Critically discuss the extent to which procrastination negatively impacts well-being.
The condition of procrastination has left after effects on a persons physical and mental health as well as their performance in the work place or maybe in school. It can also negatively impact the professional growth in peoples daily live and the overall well-being as well, yet the impacts and relationships are still to be investigated and researched (Hairston, 2016).
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Research by Grunschel et al, 2016 very much pointed out that procrastination relayed by student was somehow linked to the core components of an individual’s well-being, affective and cognitive well-being also. People as well as students are faced with motivational challenges that tend to affect their lives as well as their studies. However, the study suggested affective well-being based upon the positive and negative emotions and moods that students and people are able to obtain. Although it is also proposed that cognitive well-being can also refer to people’s different views of life or different life domains. Yet, academic procrastination is suggested to be related to the form of low satisfaction in life, which then links to a low satisfaction in studies and academic life (Grunshcel et al, 2016). Overall the study critically assesses procrastination to be a negative impact and correspondence between mental health and the daily satisfaction of life; which tend to pin point and tackle the struggles that these students may have faced during their daily lives be it domestic disturbances or relationships; it can deteriorate the affective and cognitive well-being which, as suggested in the study decreases the ability in motivation to complete task in their lives. This can also be seen in the study from 2010, conducted by Stead, R., which suggests that mental health and procrastination have been tied together with mental health states such as anxiety and depression; as both are positively corresponding with self-report also with behavioural quota of procrastination.
As common as procrastination can be, it may also be seen as severely dysfunctional to a point that concludes in philosophical personal distress with continuing unfavourable consequences. The amount and quality of sleep can affect a persons daytime functioning, as well as their physical and emotional health. Linking sleeping difficulties and procrastination (Gauntly, 2010), whilst also linking it to poorer mental health; it therefore implies that sleep disturbances is one of the many outcomes of procrastination seen in people. Rumination being a centred focus on the symptoms of an individual’s distress relaying their attention on problematic events or situations and also emotions. The underlying justification of the study conducted by Hairston and Shpitalni, 2016 suggested that the affair between sleep disturbances and procrastination is interceded by rumination and negative affect (Hairston, 2016).
Between the relations of active procrastination and passive procrastination; active being those who purposefully post pone task to deal with more immediate tasks at hand and passive being those who leave tasks to the last minute as the pressure of time enables them to complete the task. It is implied by Sirois and Tosti (2012) that procrastination is a tactic that provokes immediate, momentary relief from weighing thought and stressful daily life situations. Although, if the task at hand is now left to be not completed. It can cause more distress itself (Habelrih, E., 2015). Yet this can leave those who procrastinate to now feel overwhelmed, which then affects their physical well-being because of the stress being weighed upon them. This pressure then plays out a major role in condensed psychological well-being, using the means of endorsing self-criticising thoughts and harmful self-judgments (Sirois and Tosti 2012).
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However, those students with a more stable psychological well-being are predicted to perceive their school environment as less intimidating, which then decreases the likelihood of those students procrastinating. Yet, those with a more unhinged psychological well-being are deemed to be more probable to procrastinating. While positive metacognitive which is being “aware of one’s awareness”, are implied to progress and enhance student’s confidence in their academic studies; which now then diminishes procrastination in the students. Although, contrastingly futile metacognitive theories intensify procrastination. The pragmatic discoveries indicated that between the relationships amongst psychological well-being and procrastination are also recurring, as with psychological well-being it involved cognitive processes, growing the chances of procrastination but however, amplified procrastination which at that point lessened psychological well-being (Habelrih, E., 2015).
To conclude, the research studies that were provided criticise procrastination as it does in fact negatively impact well-being and vice versa. It is clear in the findings that be it physical or mental health, it comes hand in hand with procrastination suggesting that either one is the catalyst to the other, be it the same for cognition as well. So, to an extent does procrastination affect well-being in a negative light without it also being an after affect due to a students or individuals unstable psychological well-being; or the implication of being an active procrastinator or a passive procrastinator.
- Grunschel et al., 2016. Effects of using motivational regulation strategies on students’ academic procrastination, academic performance, and well-being. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, pp.162–170.
- Habelrih, E. & Hicks, R., 2015. Psychological Well-Being and Its Relationships with Active and Passive Procrastination. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7(3), pp.25–34.
- Hairston & Shpitalni, 2016. Procrastination is linked with insomnia symptoms: The moderating role of morningness-eveningness. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, pp.50–56.
- J.F. Gaultney, 2010, The prevalence of sleep disorders in college students: Impact on academic performance, Journal of American College Health, 59 (2), pp. 91-97.
- Sirois, F. M., & Tosti, N. (2012). Lost in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, mindfulness and well-being. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 30, pp. 237-248.
- Stead, R., Shanahan, M.J. & Neufeld, R.W.J., 2010. “I’ll go to therapy, eventually”: Procrastination, stress and mental health. Personality And Individual Differences, 49(3), pp.175–180.
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