According to Neuman, 2000 population can be seen as a number of things such as individuals or groups, the researcher wants to investigate. Whereas Cooper & Schindler, 2001; Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2000; Sekaran, 2000 refers to it as an entire group that allows data to be sourced and investigated. By establishing this, I have concluded that 60 sales employees of Currys/PC World Mega Store would be investigated upon, this is because it would provide an accurate answer to the research question identified in chapter one.
Sample also had a similar definition to population as cited by (Sekaran, 2000, p.226) "a subset of the population". In their latest book Somekh and Lewin 2005, it refers to as individuals from whole selection of entire population. Neuman 1994 talk about the sample ratio, as he implies that size of population will determine the sampling ratio for example the limitation of handing out the questionnaire the higher the ratio need. By looking at this view the sample size I used should be around 60 to give a better result in response. However out of 60, 43 participated in this study. 17 out of 60 returned questionnaires which were uncompleted due to being misplaced or failed to complete questionnaire.
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3.3.2 SAMPLING DESIGN
In outlining the size of this investigation above, it can be said that the type sampling which was used for this purpose of research was in fact the non-probability. As cited by Welman & Kruger, 2001 "it is less complicated than a probability sampling design, incurs less expense and may be done to take advantage of the available respondents without the statistical complexity of a probability sample".
3.3.3 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
Robert 2006 states which I have interpreted as a survey, is a technique for research that enables to gather information from a group of people, in this case sale employees only, even thought they are in different departments they still do the same job as others. Terre blanche and Durrheim 2003 also confirm this, however the process of questionnaire construction is very complex, as stated by Whiteley 2003:371.
As we move on, Edwards et al 1997:24 state the survey questions can be two put into two categories, one being open-ending they other closed- ending. Researchers main use closed-ended questions as it is the preferred because the answer are set in a way that can easily be quantified by the researcher, stated by Whiteley, 2002:345. With this understanding I have incorporated Likert rating scales because it would make it easier for the employee to answer the question based on how strongly they feel, positive or negative. I had used the five-point Likert scales the In my analysis of motivation and job satisfaction at Currys/PC World Mega Store.
DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENTS
Linde, Rothmann and Sieberhagen (1999 cited in van Zyl, 2002) add that as self evaluation questionnaires are usually quantified, it is easier to compare the scores of different individuals. Weiers (1988) further postulates that the analysis of questionnaires is easy due to the structured information in the questionnaire with minimal or no open-ended questions. Kerlinger (1986) however, found that the main problems experienced using questionnaires involve poor levels of response and the limitation of not being able to test the given responses for accuracy. Furthermore, the validity of self-evaluation questionnaires may differ from situation to situation as some items are ambiguous and could be viewed as having two possible answers (Smith, 1981 cited in van Zyl, 2002; van Zyl & van der Walt, 1994).
3.4 RESEARCH STRATEGY
3.4.3 ETHICS CHECKLIST
The study involves participants who are employees at DSGI only.
All research carried out would be by myself.
A statement would be provided on the questionnaire giving participant information about the research, that they understand the nature of the work and what is expected of them.
The study will not involve discussion of sensitive topics (e.g. managers or employees dislike).
No financial inducements will be offered to participants.
Identification of the steps to be taken to ensure that participants do not feel pressurised to participate.â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚â€‚
3.4.1 TIMEFRAME OF RESEARCH
To conduct this research I had created a timeframe so it doesn't interfere with other commitment. It also enabled me to stay on top of study so I can get the best results needed, I had given myself 1 month period to complete study.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Begin the secondary research
Books, journals, internet
Complete literature review
Books, journals, internet; Computer
Design questionnaire in draft
Carry out questionnaires
Transport and Appropriate venue
Gathering of all data
Analyse the data and responses to the questionnaires
Computer, software e.g excel, Books, journals
3.4.2 RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION
The required data will be collected by producing a questionnaire about views, thoughts and opinions of sales employees. It will include qualitative and quantitative data used open and closed questions. The results of the multiple choice questions can be produced into a tally table. Graphs can be produced using a computer to illustrate the research results. A quantitative method was used to gather data for the research. The measuring
instruments included the Work Satisfaction and Motivation Questionnaire developed
by De Beer (1987) and a self developed biographical questionnaire.
3.4.4 PRE-TEST OF QUESTIONNAIRE
I had created a questionnaire which I was not satisfied with at first. I felt I should add or edit question that needed to be asked, also on back of my mind that too many question would results in more literature review, due to the limitation of study I had refined question that best suited the literature research i had undertaken. According to Zikmund 2003:229 had stated that "a trial run with a group of five to seven would criticize the questions, structure and design of questionnaire". After the feedback was processed and analysed, some changes were made to wording and layout as well as the type of question asked i.e. from open question which need explaining of reason of choose at they stated time consuming and the most important fact that they are there to work. This is why i had introduced Likert rating scales question which made it easy to respond as they need to but an x in the statement they believe.
3.4.6 RESEARCH APPROACH
A modified questionnaire tagged Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction
was used for the collection of data on the study. The questionnaire was
specifically designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The first section collected
information such as age, sex, experience, professional status, marital status, position, and so
on. The second section contained the items, and was divided into three parts.
The biographical questionnaire was used to determine the demographic profile of the sample. Questions tapped into the following personal information of the individual: age, race, gender, designation, years employed at the organisation, educational level, and language spoken. by De Beer (1987)
Part1. This measures motivation. It is a 15-item questionnaire using a Likert scale with
responses ranging from Strongly Agree= SA; Agree = A; Disagree = D; and Strongly Disagree = SD.
The items were adapted from Work Motivation Behaviour Scale of the Akinboye's 2001
Executive Behaviour Battery. The modification yielded an r = 0.74 Cronbach Alpha.
Part 2. This part contains fifteen items that measure organizational commitment, using a Likert
scale of four points: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Items were
adapted from organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) by Mooday, Steer, and Porter
(1979). The overall reliability co-efficient of the instrument yielded an r = 0.83 cronbach alpha.
I had to ask for permission from managing director of Currys/PC World Mega Store to conduct the research on sales employees. This was the first hurdle as permission was then obtained from sales departments mangers. I had provided the questionnaires to managers direct to hand out as they discuss the sales figures in the brief which made it easy for colleague to participate. Cover letter explained the purposes of the research, that participation was voluntary and what the results would be used for. (Furthermore, respondents were assured that all responses would remain confidential, respondents would remain anonymous and that only grouped data would be presented.
To stay anonymous i had suggested that they place questionnaire in a tray which was provided for each department, this was explained to managers. As to time frame and collecting enough data, I had chosen three of the most busiest days so I can have good range of answer which would give me an accurate answer to the question I was answering,
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The data was gathered by means of self-report questionnaires. Rosnow and Rosenthal (1996) have outlined the advantages of using questionnaires as follows:
It can be administered to large numbers of individuals
The method also allows anonymity
It is relatively more economical to use
Linde, Rothmann and Sieberhagen (1999 cited in van Zyl, 2002) add that as selfevaluation
questionnaires are usually quantified, it is easier to compare the scores of
different individuals. Weiers (1988) further postulates that the analysis of
questionnaires is easy due to the structured information in the questionnaire with
minimal or no open-ended questions.
Kerlinger (1986) however, found that the main problems experienced using
questionnaires involve poor levels of response and the limitation of not being able to
test the given responses for accuracy. Furthermore, the validity of self-evaluation
questionnaires may differ from situation to situation as some items are ambiguous and
could be viewed as having two possible answers (Smith, 1981 cited in van Zyl, 2002;
van Zyl & van der Walt, 1994).
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
ADVANTAGES For the purposes of this research, a questionnaire was considered appropriate as data gathering instrument. Denzin and Lincoln (2002) postulates that there are specific benefits of utilising questionnaires:
The cost per questionnaire is relatively low.
Structured information in the questionnaire and few open questions makes analysing questionnaires is relatively straightforward.
Questionnaires give respondents extended time to formulate accurate responses.
This method of data collection produces quick results.
Questionnaires are a stable, consistent and uniform method of collecting data.
The advantage, Convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are most easily accessible and conveniently available to provide the required information (Kerlinger, 1986). The rationale for using this method is that it is convenient, quick and costeffective (Neuman, 1997; Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 1999).
DISADVANTAGES Based on discussion, I have identified .....of using questionnaire as following:
The negative reaction of the public towards questionnaires.
Usage of questionnaires is limited to literate respondents.
Questionnaires are time consuming due to the construction of a linguistic questionnaire and the response time of respondents (Bless & Higson-Smith, as cited in Roberts, 2005).Kerlinger, as cited in Roberts (2005) argues that the response rate for questionnaires tends to be relatively low. A response rate of between 20 to 4 percent (20% - 40%) can be expected when utilising questionnaires as a datagathering instrument (Bless & Higson-Smith, as cited in Roberts, 2005).
The disadvantage however, is that the properties of the sample are likely to under or overestimate the true population values (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 1999). Moreover, the sample may misrepresent the population and the results cannot easily and accurately be generalised (Neuman, 1997; Sekaran, 2000).)
A limitation of this research could be, how the sample is going to be chosen amount of time i have to complete the dissertation, it also can affect the achievement on how much research we could gather and the various research skills that we could reflect in my work to gain information about motivation and job satisfaction. The availability of primary research carried out, as most or nearly all of primary research will be collected from journals, books and scalars. This will produce critical analysis which argues for and against represent all the population and a general view. So therefore results will only reflect what author think about motivation and job satisfaction in Currys/PC World Mega Store on sales employees.
3.7 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
This chapter outlined the description of the research design, provided a description of the sample and discussed the demographics of the sample. The data collection procedure were presented. The instruments used to gather the data were highlighted and described, and reference was made to the reliability and validity of the Work Satisfaction and Motivation Questionnaire.
3.7.1 INTRODUCTION OF NEXT CHAPTER
Chapter 4 presents and discusses the data obtained in relation to literature reviewed in chapter two. The results are presented in a clear and coherent manner, using tables, graphs etc. This results are then critically discusses why this results are so in conjunction with motivation and job satisfaction.