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Domestic Violence Within The Military Social Work Essay

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Understanding family violence in the military is an important concern because of the unique stresses faced by military families on a daily basis that could place them at greater risk for family dysfunction. Long separations, such as Deployment to war, can create a stressful lifestyle for military families. In the mid to late 1990s advocates and activists, were able to persuade policy makers that domestic violence constituted a social problem specifically for the military. American foreign policy has resulted in the deployment of U.S. military personnel to nations around the world, providing servicemen opportunities to meet and socialize with local women. Immigrant status keeps many women from seeking help or leaving the abusive relationship, fearing they can't ask for help and deportation. The servicemen tried to prevent their immigrant wives from gaining independence or leaving the marriage. The military's approach to prevent, identify and intervene with domestic violence relies heavily on the Family Advocacy Program (FAP).

Introduction

Family violence may be more common in the military population compared to the civilian population because of higher overall stress levels associated with the military lifestyle (e.g., frequent separations, long work hours, dangerous work environment, etc.). Long separations, such as Deployment to war, can create a stressful lifestyle for military families. Studies have proven long deployments increase the chances of returning with combat trauma, as a result heightens the risk of domestic violence (Rentz et al., 2006).

Understanding family violence in the military is an important concern because of the unique stresses faced by military families on a daily basis that could place them at greater risk for family dysfunction. Members of the armed forces are often required to relocate to another city, state, or country, often resulting in a disruption to family life. They also tend to work long hours and are subject to extended separations in the form of schooling, temporary assignments, or deployment, all of which may interfere with family obligations (Alvarez & Sontiag, 2008).

Domestic Violence in the Military: The History

The Department of Defense has taken a clear stance against family violence. In 1981, Department of Defense Directive 6400.1 required each branch of military service (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) to establish (a) a Family Advocacy Program to prevent and treat child maltreatment and spouse abuse and (b) a confidential central registry to collect and analyze

Family Advocacy Program data (Department of Defense, 2004).

It is unclear whether or not family violence would be more common among military families than among civilian families. Family violence may be more common in the military population compared to the civilian population because of higher overall stress levels associated with the military lifestyle (e.g., frequent separations, long work hours, dangerous work environment, etc.). Soldiers are subject to deployments and relocations that can often lead to a separation from peers and community support networks. Frequent and extensive separations may have a profound impact on marriages, particularly those of short duration, because they present a window of opportunity for the spouse left behind to explore independence and develop other relationships. For those relocated to installations located outside of the continental United States, social and cultural isolation is fairly common (Rentz et al., 2006).

There is an increasing number of active duty military (ADM) women, like their civilian counterparts, at risk for domestic violence (DV). This study illustrates active duty military women's attitudes and choices concerning the military's policy on domestic violence. 474 ADM women from all services were interviewed via telephone. Nineteen of whom had experienced DV during their military service (Gielen et al., 2006).

During the study, ADM women were afraid if they were to report domestic violence it would jeopardize their job. In fact, a higher proportion of military women thought regular screening would intensify future abuse (Gielen et al., 2006). This may be related to the military context in which there is mandatory reporting and a lack of confidentiality.

United States Military Culture

Gender-based violence, such as sexual harassment, rape, and domestic violence, is a global phenomenon that occurs among military families and within military communities, during peace time" and in time of war. A number of researchers and activists have argued that military culture, shared norms, for example, regarding masculinity, sexuality, violence, and women, is "conducive to rape" and sexual harassment, as well as domestic violence (Adelman, 2003).

In the United States, however, it was not until the mid to late 1990s that advocates and activists, working both within and outside of the military, were able to persuade policy makers that domestic violence constituted a social problem specifically for the military. Widespread media coverage of military-generated sexual harassment and sexual assault scandals as well as reporting of high rates of domestic violence in the U.S. military in Time magazine's and 60 Minutes's motivated the Department of Defense to address domestic violence in the military (Adelman, 2003).

Civilian advocates for battered women as well as military personnel warn that domestic violence harms servicewomen and civilian women (and their children) who are married to military servicemen. It also has been argued that domestic violence goes against the "institutional values of the military" and negatively affects military readiness (Adelman, 2003). These include creation of a task force, strengthening of reporting protocols, enhancement of the Family Advocacy Program, and encouragement to create public notice between civilian and military authorities.

Military policies regarding domestic violence diverge from civilian approaches in several significant ways. What constitutes a criminal violation, for example, and who substantiates a complaint of domestic violence conform to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ, n.d.). Privacy and confidentiality are not guaranteed within the military system, which mandates the reporting to unit commanders of suspected cases of domestic violence regarding personnel under their supervision. Military responses to domestic violence differ most clearly from civilian, state-based responses in that the social control mechanism doubles as the offender's employer.

In the United States, the military or the military base constitutes a relatively isolated and autonomous social and legal entity that produces and is governed by its own language, norms, and laws. This reflects the idealized distance and legal division between military and civilian life in the United States, and as a result, studies of domestic violence in the U.S. military are based on a separation between the civil and the military, making it difficult to conduct comprehensive or comparative research. Orders of protection obtained in a civilian court, for example, may not be enforced within the federal jurisdiction of a military base and vice versa. Much of the concern with and research on military culture and relationships between military culture and domestic violence have been generated in the United States or in countries that host U.S. military bases, due to a number of high-profile cases of sexual harassment, rape, and domestic homicide in the U.S. military (Adelman, 2003).

Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence

Although the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence (DTFDV) has made a serious attempt to address many of the concerns related to domestic violence in the military, its analysis of battering is highly flawed in key sections of the report. As a result, the report includes inappropriate recommendations for interventions and remedies. Battering is described as an individual, clinical problem in the section on training of military officers and the section on offender accountability. No attention is given to the societal attitudes and belief systems that support such violence and no distinctions are made between normal marital disputes and the pattern of power and control that characterizes domestic violence (DOD, 2004; Rosenthal & McDonald, 2003).

The DTFDV report strongly recommends that training be provided to military officers and presents information that should be included in such training. However, there is a troublesome emphasis within this information on anger management as a remedy in some domestic violence cases. The information states that "anger management classes should only be utilized in 'low level' emotional maltreatment cases where there has been no physical violence". Classifying any domestic violence case as "low level" is problematic and indicates confusion about the dynamics of this specific pattern of behavior. Domestic violence is not about everyday arguments and irritabilities between couples. The pattern of behavior that is generally defined as domestic violence involves coercive, intimidating, frightening, and controlling behavior by one partner toward another. Situations in which such a pattern is present generally involve not only emotional maltreatment but also threats of violence that can quickly escalate into physical abuse (Rosenthal & McDonald, 2003).

Reports of Parental Spousal Violence

In the military, family violence directly jeopardizes the family's financial security. A battered wife often protects the military husband against legal proceedings initiated by the military. The military also may be more likely to protect officers accused of spousal violence as compared to enlisted soldiers.

Studies indicate that children can accurately report on spousal violence. In the military, 95% of spousal violence occurs in the home and 43% of victims report that children witness the abuse. The study demonstrated that there was as general trend for more spousal violence in the military families with slapping, throwing objects, and an overall measure of violence distinguishing between the military and civilian groups. These differences persisted even when controlling for ethnic background and military rank. Spousal violence was significantly higher in commissioned officers as compared to enlisted personnel. The current study does not address whether the military environment contributes to increased spousal violence or whether individuals prone to abusive behavior are more likely to join the military (Cronin, 1995).

Immigration and Domestic Violence

Each year, hundreds of thousands of women enter the United States as a spouse of a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident, coming to the United States with significant disadvantages in social status and resources compared with their male partners. Women whose immigrant status is attached to their husbands' U.S. citizenship enjoy somewhat greater legal protection than do undocumented immigrant women, but they too are vulnerable due to the structure of immigration law (MSCFV, n.d.).

Immigrant status keeps many women from seeking help from abuse or leaving the abusive relationship. Undocumented women fear that if they ask for help, the health or social service provider will turn them in for deportation. However, even battered immigrant women with legal immigrant status feel vulnerable to deportation should they seek help. Asian and Latino immigrant women with spousal visas tied to their abusers also report that fears of deportation maintain their involvement with their batterer (Erez & Bach, 2003).

The United States is considered "a nation of immigrants." Nevertheless, who is allowed to legally immigrate has varied over time. U.S. immigration and naturalization laws have shaped the resulting immigrant pool in terms of gender, race or nationality, sexual orientation, and marital status. Subsequent changes in immigration policy, including an amnesty initiative in the mid-1980s, led to heterosexual family reunification and an increase in the numbers of women and children who migrated to the United States. Such gendered and sexualized patterns reflect how immigration and naturalization law serves to police the purported moral as well as political boundaries of the nation. These immigration laws affect why, when, how, and with whom women immigrate and their experiences of domestic violence subsequent to arrival in the United States (Erez, Adelman, & Gregory, 2009; Raj & Silverman, 2002).

Some women reported that the increase in emotional, sexual, and physical abuse coincided with immigration-specific activities such as entering the country, filing immigration papers, or accessing social welfare systems. The majority of women who came with their spouses reported that the transition and move to the United States altered the dynamics of the relationship: "He has had more power to manipulate in the U.S. because I am illegal and depended on him and I didn't have any rights here" (Erez et al., 2009). Although law is not intentionally gender biased, one that creates a status-marriage dependency, such as immigration law, makes immigrant women more vulnerable to the domestic violence power dynamic.

Military Brides

American foreign policy has resulted in the deployment of U.S. military personnel to nations around the world, providing servicemen opportunities to meet and socialize with local women. Some members of the Armed Forces stationed overseas form intimate which they are deployed, making these women "military brides," namely, foreign-born women who marry U.S. military personnel. For instance, the deployment of U.S. troops in Asian countries has resulted in more than 200,000 Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Korean, and Filipino women marrying U.S. service members and immigrating to the United States since World War II. On arrival in this country, military brides become immigrants and are subject to U.S. immigration laws, which generally give, with few exceptions, a spouse (or parent) control over the immigration status of their dependents (Erez & Bach, 2003).

The servicemen tried to prevent their immigrant wives from gaining independence or leaving the marriage. Some husbands prohibited the women from looking for employment. One woman stated that the violence occurred while she was on the telephone discussing a job. Another woman noted that she could only work when her abuser was out of the house. Attempts by the women to take some actions to stop the abuse also triggered violence: "[Violence occurred] following meetings with an attorney or military officials" (Erez & Bach, 2003).

Without exception, the women interviewed reported that their husbands (or fiancé in one case) used their immigration status as a weapon against them. The abuse tactics included threats to report them to immigration authorities, to inform the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) about presumed law violations, to take away the children, or to deport the women (Erez & Bach, 2003).

Without any close family or friends nearby, the women did not have any semblance of the social and cultural support networks that are available to other military wives. The immigrant women could not travel home, nor could they call or communicate with relatives or friends. They were not familiar with the civilian community around them and did not have the benefit of an immigrant community to turn to for support or advice. Without the presence of family, friends, or community, the isolation and powerlessness intensified (Raj & Silverman, 2002).

Lack of language skills increases immigrant women's isolation, precludes access to information, and further limits their employment prospects. In responding to domestic violence in the military, special attention should be paid to women whose circumstances involve multiple vulnerabilities, such as military brides. Marital ties of immigrant women to abusive men combine military and immigration-related abuse and dependency, whether real or perceived. The study demonstrates that immigration status can become an additional weapon in the arsenal of abusive military partners. As immigrant women are often not aware of or informed about legal protections and available services, 10 immigration-related abuses can become an effective tool of control and domination. In light of the large number of intimate partnerships formed between American military personnel stationed abroad and foreign-born women, the abuse potential inherent in such relationships warrants special attention by the military in its efforts to address domestic violence (Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence, 2002).

It is important to remind all who work with battered women and immigrant communities that we must do what is necessary to improve the lives of battered immigrant women and their children. Members of immigrant communities, battered women's advocates, researchers, policy makers, and most importantly, battered immigrant women must collaborate in designing these efforts.

Defense Department's Family Advocacy Program

The Department of Defense created a Family Advocacy Program (FAP), providing victims with resources that would help get to safety and back on their feet. The program is available on each military base, and consists of coordinated efforts designed to prevent, identify, report and treat all aspects of child abuse and neglect, and domestic abuse. Each base also has a victim's advocate who work with the unit's FAP (DOD, 2004).

Licensed counselors, psychologists and social workers make up the military victim advocate. They are knowledgeable about the process military personnel and their families can take to address domestic violence. They also have available a list of resources, therapists, and shelters that will assist victims and their families. Advocates and consultants work with the victim, advising the individual of available options (DOD, 2004).

Commanding officers are ultimately responsible for maintaining good order and discipline among military personnel. Although all the Military Services provide training to assist commanding officers in understanding their roles and responsibilities related to command, the curricula and duration vary by Service. Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 6400.1 mandates that the Family Advocacy Program (FAP) office notify a service member's commanding officer when an act of abuse has allegedly occurred. The directive mandates the education and training of key personnel on policy and effective measures to alleviate problems associated with child and spouse abuse. The directive, however, does not define key personnel (Klimp & Tucker, 2001).

The services have implemented this policy in varying ways, to include everything from individual briefings with commanding officers once they have assumed command positions on an installation to a group training format. The Army provides specific instructions on briefing commanding officers via Army Regulation 608-18, the Army FAP. The Navy's guidance is outlines on OPNAVINST 1752.2A, FAP, noting that commanding officers shall ensure that the command is trained on the identification and prevention of family violence, reporting requirements, and command, community, and FAP response awareness as regular professional development training (Klimp & Tucker, 2001).

The Air Force provides guidance in Air Force Instruction 40-301, FAP and the Marine Corps provides guidance for commanding officer training in MCOP 1752.3B, Marine Corps FAP Standing Operation. Unit commanders at installations with a family service center should obtain a FAP brief from the FAP manager within 45 days of assuming command (Klimp & Tucker, 2001).

The Department of Defense does not mandate domestic violence training specifically for military commanding officers. However, the DOD advises the Services to provide education and training for key personnel. Installations vary in their interpretations of the directive, and, as a result, some programs have more depth than others. The military's approach to prevent, identify and intervene with domestic violence relies heavily on FAP. Given they operate under the guidance of qualified mental health professionals they are readily available to assist those military personnel and their families with their needs.

Summary

Domestic violence includes but not limited to the willful intimidation, physical assault and battery against an intimate partner or child. It also includes emotionally abusive and controlling behavior that establishes a pattern of dominance and control (NCADV, 2005). Even though domestic violence is never acceptable, mental health professionals know firsthand how the kind of intense stress experienced by military members often leads to abusive behaviors.

In the 2008 New York Times article "When Strains on Military Families Turn Deadly," the authors state that studies illustrate the relationship between combat experience, trauma, and domestic violence. The article cited a 2006 study which focused on veterans at a Veterans Affairs medical center who sought marital counseling between 1997 and 2003. They found that those with PTSD were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence toward their partner. Studies like these, and reports by those who work with military personnel and their families, have many mental health practitioners, military leaders, and policymakers concerned, and determined to find solutions for countless victims, before it's too late. The NYT article mentioned several instances where mental health problems associated with the Iraq and Afghanistan wars led to devastating, deadly homicides, with a service member killing his spouse, or child, and sometimes turning the gun on himself afterwards (Alvarez & Sontiag, 2008).

Future research is needed that explores family violence in all branches of the military. Studies should also focus on the simultaneous occurrence of child maltreatment and spouse abuse in military families. The civilian and military communities are urged to work toward using common definitions and practices to facilitate comparison of rates among the populations. It is important to further examine service availability and utilization to determine the impact on family violence.

References:

Adelman, M. (2003). The Military, Militarism and the Militarization of domestic violence.

Violence Against Women, 9: 1118-1152. DOI: 10.1177/1077801203255292.

Alvarez, L. & Sontiag, D. (2008, February 15). When strains on military families turn deadly.

The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/15/us/15vets.html?pagewanted=2HYPERLINK "http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/15/us/15vets.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1"&HYPERLINK "http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/15/us/15vets.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1"_r=1

Cronin, C. (1995). Adolescent reports of parental spousal violence in Military and civilian

families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10: 117-122. DOI: 10.1177/088626095010001008.

Department of Defense. (2004). Department of Defense Directive 6400.1. Retrieved from

http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/640001p.pdf

Erez, E. & Bach, S. (2003). Immigration, domestic violence, and the military: The case of

"Military Brides." Violence Against Women, 9: 1093-1117. DOI: 10.1177/1077801203255289.

Erez, E., Adelman, M. & Gregory, C. (2009). Intersections of immigration and domestic

violence: Voices of battered immigrant women. Feminist Criminology, 4: 32-56. DOI: 10.1177/1557085108325413.

Gielen, A., Campbell, J., Garza, M. A., O'Campo, P., Dienemann, J., Kub, J., & ... Lloyd, D. W.

(2006). Domestic Violence in the Military: Women's Policy Preferences and Beliefs Concerning Routine Screening and Mandatory Reporting. Military Medicine, 171(8), 729-735. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Klimp, J. W. & Tucker, T.T. (2001). Domestic violence. Arlington, VA: Task Force

Mid-Shore Council on Family Violence. (n.d.). Domestic violence immigrant victims. Retrieved

from http://www.mscfv.org/dvstat.html

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. (2005). Domestic Violence. Retrieved from

http://www.ncadv.org/aboutus.php

Raj, A. & Silverman, J. (2002). Violence against immigrant women: The roles of culture,

context, and legal immigrant status on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 8: 367-398. DOI: 10.1177/10778010222183107.

Rentz, D.E., Martin, S.L., Gibbs, D.A., Clinton-Sherrod, M. Hardison, J. & Marshall, S. (2006).

Family violence in the military: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 7: 93-108. DOI: 10.1177/1524838005285916.

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defense task force on domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 9: 1153-1161. DOI: 10.1177/1077801203255549.

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Part II: A Reflection Piece

"The Family Justice Center"

Abstract

The Family Justice Center (FJC) is just that, a multi-agency service center for victims of family violence and their children. FJC is comprised of multiple community partners. With my legal background interning with the legal network was the best fit. My role consisted of screening domestic violence (DV) victims, assisting in the process of obtaining a temporary restraining order (TRO) and providing court support. As a certified paralegal and currently studying forensic psychology I am finding it somewhat difficult to overstep my boundaries in performing dual roles. The most challenging policy to adhere is the qualifications for obtaining a TRO. It is difficult to determine what qualification constitutes someone as being qualified for a TRO. Does a victim have to get beaten before applying for a TRO? At what point do we justify what qualifies? One of the laws that we do follow is the Dr. Jackie Campbell's Danger Assessment. The Danger Assessment (DA) was originally developed by Co-Investigator Campbell with consultation and content validity support from battered women, shelter workers, law enforcement officials, and other clinical experts on battering. As every multi-disciplinary team is unique, it is important to be aware of strategies to address challenges related to working in multi-disciplinary teams. Whether it is defining roles, setting boundaries, or ensuring all team members can contribute equally, strategies like these can help multi-disciplinary teams address challenges they often encounter.

Introduction

There are many forensic psychology settings in which forensic psychology professionals may work. Forensic psychology professionals may work with offenders in the courts, in prisons, in halfway houses, or in community settings. Forensic psychology professionals may also work with crime victims in settings such as domestic violence shelters. There are many reasons why I chose the forensic psychology setting I did for my field experience.

The Family Justice Center

The Family Justice Center (FJC) focuses on creating a network nationally and internationally minimizing family violence. The center also provides, training, consultation and host conferences. The FJC is comprised of multiple professionals and services such as a military liaison, mental health services, a law enforcement department, and a legal department.

The FJC is just that, a multi-agency service center for victims of family violence and their children. This center offers children with close working relationships, shared training and technical assistance, collaborative learning processes, and coordinated funding assistance (FJC, 2009).

The FJC legal network's mission statement is to "provide convenient and free legal services to victims of domestic violence" (FJC, 2009). FJC goes above and beyond their mission statement. They provide additional resources and center's their attention only on the individual client. They provide a child care center for clients with children, a waiting room filled with drinks and snacks is provided as well as small therapy rooms equipped with comfortable sofas. The therapy room is where assessments are conducted for privacy purposes.

Roles and Responsibilities

FJC is comprised of multiple community partners. With my legal background interning with the legal network was the best fit. My role consisted of screening domestic violence (DV) victims, assisting in the process of obtaining a temporary restraining order (TRO) and providing court support at court hearings. Once the screening is conducted, I consult with my supervising attorney to determine if the client has qualifying elements to proceed with a TRO.

To qualify for a TRO through FJC, a client must have one of the following relationships to the person they want restrained:

Spouse or former spouse

Person with whom you share(d) a living space

Have or had a dating/engagement relationship

Parents of a child

Relative to the second degree (grandparents, but not cousins)

The person they wish to have restrained must ALSO have committed one of these acts:

Recent physical violence

Recent threats of physical violence

Harassment

Recent sexual assault or molestation

Stalking

Verbal abuse (only when very severe) (FJC, 2009).

Ethical Issues

The FJC takes every precaution to follow all ethical codes set upon all professionals within the organization. As I mentioned before the FJC is comprised of various professionals such as detectives, counselors/psychologists and attorneys. Each professional has its own ethical codes to follow.

The legal department follows same ethical codes related to confidentiality and release of information (APA, 2010: Ethical Standard Code 4; AP-LS, 2008: Specialty Guideline 10). Each client is required to go through two screenings before they move forward with the legal department. A psychologist screens them and if there are visible injuries, the client is seen by a forensic medical examiner. At this time, a release authorization form of the photos is signed by client. This gives the organization permission to use the photos as evidence for court hearings. Each client is required to sign a confidentiality agreement form prior to meeting with the legal department.

As stated above the organization is also comprised of police officers and detectives. Police officers and detectives have their own ethical codes to follow. At times a client would arrive and would also like to file a police report. At the moment the client is allowed to file a report. At no time can the psychologist or attorney be present during this time. If a third party was present during this time, the third party is entitled to testify in court as a witness for the criminal case. It can get pretty complicated. I ran into this problem when assisting with the client that was a detective.

As a certified paralegal and currently studying forensic psychology I found it somewhat difficult not to overstep my boundaries in performing dual roles (APA, 2010: Ethical Standard Code 3; AP-LS, 2008: Specialty Guidelines 6). Part of my responsibility prior to assisting with the TRO I have to screen them to determine if they have enough evidence to move forward with a TRO. Sometimes I find myself steering towards a psychological assessment only to remember that I'm screening for legal purposes.

Legal Issues

With the legal field come many laws, regulations and procedures. The most challenging policy to adhere is the qualifications for obtaining a TRO. It is difficult to determine what qualification constitutes someone as being qualified for a TRO. Does a victim have to get beaten before applying for a TRO? At what point do we justify what qualifies?

Although there are rules and regulations, at times I find some professional staff making judgments based on their own judgments. Harassment, Stalking and Severe verbal abuse are all difficult to prove. With the rise of facebook and twitter, many are turning to social networking as evidence. This is excellent proof. However, again what constitutes as evidence?

I had a client who was in her early 20's. She has only been in the area for two weeks and don't have friends or family. Her husband is in the military and like my research part of the paper she often felt isolated. Her husband was an abusive alcoholic. He told her he owned everything. Because she doesn't work and only took care of the kids she doesn't own anything. She believed this. She was six weeks pregnant and her husband shook her against the wall a couple times.

She came in to FJC with the intentions of seeking a TRO because she was tired of her husband's verbal abuse. After discussing this case with my supervising attorney, she felt the client didn't have enough evidence to move forward with a TRO. I had my personal opinion on this. I thought she had more than enough. She was six weeks pregnant and shaking her against the wall was a sign of more to come. Needless to say, my attorney did not want to move forward with a TRO but she said if I really believe she needs one, proceed with one and I did. The TRO came back that afternoon granted. My attorney had no comment nor did she praise me for a job well done.

Dr. Jackie Campbell's Danger Assessment

One of the laws that we do follow is the DR. JACKIE CAMPBELLS DANGER ASSESSMENT. The Danger Assessment (DA) instrument is designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of domestic violence. Even though abused women are fairly good assessors of their own risk of re-assault, they often underestimate the risk of homicide. The DA was developed in consultation on item wording and content validity from battered women, advocates, law enforcement officials, and other clinical experts on battering. The initial DA items were developed from Dr. Jacqueline C. Campbell's research reviewing police Intimate Partner Homicide (IPH) records as well as reviews of other studies of IPH or serious injury from Intimate Partner Victim (IPV) (Dangerassessment.org, 2005; Renzetti & Edleson, 2008).

The DA first assesses severity and frequency of battering by asking an abused woman to mark on a calendar the approximate days when physically abusive incidents occurred, ranking their severity on a scale of 1 to 5. Using a calendar increase accurate recall in general and the DA calendar helps raise the woman's consciousness and reduce the normal minimization of IPV (Renzetti & Edleson, 2008).

The second part of the original DA was a 15-item yes/no dichotomous response format of risk factors associated with IPH. Both portions of the DA take approximately 20 minutes to complete. The woman can complete the DA by herself or with professionals from the health care, criminal justice, or victim advocate systems. The original DA was scored by counting the "yes" responses, with more "yeses" indicating more danger (Dangerassessment.org, 2005; Renzetti & Edleson, 2008).

The levels of danger and DA scores are (1) variable danger (0-7), (2) increased danger (8-13), (3) severe danger (14-17), and (4) extreme danger (18+). The language used to label the levels of danger was chosen in consultation with survivors and advocates for its meaning to abused women and in convey that even at the lowest level (variable danger), the risk of lethal violence is never negligence and can change quickly. The DA can help women come to a more realistic appraisal of their risk as well as improve the predictive accuracy of those who are trying to help them (Dangerassessment.org, 2005; Renzetti & Edleson, 2008).

The Danger Assessment is conducted by a detective who has been certified as a danger assessment professional. Anyone can go online, take the exam and it certified. The legal department proceeds with notifying both the San Diego Police and Sheriff's department with information on the abuser and a warning to the officers to proceed with caution. We than continue to assist the victim with all resources possible.

Population Served

The population served consisted of individuals from various backgrounds. The age range varied from a 16-year-old to a 50-year-old; Educational background ranged from high school student to someone with a bachelor's degree; There were at least two male clients a week obtaining TROs; and we averaged of at least 2-3 cases each day involving a military personnel.

Challenges

Forensic psychology professionals often work in a multi-disciplinary team that encompasses diverse individuals from various professional backgrounds. For instance, forensic psychologists might work with individuals from federal, state, or local law enforcement agencies; with attorneys; or with individuals from correctional and treatment facilities.

Although working in multi-disciplinary teams can prove beneficial, potential challenges such as power dynamics, differing viewpoints, and disagreements with roles/responsibilities might arise. As every multi-disciplinary team is unique, it is important to be aware of strategies to address challenges related to working in multi-disciplinary teams. Whether it is defining roles, setting boundaries, or ensuring all team members can contribute equally, strategies like these can help multi-disciplinary teams address challenges they often encounter.

I faced many challenges at the FJC. With multiple professionals with various credentials there is a possibility that someone will have a different perspective on an issue. The first challenge I saw on my first day came from the personality and attitudes of the detectives. Detectives have a demeanor about them. All detectives start off patrolling the streets as a police officer. They eventually get promoted to a detective position if that's the route they choose to take. They don't like to be questioned especially if it's an issue they specialize in. For example, they know that domestic violence can end with a tragedy. What they don't know is not all temporary restraining orders (TRO) are granted. In order for a judge to grant a TRO there has to be enough evidence and valid proof that the person needing protection is in immediate danger. To the detectives all DV victims are in danger and most police officers who respond to DV calls advise the victims to obtain a TRO; little do they know that DV police reports are not enough as evidence. It varies from case to case.

This is where the legal department and detectives don't see eye to eye. A client was denied assistance for a TRO. She could not prove there was immediate danger or threats made directly to her. The detective on the case had something to say about this. The detective and the attorney exchanged a few words and needless to say the attorney was correct and a TRO never followed.

Effective strategies include but are not limited to conducting meetings, putting egos aside and working as a team versus a department. Each department/entity is privately funded but all associated with one organization. Conducting frequent meetings can be effective especially when others can learn from it. As an intern I just sit back and observe how each professional handles each situation.

Insights

FJC is a great organization that is beneficial to all DV victims. It provides a place where victims can obtain information all in one place instead of having to travel to several different places to assure they are safe from their batterer. FJC is a fairly new organization that will continue to grow in the many years to come.

With each new organization follows the need for improvement. I started off my field experience setting my expectations of the organization very high. The organization was created under the wing of a former City Attorney, how could I not? In the process of my experience, I discovered my supervising attorney lacked leadership experience. This was her first job in California and it was her first job as an attorney. She had no experience with court hearings or dealing with clients. The only experience she had was through her internships while going through law school.

There were multiple ethical issues I witnessed but to name them would mean I could go on forever. She crossed the line of professionalism by befriending law students who were interning. Her discussions were inappropriate. What bothered me most is I was always busy and barely had time for lunch but they had time to take lunch. At times I felt I was taken advantage of. I was the one that organized everyone else's work but never got the credit for it. I was an intern so I didn't say much. I just did what I was told.

Initially the last day of my field experience was set for the end of February. I realized I exceeded my hours required and needed more time to work on my papers and school assignment. So, I cut my field experience short by two weeks. I think my supervisor was disappointed because the law students were not fully trained yet.

In my field experience with FJC, I gained a lot of experience. While learning the TROs was a review for me, learning the FJC's procedures took me longer. I was excited to be working with various professionals but at the same time disappointed that I never got the chance to shadow them. I was promised multiple times, however, it never happened. I felt like because I was good at what I did, perhaps my supervisor needed me for my tasks. Needless to say the only experience I got from this was assisting clients with TRO and learning how to coup with egos.


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