This research is to identify if there any relationship between sport participation and academic achievement. In additions from thus study also it will show whether sport participation among student may affect their academic or not. The review of literature for this investigation focuses on three primary areas of concern. The research questions are:
Is there any difference in academic performance between students who are participate in sport and student who are not participate in sport.
Is there any difference in term of academic performance between male and female student's athletes.
To examine what are the benefits that students' athletes get by participating in sport
The first area represents the differences of academic performances between student who are participate in sport and student who are not participate in sport, which researcher want to investigate. The second part is to represent is focusing on the differences in academic performance between genders and as well toward on the benefit of participated in sport for academic achievement.
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Comparison between student that participated in sport and student not participated in sport.
As we know, nowadays, a lot of student that involve in sport often make them hard to maintain their result but they can score during the examination (Shuman Michael, 2009). Besides, a lot of student success in their academic are usually active in sport, it will show if there are any differences between student that participated in sport and student that not participated in sport in their academic achievement (Shuman Michael, 2009).
One of the first organizations who are concern to the question of the academic performance of student-athletes was the Carnegie Foundation. In its Twenty-Second Annual Report, published in 1927, the commission gave a detailed review of studies that had been complete about the relationship of athletics to scholastic attainment ( Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1927).
According to sport participation and academic performance; proof from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (2002) gives positive association between sports participation and academic performance. Besides that, based on Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt (2003), studies show that participation in athletic activities is to encourage a wide range of social, physical, and intellectual skills, which leading better in classroom performance. In fact there is fair quantity of proof to support this claim. As noted above, high school athletes on average perform better academically than non-athletes Solt, D.F. (1986).
Moreover, Hindma has found that in the Colleges of Arts, Engineering, and Agriculture, the quarter grade point averages for athletes were higher. The average grade point average for non-athletes was 2.153 and 2.168 for athletes. In following these same students through the next four years, Hindman found that the degree attainment for athletes was better in every college and in total 37.2 percent of the athletes attained degrees compared to only 21.5 percent of non-athletes.
Other than that, Eaton and Smith (1941) used the percentile grade ratings made on the American Council on Education Psychological Examination as an indication of aptitude and compared this with grade point average as an indication of achievement. Athletes were higher than compared with non-athletes.
As been stated above, indicated that students who were involved in sport perform better in academic than those who were not. Besides, there are also possibility that those students who are involved in more sport are generally motivated than those who do not participate in sport.
Furthermore, the majority of studies from the past, show those students involved in sport excel in the classroom. This also can be agreed by Ballantine (1981) showed that there is a positive connection between academic achievement and sport participation. Study by the U.S Department of Education (1997) revealed that students who participate in sport are three times more probable to have a grade point average or better (Mihoces, 1996). From this research show that student involve in sport are higher in the academic achievement than student that not participate in sport.
Moreover, some previous research states that overall, student athletes graduate at higher rates than students in the general population. The most new graduation rates of 60% compared to 58% for the non-athlete population (Division I Athlete Graduation Rates, 2002).
Differences in academic performance in athletes gender
Refer to the past research carry out by Roger Whitley performed a study of North Carolina high school students stated that female athletes higher score in academic result. The students were divide into two groups, They were categorized as higher participant or low participant of sport according to the following rule. A student whose number of years in high school is better than their number of seasons participating in sport categorized as low participant (Stegman, 2000). A student whose number of seasons participating in sport is identical to or greater than their number of years in high school is categorized as high participants. This having a student who tried a sport or two as a freshman placed into the athlete category (Stegman, 2000). According from the past research state as below:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Based on that, Mark Stegman says, "I feel confident arguing that athletic participation does not hurt academic performance and it instills desirable qualities such as physical fitness, goal setting, teamwork, and self-discipline that help in all areas of students' lives (Stegman 2000).
The impact of sport participation on girls' academic orientation was the focus of the number of studies. Feltz and Weiss (1984) found that socioeconomic level and extent of activity involvement were reason contributing to most of the differences between group, in which higher SES levels and higher levels of involvement were analytical of higher ACT scores. SES levels and extent of extracurricular involvement were influential other than students' participation categories on females' academic achievement.
In another study, Synder and Spreitzer (1977) analyzed survey data on participation in sports as related to educational expectations among high school girls. The researcher found a positive relationship between both types of extracurricular participation and educational expectations. This study been showed that , sport for these high school girls may appear to a good result of academic achievement.
Based on African-American male students, and presented mixed findings. Sport participation seems to have a positive effects on their educational aspirations (Braddock, 1980, 1981, ; Hanks, 1979; Picou & Huang, 1982; Wells & Picou, 1980), self-esteem (Braddock,1980, 1981 ; Hanks, 1979), college conscription and graduation (Braddock 1981), competitive orientation (Wells & Picou, 1980), and adult earnings (Picou, McCarter, & Howell, 1985). For this group of students, sport participation had mixed effect on their grades (Braddock, 1981; Wells & Picou, 1980). Based on their investigation indicated that sport participation for these student was positively related to their aspirations to register in college preparatory programs in high school.
Moreover, Marsh (1993) concluded from his study that sport participation may have an effect on academic achievement in that the participation where increase motivation. Hawkins and Mulkey (2005) suggested that sport participation created aspirations for African- American males to seriously consider attending college and act more suitably in school.
For black female high school athletes, the literature presents a different picture. With respect to their participation in sport activities, we see mixed findings on their educational aspirations ( Hanks, 1979; Picou & Huang, 1982), on support to attend college from parents, teachers, and peers (Hanks, 1979; Well & Picou, 1980). Besides, Reith (1989) were analyzed through a survey of a large sample of these studies. The Hispanic high school female students who participated in sports were found to be more likely to score well on achievement tests, to stay in high schools and continue their education in colleges than their non-athletic peers.
Regression result reveal that both male and female student athletes' academic success is to some extent contingent upon the specific nature of their interaction with faculty (Fejgin 1994). The finding also showed that male and female student athletes have minimal differences in their various forms of contact with faculty. The implications of these findings are discussed among student athletes, faculty and advisors in order to improve their roles in establishing meaningful relationships with female and male student athletes inside and outside the classroom (Comeaux, 2005).
The benefit of participated in sport.
There are a lot benefit by participated in sport which indicated that participation in sports increased students' overall interest and commitment to schooling as well as their engagement in more student-teacher contact, more positive attitudes about schooling, more parent-school contact (Crain, 1981; Trent & Braddock, 1992). Moreover, Slavin and Madden (1979) found that sports could facilitate positive racial or ethnic relations as well as positive inter-group attitudes and behaviors among school. Crain (1981) reported similar findings.
Furthermore, benefit of participated in sport could provide extrinsic rewards to students and help them form social bonds and relationships within school, (Crain, 1981; Slavin & Madden, 1979); Trend & Braddock, (1992), Besides, sport participation could create intrinsic values for students, according to Kavussanu and Mc Auley (1995). Based on this study, if highly student participated in sport they were significantly more optimistic and experienced greater self-efficacy than those non-athletes (Crain, 1981; Slavin & Madden, 1979; Trend & Braddock, 1992).
Moreover, sport may provide a physical benefit to the student athletes and they can also facilitate the development of lifetime skills such as interpersonal and time management skills by working with a team of peers and coachers and also properly balancing between school work and practice.
A number of benefits can be reaped from participation sports. Seaton etal (1965), Durojaie (1976), and John and Campbell (2001) note that participation in sports, which enhances physical fitness, contributes to good health. According to Ekperigin and Uti (1982), physical activity leads to good body posture, that is a balanced development of the whole body, the strength and fitness of all muscles. Sports being a physical activity help students to cooperate and work with others under the same rules and regulations towards a common goal while commenting on re-introduction of sports in Afghanistan Ekperigin and Uti (1982).Arnoldy (2005) observes that sports can be used as a vehicle for creating a safe space and an entrance into the public sphere. Besides that, Clarke (1977) contended that sports should gradually lead to a sense of order and self-control which make student able to control their selves in school or in competition.
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Furthermore, according from previous research, Weinberg and Gould (1995) athletes have better personality than non-athletes. In their research, they found out that those who play team sports as compared to non-athletes exhibit less abstract reasoning, more extroversion, more independent and less ego strength while those who play individual sports as compared to non-athletes display higher levels of objectivity, more dependency, less anxiety and less abstract reasoning. But, still other researcher have noted that athletes are more independent, more objective and less anxious than non-athletes (Cox, 1998). This showed that being an athlete's give more benefit than non-athletes.
As been stated above, it showed that sport participation are a lot give benefit to the student that involved in sport. Sport makes them healthier, more independent, gives motivation to them during the class and their training by Seaton etal (1965), Durojaie (1976), and John and Campbell (2001). Besides, sport participation are also make the student more discipline, hard working ethics and more focus in class and in their training by Seaton etal (1965), Durojaie (1976), and John and Campbell (2001). Moreover, sport participation give a good personality of the student where the student will increase their self-confidence, develop positive attitude and able to think professionally by Seaton (1965), Durojaie (1976), and John and Campbell (2001).