Social Determination Theory Introduction

750 words (3 pages) Essay

11th Sep 2017 Psychology Reference this

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Self-Determination in Theory

Self-Determination Theory (SDT) was originated by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester. This theory puts forth the belief that there are three universal psychological needs that must be met for self-esteem and positive emotional health, which are determined to be: autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy is a sense of individuality, self-esteem, and sense of personal responsibility which participation in activities that are purposeful and worthwhile is necessary for fulfillment. Competence is person’s confidence in their own abilities and prolific performance increases their eagerness to be involved in as well as the desire to compete activities. Relatedness is a feeling of being connected to a societal group, which promotes comfortability and interest in a person’s surroundings or environment. Acquisition of these three intrinsic needs during all periods of development results in emotional well-being, interest and ability to learn, and the ability to control one’s behavior in a positive way. SDT implies that most individuals are more likely to follow peers who allow them the ability to make choices (autonomy), give them an opportunity for a relationship with the leader and the peers of their group (relatedness), and who foster in them a sense of confidence towards completing their goals (competence).

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SDT traits develop through social interaction and are elevated through support and encouragement from both leaders and peers. Young people’s actions and activities gradually evolve into being more intrinsically motivated, and less subject to external influence from other people. However, Richard de Charms, in his book, Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior (1968) implies that it is the perception of the individual as to whether they consider themselves to be internally (Origin state), or externally (Pawn state) motivated, and they will react in accordance to however they perceive that they are motivated (p.328). Someone in a perceived Pawn state due to previous experience will expect to be externally controlled even in situations that would afford intrinsic function to be achieved and conversely, someone who perceives an Origin state will disregard evidence of outside government and act as if in autonomy (de Charms p.328). On the SDT model, positive feedback equates to peer approval because we want to belong to a group and connect with other people. Verbal affection and approval are not seen as extrinsic stimulus thus will tend to increase intrinsic motivation.

SDT is based upon an ego, social interaction, the perception of influential basis, and a sense of self and self-responsibility. It places ownership of the mental state, reaction, and motivation directly upon the psyche and says is determined by internal or external influences and by type of feedback and/or re-assurance that is received from peers and leaders. SDT “Is an empirically derived theory of human motivation and personality in social contexts that differentiates motivation in terms of being autonomous and controlled (it) began with experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation” (Deci & Ryan, “Chapter 20 / Self-Determination Theory”, 2011). In stark contrast, Behaviorism promotes the belief that all behavior is a reflex action that is controlled by and learned from the surroundings or environment, it discounts independent mental activity, and puts forth the belief that, “There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals” (McLeod, “Behaviorist Approach”, 2007). “Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion” (McLeod, 2007).

References:

DeCharms, R. (1968). Personal causation; the internal affective determinants of behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Chapter 20 / Self-Determination Theory. In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (Vol. 1&2, pp. 416-437). London: SAGE Publications.

McLeod, S. (2007, January 01). Behaviorist Approach. Retrieved February 02, 2017, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html

Self-Determination in Theory

Self-Determination Theory (SDT) was originated by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester. This theory puts forth the belief that there are three universal psychological needs that must be met for self-esteem and positive emotional health, which are determined to be: autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy is a sense of individuality, self-esteem, and sense of personal responsibility which participation in activities that are purposeful and worthwhile is necessary for fulfillment. Competence is person’s confidence in their own abilities and prolific performance increases their eagerness to be involved in as well as the desire to compete activities. Relatedness is a feeling of being connected to a societal group, which promotes comfortability and interest in a person’s surroundings or environment. Acquisition of these three intrinsic needs during all periods of development results in emotional well-being, interest and ability to learn, and the ability to control one’s behavior in a positive way. SDT implies that most individuals are more likely to follow peers who allow them the ability to make choices (autonomy), give them an opportunity for a relationship with the leader and the peers of their group (relatedness), and who foster in them a sense of confidence towards completing their goals (competence).

SDT traits develop through social interaction and are elevated through support and encouragement from both leaders and peers. Young people’s actions and activities gradually evolve into being more intrinsically motivated, and less subject to external influence from other people. However, Richard de Charms, in his book, Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior (1968) implies that it is the perception of the individual as to whether they consider themselves to be internally (Origin state), or externally (Pawn state) motivated, and they will react in accordance to however they perceive that they are motivated (p.328). Someone in a perceived Pawn state due to previous experience will expect to be externally controlled even in situations that would afford intrinsic function to be achieved and conversely, someone who perceives an Origin state will disregard evidence of outside government and act as if in autonomy (de Charms p.328). On the SDT model, positive feedback equates to peer approval because we want to belong to a group and connect with other people. Verbal affection and approval are not seen as extrinsic stimulus thus will tend to increase intrinsic motivation.

SDT is based upon an ego, social interaction, the perception of influential basis, and a sense of self and self-responsibility. It places ownership of the mental state, reaction, and motivation directly upon the psyche and says is determined by internal or external influences and by type of feedback and/or re-assurance that is received from peers and leaders. SDT “Is an empirically derived theory of human motivation and personality in social contexts that differentiates motivation in terms of being autonomous and controlled (it) began with experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation” (Deci & Ryan, “Chapter 20 / Self-Determination Theory”, 2011). In stark contrast, Behaviorism promotes the belief that all behavior is a reflex action that is controlled by and learned from the surroundings or environment, it discounts independent mental activity, and puts forth the belief that, “There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals” (McLeod, “Behaviorist Approach”, 2007). “Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion” (McLeod, 2007).

References:

DeCharms, R. (1968). Personal causation; the internal affective determinants of behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Chapter 20 / Self-Determination Theory. In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (Vol. 1&2, pp. 416-437). London: SAGE Publications.

McLeod, S. (2007, January 01). Behaviorist Approach. Retrieved February 02, 2017, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html

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