosecute the suppliers of drugs. He further blamed the people who have been victims of domestic violence for failing to report such incidences to the authorities for action to be taken. In the article, there is need for non governmental organization, government, schools and religious institutions to educate people on the effects of drugs. The author of this journal further stresses the point that, stringent rules and regulations (laws) must be legislated so as to reduces and deter people from abusing drugs; hence reducing domestic violence and abuses being experienced. Because the author has articulated on facts, this makes the journal to be reliable and effective in dealing with this menace of drug abuse causing domestic violence. This is because it targets all people in the society hence effective because it aims at solving the problem using facts.
Lert, Susan. America’s Drug Problem. Creating a Monster Newspaper, 4TH April, 2009.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction. Scholarstic Classroom Magazines Partnership, 27th September, 2002
Lert (2002) in the newspaper scholarstic classroom magazine, he gives a clear preview on America’s drug abuse problem and how it affects the economic position of a country. The author of this article in the newspaper has suggested early signs of a person who have been abused and a possible remedy. The author (Lert) further mentioned that, though the wife may abuse the husband or vice versa, the children will be affected negatively either directly or indirectly. The author further acknowledges that, societal morals and norms have deteriorated hence people lack guiding principles on what is good or bad, right or wrong.
This newspaper is reliable and effective in research because of the in-depth information on the issue of drug and alcohol abuse. Infact, the author have found out that drug abuse is highly correlated with domestic violence making it reliable because it will be used to provide solutions and a conclusion on all facts related to this topic. This magazine is therefore important when writing a proposal especially on the effects of drugs and how it contributes to the domestic violence. The author of this article in the magazine targets all people in the society (young, old, married and singles) because drug and alcohol abuse affects all people either directly or indirectly. This article will therefore be useful in trying to identify the major challenges facing most families which are under the influence of drugs.
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The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships. Retrieved on 29 September, 2010 from <http://www.springerlink.com/content/pr0737j033w3721l/>
In this website on the role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships, it clearly explains how partners in an intimate relationship can physically abuse one another. This is because of the drugs and alcohol influence. The website information is useful to me when analyzing the major effects and reasons as to why partners in a relationship can physically abuse one another. The website is reliable because it give the facts from the research conducted hence information is effectively communicating or conveying the message needed to solve the problem.
In this case, the information can reach many people irrespective of the country since almost all countries have a network connection hence people can log in and access the information in their computers. However, the website has no recent information on domestic violence, even though the available information is valid and reliable when making a conclusion. The website also gives an elaborate explanation on the major challenges those in authority face as they try to control drug abuse which has led to increased domestic violence.
Depression, Substance Abuse and Domestic Violence. Retrieved on 29 September, 2010from <http://www.researchforum.org/media/RFdsd04.pdf>
The website above mentions how abuse of drugs causes depression, stress and domestic violence. This website is very important because it gives an elaborate dimension on drug abuse and how drug addicts have caused more harm to their families, friends and the community at large. The developers of this website who contributed to this information are experienced on issues related to drugs and alcohol and its impact. In the website, the root cause of the problem is first identified before the possible solutions are drafted.
The information contained in the web is critical because it has touched on all areas including the most sensitive information on who are the drug dealers. The information contained in this website is reliable and effective because it gives the facts based on the data collected from the drug addict people in all countries of the world.
Though this web information is elaborate, it has failed to elaborate on the most affected countries with more people who are abused. The target audiences in this web are people who can access the internet services and specifically those who have fallen victims of domestic violence. Others who are targeted are the drug addicts so that they can be rehabilitated in order to live a normal life out of drugs.
Domestic Violence and Substance abuse. Retrieved on 29 September 2010 from <http://www.taadas.org/factsheets/DVFacts.html>
The website about domestic violence and substance abuse is essential in dealing with people who use drugs and alcohol resulting to domestic violence. This website is in favor of women and children because research carried out shows that, they are mostly affected by domestic violence. The web is also elaborate because it gives statistics of the countries leading in drug and substance abuse. These countries are those in Africa and Asia. The main reason for this is the high poverty level hence people become hopeless and therefore find ways of avoiding responsibilities hence indulging in drugs.
Those who carried out this research for this website are knowledgeable because they are able to give detailed information supported by facts which can be relied upon. This website will be useful to me in the discussion of the effects of drug abuse and how it contributes to domestic violence. Though other authors of different books, journals and magazines have argued that, women are affected most when domestic violence erupts; this website has the most recent statistics showing that men who are being battered or abused are on the increase.
The website also has the most recent and the current information making it to be more reliable because it was carried out by professional researchers. Having recent statistics makes it effective in delivering the intended message in a clearer manner in that it can be understood because of its clarity and preciseness.
Causes of drug and alcohol abuse on domestic violence
There are many causes associated with drugs abuse that make people to indulge in drugs. As it is said that, bad company ruins good moral; many people have confessed that their friends introduced them to take drugs. With the influence of drugs, people become aggressive and violent especially to their intimate partner, children, friends and their boyfriend or girl friend. Research has shown that, some people can decide to use drugs because of stress, hard economic times, and depression or lose of a partner or a parent who was a sole bread winner.
Effects of drug abuse and alcohol on domestic violence
Drug abuse has negative impacts to the people and society. There are no positive effects though some people believe that, some of the drugs are medicinal in nature and can cure some illnesses. People who are drug addict have been known to cause violence especially to their partners. This is evidenced between a wife and a husband where one of the partners can be battered or abused by the other. This has been proven to increase levels of stress and depression in the family.
Due to misunderstanding, conflicts and fights between the wife and husband, will affect the children either directly or indirectly. The children will not get the attention, care and love or affection they need. Due to the influence of drugs, a partner in an intimate relationship may be killed, bruised or injured. In most countries, due to constant abuse (sexual or physical abuse) some married couples have divorced, some broke up their friendship or courtship before getting married. Under such circumstances, children schooling will not perform as expected and others may drop out because the parents are no longer responsible to pay school fees and to provide school uniforms. If children are not taken care of, they will loose hope and in the long run indulge in drugs hence causing more problems to the society, family and their bodies. Because the children lack basic needs, they will do anything bad to get some money to buy food including stealing. Insecurity will increase theft and robbery with violence and rape cases will rise due to lack of morals due to drugs influence. It is therefore clear that drugs and alcohol affects people’s health and causes disunity and tension in families.
Many people especially the medical experts have suggested some possible solutions to this problem. For those who are already addicted with drugs, rehabilitation centers or institutions should be established. Such rehabilitation centers will assist those who are chronic because proper medical attention will be provided by qualified physicians.
Parents have a greater responsibility to take care of their children by instilling discipline and good morals in them. Responsible parents will discipline their children with an aim of correcting them when they do anything wrong. This will ensure that children will not associate with some people or friends with bad habits such as smoking, taking alcohol or other drugs such as cocaine and bhang.
In every society or community, there are morals, norms and rules which must be adhered to by all people. These morals and norms forbid immoral actions such as drug abuse and domestic violence. Religious institution must start guiding and counseling programs so as to guide and counsel people with psychological problems associated with drugs and domestic violence. Guiding and counseling programs should be supported by the government by ensuring that every village has atleast two qualified guiding and counseling experts.
The government should enact stringent laws to punish those involved in drug trafficking in the country. Those got engaging in domestic violence acts such as battering, sexual harassment, biting and beating must face the law and be a lesson to them and deter others from doing the same. The health department should also play a major role in educating people in villages and all learning institutions on the effects of drugs and alcohol on their health.
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