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Child Abuse and Neglect Finding the Road Back from Abuse
The following research paper is going to address the theoretical approaches of human services professionalism such as when used in case management when it comes to child abuse and neglect. In human services a good example of organizational processes is in the growth of Case Management procedures. Case management is a career with values and is practiced in law, social work, health care, along with mental well-being care (Harley-McClaskey,2017. p.44).
In the following reserach paper I will attempt to list the findings along with results that were found among the research, along with whether or not the data supported the study’s question. I will next go into the pros along with cons of this article. How will conclude with how the knowledge from the article can be used in the human service field working in a child welfare center when working with children who have gone through abuse and need help.
Topic and Purpose
The topic of this paper is Child Abuse and Neglect Finding the Road Back from Abuse. The purpose of this paper is to describe the different theoretical approaches focusing more into cognitive-behavioral therapy that can be found in the human services profession when working with troubled youth and young adults. In this paper it will address over how 45% of childhood abuse attributes a risk for childhood onset psychiatric disorders (Teicher-Samson, 2016). It will then further point out how when a child is neglected and abused whether it is verbal and/or physical it has a huge impact on their brain along with their cognitive development.
The research along with caparison has been done with those children who have either gone thorough and/or experienced abuse first hand and has been mistreated through verbal abuse, along with sexual assault. These have all been shown in linking cognitive disorder to those children that the early development of the brain has been affected in such a way that can alter proper development when presented in the earlier stages of life.
Abuse in genera is shown to affect both psychological and physical growth including entering into adulthood this can be either poorer motor skills, lack of social skills, trust issues, and the ability to become emotional independent. Cognitive- behavioral therapy shows how the brain is affected by abuse and maltreatment. This has also shown that there is a continual increase in suicidal attempts in relation to childhood abuse and neglect.” (Miller, Esposito-Smythers, Weismoore, & Renshaw, 2013, p.1).
The results show that when this type of abuse happens at such an early age has an adverse effect into adulthood along with a link between depression, anxiety, drug and alcohol abuse, social tendencies, along with a higher chance of eating disorders in those who have gone through this type of maltreatment. The research goes into even those who have may not gone through this abuse themselves even witnessing can cause an adverse reaction on the overall well-being and functionality of having any kind of stable relationship down the road. Those who have gone through this first-hand are more likely to show hindered brain development. Childhood abuse/neglect is so easy to prevent and control.
The article focused more on the findings established around component-based psychotherapy. This is an evidence-informed model that links, blends, along with expanding into several other theories, of treatment for adult survivors of stress that was caused by abuse such as emotional. The study found that victims of emotional abuse and neglect tend to have a hard time when it comes to their self and identity, along with behavior and functioning, and clinical psychopathology. (Spinazzola-Zucker, &Hopper,2017).
The results showed that those who have survived from such abuse are more likely to show greater issues when it comes to being able to establish and maintain safe, healthy, and loving relationships. They also have a tendency to have a negative self-image, a sense of worth, and lack self-esteem (Spinazzola-Zucker, & Hopper, 2017). Those who have gone through a trauma such as emotional along with physical abuse are more likely to keep their feelings to themselves” leading to additional problems with depression, are more socially awkward which in-turn leads them to isolate themselves from those around them” (Spinazzola-Zucker, &Hopper,2017. p.2). Which often involves the cutting off of strong emotional ties.
The research in the article pointed how thirty-five percent of those with major depressive disorder which have had a history of childhood abuse greater illness severity, chronicity, and comorbidity. Those who participated included one-hundred and twenty-nine adolescents and young adults whose ages ranged from twelve to twenty-one. They were assessed but would not meet criteria for ‘‘psychotic symptoms’’ as unrelated symptoms (Holshausen-Bowie, & Harkness, 2016. p.3). When looking into the long history of abuse in those with psychotic symptoms, the research showed that a toxic family environment of abuse can lead to the development of psychotic symptoms along with a risk for sexual abuse.
The following research article is showing how and in what way a person can be affected throughout their life into adulthood from such abuse and neglect. This article is focused around those adults “with a history of prominent childhood emotional and neglect. The therapy that the findings are based off revolve around establishing trust, attachment and relationships, focusing on one’s self, along with being able to control one’s own emotions” (Spinazzola-Zucker, & Hopper,2017. p.4).
Pros vs. Cons
As with any kind of study there are pros and cons. The pros in this paper are that it shows in black and white how such mistreatment in an early age can cause not on psychological damage but, also emotional damage all the way into adulthood. The research above shows how it is easy to prevent this along with the onset irreversible damage that can occur when this happens. By showing this study along with the statistics and facts its goal is to help prevent and protect those children. The cons are that there may be other contributing factors that can also be affecting these results.
Those children who have been faced with abuse and neglect neglected may show responses that can come off as extreme, hysterical and inexcusable. In turn this can lead those who are trying to help to miss understanding the reactions of those children. Parents of neglected children have often been maltreated in their childhood (Milot-Either,2015. p.96) and the child’s manifestations of stress might evoke in them powerful negative feelings that are related to their own past traumatic experiences.
“There is also a direct link between childhood neglect and the number of PTSD symptoms but, was shown as being slightly substantial. Studies have also showed how when raised by a parent who has had trouble with alcohol, drugs, and/or alcohol that the link between childhood neglect and a lifetime PTSD diagnosis and the number of symptoms was only slightly different. Wisdom’s pioneer work, other studies conducted with neglected children and adolescents have shown that child neglect, alone or in combination with other forms of maltreatment or risk factors, is associated with increased risk of developing trauma-related symptoms as early as the preschool years. (Milot- Ethier,2016. p.90)” check this part over)
Implications for Further Research
There is ongoing research on this subject that will hopefully show that there is a need for further research on this subject. There is as of right now 45% of children who are at a high risk of onset psychiatric problems that will continue into their adult years and will affect there over all well-being throughout their lives. (Teicher-Samson,2016) This article shows how there are new studies needed to help further research into the relationship between abuse and the alterations in structure along with overall function of the brain due mistreatment at an early age.
When the study was done on those who were sexually abused there was a significant increase of those that have attempted suicidal attempts among adolescents from childhood-adolescence. The research found that out of “twenty-eight cross-sectional studies of community samples, twenty-seven of those showed good evidence of a common association between a history of sexual abuse and the increase in those cases of suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts” (Miller, Esposito-Smythers, Weismoore, & Renshaw, 2013, p.1).
The various methods that were used during the research were done by utilizing single questions in surveys and/or interviews. In seven out of eight studies there was a sufficient amount associated with childhood sexual abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. It was also found that there was a significant relation between depression disorders such as, social phobias and depressive tendencies with this type of maltreatment (Miller, Esposito-Smythers, Weismoore, & Renshaw, 2013).
How This Can be Applied to the Human Service Field
This type of research can be used in the human service field as a tool to show how and what to look out for when it comes to early onset abuse and brain development. The human services department can help by addressing that yes, there is a problem and that there needs to be some kind of support to be in effect for these types of cases. By knowing, along with a better understanding through this type of research it can be applied to the Human Service field by bringing to light that when abuse and neglect happens throughout adolescence into adulthood that there is going to be a need for special services to help those well into their adult lives.
This type of research is essential especially with case management and child welfare services in just knowing what those services will be focused on so that they can be easily available to those children who are in need of them. These are included but, not limited to those who are dealing with these types of psychotic symptoms that were mentioned in the above paper (Holshausen-Bowie, & Harkness, 2016). This type of research is essential in just knowing what those services will be focused on so that they can be readily available to those in need of them. The idea of case management is to have the greatest treatment plan and management of care for clients using resourceful methods (Spinazzola-Zucker, & Hopper,2017. p.5)
- Grossman, F. K., Spinazzola, J., Zucker, M., & Hopper, E. (2017). Treating Adult Survivors of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Neglect: A new framework. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(1), 86–93. https://doi-org.proxy.ccis.edu/10.1037/ort0000225
- Harley-McClaskey, D. (2017). Developing Human Service Leaders (1st ed). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. e-text
- Holshausen, K., Bowie, C. R., & Harkness, K. L. (2016). The Relation of Childhood Maltreatment to Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults with Depression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 241–247. https://doi-org.proxy.ccis.edu/10.1080/15374416.2014.952010
- Miller, A., Esposito-Smythers, C., Weismoore, J., & Renshaw, K. (2013). The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 16(2), 146–172.
- Milot, T., St, L. D., & Either, L. S. (2016). Intervening with Severely and Chronically Neglected Children and their Families: The Contribution of Trauma-Informed Approaches. Child Abuse Review, 25(2), 89–101. https://doi-org.proxy.ccis.edu/10.1002/car.2376
- Teicher, M. H., & Samson, J. A. (2016). Annual Research Review: Enduring neurobiological effects of childhood abuse and neglect. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 57(3), 241–266. https://doi-org.proxy.ccis.edu/10.1111/jcpp.12507
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