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Domestic violence is a relationship between intimate partners in which one individual seeks to assert power and control over the other. The abuser may use many different types of abuse to assert this power. It involves physical, psychological, economic and sexual abuse as well as attempts to manipulate the victim through the use of his or her children. The abuser may also seek to isolate the victim from other people who may provide assistance. A number of studies have looked into identifying individuals who are most at risk for domestic violence. The most common feature is an imbalance of power and control. However, neither those who experience domestic violence nor the partners who abuse them fall into distinct categories. They can be of any age, ethnicity, income level, or level of education. The causes of domestic violence will depend on the abuser back ground such as: Witnessed abuse as a child, Was a victim of abuse as a child, abused former partners, and may be because of Unemployed or underemployed, Poverty or poor living situations. In addition, the effects of domestic violence depend upon the type it could be physical, psychological, sexual and economic.
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Causes and effects of Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence is a type of abuse .It involves injuring someone; usually a spouse or partner but it can also be a child or other family member. The abuser doesn’t play fear .Abuser use fear, guilt, shame and he wants to keep the victim under his or her thumb. The abuser may use many different types of abuse to assert this power, and the overall framework in which the abuse occurs may follow a pattern called the cycle of violence. Cycle of violence: Violent events may occur in a variety of patterns-the victim may experience ongoing, nonstop abuse, or the abuse may stop and start. One pattern of abuse often seen in a violent relationship begins with a tension-building phase, followed by the actual abusive act, and then calm, making-up phase often called the honeymoon phase. The tension-building phase includes increasing anger on the part of the abuser coupled with attempts by the person being abused to avoid violence. On the other hand, the victim may also attempt to bring on the violence to get it over with. The episode of acute abuse may include various forms of abuse and may occur for an indefinite amount of time.The honeymoon phase that follows the abuse often includes both excuses for the abusive episode and expressions of love for the injured party. The abuser may deny the violence or blame his or her actions on their own drunkenness or the behavior or drunkenness of the victim. The abuser may promise that the abuse will never happen again.
Domestic abuse often escalates from threats and verbal abuse to violence. And while physical injury may be the most obvious danger, the emotional and psychological consequences of domestic abuse are also severe. It will lead to undermine the victim’s self-worth or self-esteem, or controls the victim’s freedom. Domestic abuse can lead to anxiety and depression, and make abuser to feel helpless and alone. It occurs in traditional heterosexual marriages, as well as in same-sex partnerships. The abuse may occur during a relationship, while the couple is breaking up, or after the relationship has ended. In 2001, domestic violence was causal in 20% of nonfatal violence directed against women and in 3% directed toward men. A 2002 study reports that 29% of women and 22% of men report having experienced physical, sexual, or psychological intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Nearly 5.3 million incidents of domestic violence occur annually among US women aged 18 years and older, with 3.2 million occurring among men. Of these incidents, most are relatively minor, such as pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, and hitting. Serious consequences certainly do, however, result. Every year approximately 1.5 million intimate partner rapes and physical assaults are perpetrated against women, and approximately 800,000 are committed against men (Burnett, 2009)
This paper describes the causes and effects of domestic violence. To begin with a number of studies have looked into identifying individuals who are most at risk for domestic violence. The most common feature is an imbalance of power and control. However, neither those who experience domestic violence nor the partners who abuse them fall into distinct categories. They can be of any age, ethnicity, income level, or level of education. The following are examples of situations that are common among people who experience domestic violence. It is important to understand that anyone can be abused. Individuals at risk may who is Planning to leave or has recently left an abusive relationship, Previously in an abusive relationship, Poverty or poor living situations, Unemployed, Physical or mental disability, Recently separated or divorced , Isolated socially from family and friends, Abused as a child, Witnessed domestic violence as a child, Younger than 30 years and Stalked by a partner. Although the abusers also share some common characteristics, it is important to note that abusers choose violence to get what they want in a relationship. Risk factors may point to an increased likelihood of violence in a relationship, but the person is not destined to become violent because of the presence of certain risk factors. Nor is the violence justifiable because it happened while the abuser was in a blind rage that he or she was powerless to control. The following factors may indicate an increased likelihood that a person may choose violence. Abuser risk factors: Abuses alcohol or drugs, the use and abuse of alcohol are strongly associated with a higher probability that the drinker will be involved in violence as victim, perpetrator, or both. Illicit use of drugs by household members increases a woman’s risk of death at the hands of a spouse, lover, or close relative by a 28-fold factor. Concomitant use of alcohol and illicit drugs is associated with a 16-times greater risk for suicide, a risk substantially higher than that observed for the use of either individual substance. In a small study (n = 46) examining the relationship between selected socioeconomic risk factors and injury from domestic violence, alcohol abuse by the male partner, as reported by the female partner, was the strongest predictor for acute injury. Approximately half of the victims stated that their male partners were intoxicated at the time of the assault. Whether male partner intoxication is a direct causal factor, an indirect factor, or a factor that modifies the effect of a causal factor has not been determined. On the day of the assault, 86% of assailants reportedly used alcohol, with 67% using the combination of alcohol and cocaine. The active metabolite of such a drug combination, coca ethylene, is more intoxicating, longer lived, and possibly more potent in its ability to kindle violent behavior than are the parent drugs.
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Furthermore, the effects of domestic violence depend upon the type of domestic violence. It could be physical ,emotional, sexual and economic .First, in physical abuse the abuser will use Witnessed physical force against the victim in a way to injures or endangers his or her or causes feeling of pain. Physical abuse includes hitting, slapping, punching, choking, pushing, and other types of contact that result in physical injury to the victim. Physical abuse can also include behaviors such as denying the victim of medical care when needed, depriving the victim of sleep or other functions necessary to live. Second, emotional abuse is defined as any behavior that threatens, intimidates, undermines the victim’s self-worth or self-esteem, or controls the victim’s freedom. This can include threatening the victim with injury or harm, telling the victim that they will be killed if they ever leave the relationship, and public humiliation. Constant criticism, name-calling, and making statements that damage the victim’s self-esteem are also common forms of emotional abuse. Often perpetrators will use children to engage in emotional abuse by teaching them to harshly criticize the victim as well. Emotional abuse includes conflicting actions or statements which are designed to confuse and create insecurity in the victim. These behaviors also lead the victim to question themselves, causing them to believe that they are making up the abuse or that the abuse is their fault. Emotional abuse includes forceful efforts to isolate the victim, keeping them from contacting friends or family. This is intended to eliminate those who might try to help the victim leave the relationship and to create a lack of resources for them to rely on if they were to leave. Isolation results in damaging the victim’s sense of internal strength, leaving them feeling helpless and unable to escape from the situation. People who are being emotionally abused often feel as if they do not own themselves; rather, they may feel that their significant other has nearly total control over them. Women or men undergoing emotional abuse often suffer from depression, which puts them at increased risk for suicide, eating disorders, and drug and alcohol abuse (Hopkins, 1999) reported that abused women are at higher risk of miscarriages, stillbirths, and infant deaths and more likely to give birth to low birth weight children. Third, in Sexual abuse is any situation in which force is used to obtain participation in unwanted sexual activity. Forced sex, even by a spouse or intimate partner with whom consensual sex has occurred, is an act of aggression and violence. sexual abuse includes Use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed; Attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, unable to decline participation, or unable to Communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act. Finally, Economic abuse is when the abuser has control over the victim’s money and other economic resources. In its extreme (and usual) form, this involves putting the victim on a strict “allowance”, withholding money at will and forcing the victim to beg for the money until the abuser gives them some money. It is common for the victim to receive less money as the abuse continues.
To conclude, domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, friends or cohabitation. Domestic violence has many forms including physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, and restraining, slapping, throwing objects); it can also be sexual or emotional. The main causes of domestic violence will depend on the abuser back ground such as: Witnessed abuse as a child, Was a victim of abuse as a child, abused former partners, and may be because of Unemployed or underemployed, Poverty or poor living situations.
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