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Communication In Health And Social Care Management

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According to Schneider et. all 2001 and Rogers Maslow , humanistic theory every human being has exceptional and inborn identities and natural potentials. These are the goals that direct them to achieve their full potentials. Maslow defines that individuals have specific requirements and needs which must be met in a hierarchical style and it happens from bottom to top. Another author Rogers has noted that every individual has a particular frame of reference according to their self concept or self regard. These are one's own perception or faith about themselves. It is a theory that highlights on individual's capacity for self track, understanding, basic needs, achievement needs, self-actualization, safety needs etc. According to Maslow, individual should achieve Hierarchy needs in order which are shown below:

Lattal and Chase (2003) has noted that behaviorist theory means the way of conditioning through interaction with the environment with no consideration to the mental state. According to them it is a theory related to psychology and it is based on the proposition that behavior can be researched with evidence with no recourse. Behaviorism is mainly relevant to skill development and the substrate of learning. Usually phobias and neurosis treatment can improve individuals' behavior significantly.

According to Fritscher 2003, it is a theory that attempts to explain human behaviour by understanding the thought processes. In 21st century Greene brothers (2008) have noted that this theory explains social environment in learning. They showed that environment and self have a reciprocal relation. In addition, this theory fix which environmental factors should be observed, when should be observed, what should be conferred on them or whether they have any long lasting effects or is there any emotional or motivating power etc. Another important thing is, usually human beings make the decisions by thought processes. A diagram of cognitive is given below:

In 1998, a famous author Nasio states that psycholanalytical theory defines that human mind is compared to an iceberg: we only see a little bit of it (the conscious) peeking out above the vast depths of the unconscious. According to this theory, there are many inner forces outside of people's awareness those direct their behavior. For example, (assume) Dominika has built up a relationship with a boy recently. Suddenly she started calling him by her ex-boy friend's name. the reason of this may be Dominika misspoke her ex-boy friend because of misgiving about new relationship. another author Friedlander (2003) has noted that it is a theory which defines the dynamics of personality, psychoanalytic, psychodynamic and psychotherapy development. This theory helps to treat people with psychological problem in different ages especially who live in multi-cultural societies.

Review the application of a range of communication techniques for different purposes used in health and social care work.

At this age, proper communication techniques in health and social care are becoming more and more important as service users from different cultures are being added continuously (Moss, 2007). Also effective communication is essential to have good productivity. Windsor and Moonie (2000) define that, communication techniques can be verbal, nonverbal, written, facial/ body language or listening.

Verbal: it is way of communication where people communicate face to face. Sounds, words, speaking, and language are the key elements of verbal communication. For social care work verbal communication style is very important as it influences the service users. Social workers should speak slowly, clearly and politely. They should have softness in speaking.

Non-verbal: non-verbal communication can be used in Health and social care workplace as well. It is a communication process through sending and receiving wordless messages. Gestures, facial expression, body language, using meaningful symbols, sign languages, touching, vocal nuance etc. are also included in non-verbal communication. It is important because it repeats verbal messages, regulate interactions, become complement to verbal messages etc.

Written: written communication is also important like non-verbal and verbal communication. Preservation of our memories can be influenced significantly by written communication. Many researchers think written communication is the most effective and most useful way to communicate in Health and social care workplaces with verbal language as it prevents misunderstanding, helps to remember all important details or, helps to keep important data, helps to educate others, helps to deal with negative feelings, and helps to share knowledge with others and many more.

Listening: It is also important. If the social workers do not listen to the service users properly, misunderstandings can happen. Social workers should listen with full concentration of the service users as it is included in codes of practice.

Discuss the ways in which communication influences how individuals feel about themselves.

Moss (2007) has stated that different types of communication can influence individual's feelings differently. Impersonal and interpersonal communications are two of them. Impersonal communication means the way to treat people as objects or respond to their roles rather than to who they are as unique people which is normally impersonal and superficial. Usually people communicate by impersonal way. It can make a rational choice to protect people willingly but it doesn't get them too close. People do not feel very good by this communication method.

Conversely, according to Greene and Burleson (2003), interpersonal communication is a special form of unmediated human communication that occurs when we interact simultaneously with another person and attempt to mutually influence each other, usually for the purpose of managing relationships. It usually occurs simultaneously while people are talking and listening. For example, it can be observed by their- eye contact, clothing, body posture, and facial expressions. People usually feel happy with this communication method and it is very useful to apply in health and social care workplaces.

Describe ways of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals.

According to Stacks and Salwen (2008), inappropriate interpersonal communications between individuals' begin usually from incorrect use of vocabulary or use of passive vocabulary. It also arises from cultural insensitivity or misinterpretation of body language which can lead to communication gap. There are a few ways to deal with inappropriate interpersonal communication and those can be:

Rephrasing or using the simplier words while speaking or communicating.

Repeating the words with meaningful gestures.

Analyzing the communication gap that has been occurred, spotting and fixing the cultural faux pas and remedying that without delay.

Staying Focused and listen carefully.

Trying to see their point of view

Responding to Criticism with Empathy

Using "I" Messages: Rather than "We".

Look for Compromise Instead of trying to 'win' the argument, look for solutions that meet everybody's needs.

Analyse the use of techniques and strategies for supporting communication between people with specific communication needs.

In the UK there are many people like deaf, blind who need specific communication needs and these can be lip-reading, speech to text, electronic notes, sign languages, Braille etc. Anon (n.d.) states that around 242,000 people are deaf-blind and two million people are suffering from hearing loss in the United Kingdom. Research has shown that almost 1.4 million people are using hearing aids regularly. Around 50,000 people use sign language as their preferred language. Many British are using interpreters as well but the ratio of interpreters and service users are significantly low in the UK. Pomegranate mobile phone and these technologies can be used to support these persons.

Evaluate workplace strategies, policies and procedures for good practice in communication.

According to Best et all (2003), in health and social care workplaces, there must have good practice for workplace strategies, policies and procedures for communication. Good procedures in communication means to follow the privacy policies, not to spread personal information to unauthorized persons, Keeping confidentiality, consent, disciplinary procedures, protecting hharassment, maintaining equal opportunities, having paternity and maternity leave, playing by rules, following data protection acts, not to reveal any data without taking permission etc. Good communication policies and strategies include adoption policy, complaints policy, whistle blowing policy, grievance policy etc. These policies, procedures and strategies help to build up a smooth and friendly workplace.

Question 2

Describe physical, cultural and legal influences on communication in health and social care by:

2.1 Analyse how methods of communication are influenced by individual values, culture and ability.

Littlejohn Foss (2005) and Samovar et al (2009) have stated that individual values, culture and ability can influence the communication methods significantly in health and social care. Value means the principles, standards, or quality which guides human actions. It also defines the acceptable standards which govern the behaviour of individuals within the organization. Without having such values, individuals will pursue behaviours that are in line with their own individual value systems, which may lead to behaviours that the organization doesn't wish to encourage. Another thing is organizational values which are the beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behaviour organizational members should use to achieve these goals. It influence communication as it develops organizational norms, makes sense about things are good or bad, which things are more or less important. It also promotes anti discriminatory practice and diversity, protects people from abuse, keeps confidentiality, gives peoples rights to dignity, autonomy, independence and safety, understanding other peoples beliefs and identities.

According to them, culture can influence communication method as well. Culture means the values, traditions, worldview, and social and political relationships that are created, shared, and transformed by a group of people bound together by a common history, geographic location, language, social class, and/or religion. It is a dynamic, constantly changing process that is shaped by political, social and economic conditions. It manipulates communication by guiding people in their thinking, feelings, and acting etc.

Describe legislation and charters governing the rights of individuals to communicate.

There are specific law, legislations and charters governing the rights to communicate and these can be NHS and community care act 1990, sex discrimination act, Disability discrimination act (DDA) etc. Research from Mandelstam (2008) has shown that NHS and community care act 1990 ensures the full independence of the individuals among these legislations and charters,. According to this act, every service user should be shown respect. No one can be discriminated at any way whatever their race, sex, origin, religion, age etc. In addition, everyone including patients with mental health, learning disability, children should be treated as an individual while communicating. everyone should have their communications needs valued and respected, whether they are verbal or non-verbal. The charter sets out the rights for disable people in terms of their disability which includes information, Support and training, Time to communicate, Access to services, Inclusion in social networks, Services from Employers etc.

In addition, according to him and Disability act 2006, every person with a communication disability has a right to receive information in a way that they can receive and respond. A wide range of recognized and meaningful symbols, materials, signs, alternative communication methods should be available everywhere for disabled people. employers must provide training for customer-facing staff to offer alternative communication at help desks and service points, e.g. a map, pencil and paper, pictures.

Also we know that Every person with a communication disability has a responsibility to identify how they can communicate to exchange information. To do this, they can carry carry a card explaining what the difficulty is, in plain English or explaining what they need to help them at the outset. They should be given enough time to understand as well. In the same time, they should be given positive support from their family, friends and care workers.

Discuss the implications in health and social care contexts of legislation and codes of practice relating to records and communication of information about people.

According to Dziegielewski (2003) and Trainor (n.d.), keeping record of information in health and social care is very important and sensitive. There are specific law, legislations and codes of practice relating to records keeping and communication of information about people. They can follow European, national or UN law, charters and codes of practice while keeping records. But service providers should keep information by following data protection act 1998. According to this act Personal information must be stored on the case files or in the recording books and it should only be available to those who are directly involved with the care of the Person and to those responsible for the maintenance of good practice and standards. Both Manual and computer records should be stored against unauthorised access. Also, it is not allowed to copy of any documents (including medical records, personal records, political views etc.) for any purpose other than for the purpose of the well-being of the service users. For example, a social worker may need to send a client's details to a doctor. So, he/she may need to do some copy of his/her client's documents. So, it is allowed by the contexts of legislation.

Analyse the effectiveness of organisational systems policies in relation to good practice in communication.

Usually organizational systems, policies and procedures are very effective for the good practice in communication. Keyton (2005) noted that every organization has different communication policies in relation to good practice. It builds confidentiality and good relationship among the stakeholders, employees and service users. In addition, communications Policy ensures to use the organizational communications facilities, including internet, email, fax, phone, sms etc. It also guides to use fast and reliable way of communication which has significant advantages for health and social care workplaces. In the same time, it warns to it's employees about the dangers and misuse of communication. It also inform to it's employees that none can be discriminated during communicating. For example, some people may have difficulty to understand some communication methods. So, good organizational policies will provide a framework or a way to overcome these problems. Values, personal moral qualities, respecting service user's dignity and autonomy are also included to good practice in communication and these are usually mentioned in organizational policies.

Suggest and justify ways of improving communication systems in a health or care setting.

Effective and constructive communication is vital as it helps to support, achievement and well being of our society. The ways to improve communicating systems in health and social care are given below:

Having enough employees to accomplish their jobs smoothly. If there is shortage of employee, people may not do their jobs in time. In addition, additional work load may put stress on the staff. As a result, they may not communicate with service users and staff properly.

Effective and constructive communication method must be built up among the GP practices, dentists, pharmacists, NHS, emergency services, care trusts.

Using both electronic (e-mail, text message, fax, phone etc.) and paper messages (letters, newsletters, leaflets etc) for day to day communication. In addition, having common software to share information or a database system among the partnership organizations can also help to improve communication system.

Health and social care officials as well as normal staff should arrange regular meeting among themselves to share their views regarding their progress, future plan etc.

Proper implementation of data protection act can also help to improve communication.

Demonstrate ability to communicate appropriately using range of techniques.

According to Marincek (2001) and Jones Cregan (1986), there are many people in the United Kingdom who need to communicate by special communicating techniques. Especially, children, elderly people, hearing disabled people use these techniques which are given below:

Text messaging, using sign language, lip reading, converting speech to text can be used to communicate with deaf people. Probably sign language is the most effective way to communicate with deaf people as it has it's own right. It also covers the whole system of communication. On the other hand, text messaging is the easiest way to communicate as almost everyone can read it. But people may not be able to express their emotions by this way.

Blind people prefer to use voice recorder, speaking or listening to communicate. Technology can give lots of benefit to blind people. For example, if there is a blind employee in an organization and she/he has to gather data from internet then she/he can be benefited by using voice or audio system. Further, if anyone wants to leave some information to someone who is blind then he can convert his message to voice so that blind receiver can receive it.

Basically, I have to be very careful while communicating with communication disabled people. For example, my body position, speaking style, listening style have to be well-developed and I have to be patient so that they can understand me without any difficulty.

(Word Count : 1200 Words)

Explore the use of information technology in communications in health and social care by:

Demonstrate ability to access and use standard IT software, used routinely, to support work in health and social care.

Harlow and Webb (2003) stated that every health and social care worker should have good knowledge regarding IT software to support their daily activity. To support my work, I use Microsoft office, Microsoft power point, Microsoft excel, Microsoft access, Microsoft word, spreadsheet, Microsoft outlook, internet, notepad etc.

According to Shaffer et al (2007), Microsoft office is very useful to manage day to day activities. I can preserve almost all the documents, work history by using Microsoft office word. Notepad is also useful to take and save the short notes.

I use Microsoft office access to create normal database solution, tables, forms, reports, queries, graphs etc. I have to use spreadsheet to support my work as well. It is software by which I can access multiple cells. I can find out any individual's details within a click. For example, I can access to service users' details if they just provide me their surnames or dates of birth.

Microsoft outlook and internet are one of the most useful software that I use. I use outlook to send and receive any electronic mail. I can save my mails as well if there is no internet connection. I can send those when I get internet connection. I use internet to collect data.

Analyse how the use of IT in health and social care benefits service users.

Leathard (2003) and Cnaan Parsloe (1989) have shown that information technology benefits both the service users and service providers in various ways in health and social care. Disable people, mental health patients, blind people, deaf people, speechless people and even sometimes healthy people are being benefitted by use of information technology. The ways are described below:

Disabled people: According to Hawkridge et al (1985) and Anogianakis Association for the Advancement of Assistive Technology in Europe (1997), information technology has added new scope to disabled people's life. Now, those who are deaf can use hearing aid to overcome their listening barriers. Blind people are being benefitted by using audio system. Now, they can conduct their day to day activities by this method. Even, now language converter is being used for those people who are not efficient in a common language like English. So, service users can describe their problem elaborately without facing any hassle.

Developed service: Now-a-days, all the health care specialists who are authorised can access to patient details. So, they can exchange their views and knowledge regarding their service and patient's treatment. As a result, better and improved services are provided to the clients. In addition, patient can get various services from one person.

Treatment and medicine: Slee et al (2001) have stated that, now patients can gather data regarding their disease and can get information about the potential medicine. So, patient can discuss with his doctor if there is any mistake in the prescribed medicine. As a result, patient can get escape from a great problem. In addition, e-medicine can boost the knowledge of doctors. All the health care specialists including social workers and service users can gather lots of information by using website as well as internet conferences.

Critically evaluate how the IT supports and enhances the activities of care workers and care organisations/agencies.

According to Cnaan Parsloe (1989), the activities of a care worker or a care agency's activities can be significantly enhanced by information technology. For example, a care worker can preserve any medical data digitally which is quick and cost effective. Next time, another care worker does not need to waste his or her time to look for client's medical report or medication history. She/he can get it easily and quickly if she/he is efficient in IT. It also reduces work load and care workers or care organizations can concentrate on other tasks quickly.

Another important thing is, doctors can be benefited from IT significantly. For example, the GPs can use a software where all medical and drug information will be pre-saved. So, all information regarding to that drug will be shown automatically while prescribing that to a patient. It can save lots of time because doctors or care workers then will not need to look for the information regarding any medicine. To implement this, a very good network and communication between pharmacists and doctors is essential.

Analyse health and safety legal considerations in the use of IT.

The health and safety legal considerations should come to light in the use of information technology because inappropriate use of IT can damage employees' health. Even it has a long term effect on physical condition. According to Koreneff (2005), employees' health and safety matters must be considered in the workplace. Those who usually work in front of computer screen or anything like that may suffer from eye strain, headache, back pain, fatigue etc. Employee's should take regular break or change the activity for 10 minutes after doing one hour works to prevent this. They should keep their body in a right posture to prevent back pain. Right posture includes keeping back side supported, head up, hands relaxed, knees are leveled with hip, feet are flat with floor, screen is directly in front and not in angle etc. Hands and wrists are usually most comfortable when forearm is nearly at a right angle to upper arm and wrist is in a straight line with hand and forearm. Complain should be made against an organization if that fails to provide these types of workplace. Employers must provide a workplace for the employees which will meet all the requirements of health and safety to use IT.


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