Memory Storage of Psychological Present and Past Events

3241 words (13 pages) Essay

9th Apr 2018 Psychology Reference this

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Table of Contents (Jump to)

1. Introduction:

2. Stages involved in learning and memory based on the multi-store approach

3. Differences between short term and long term memory

3.1 Short Term Memory:

3.2 Long Term Memory:

4. Functions of memory system in human interactions based on theories of memories:

4.1 Memory Encoding:

4.2 Memory Consolidation:

4.3 Memory Storage:

4.4 Memory Recall/Retrieval:

5. Conclusion

References:

 

1. Introduction:

Memory is known as the encoding, storing, retaining and recalling of the information in the human brain (Fukuda and Vogel, 2010). It is the ability of remembering of the past events, and the process to recall past facts, impressions, skills, experiences, and habits (Basden, 2000). Short-term memory refers as the scratch-pad for recalling of past information. Despite the everyday experiences it likes as long-term memory that lasts short time, and able of storing of unlimited amount of information almost indefinitely. At the time of recalling, neural activity model acts used in generating of the response to definite event, resonating of the brain’s discernment of the real event. Memories are not stored in brains in such a collection of self-sufficient pictures and video clips, as books on library abandons, or even as thinking of collage or a tangram puzzle, because these consists of the different elements storing dissimilar parts to the brain related with the organizations, associations as well as networks. In this context, this assignment is organised into three sections. The first section reveals the stages engaged in learning and memory according to the multi-store approach; the second section works on the differences between short term and long term memory; and the last section discusses the various functions of memory.

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2. Stages involved in learning and memory based on the multi-store approach

In psychology, memory is the procedure of information encoding, storing, and retrieving (Anyang, 2005). Basically, the new English word consists of memory that generated to us which coming from the memories of Anglo France and ultimately from the Latin me moral and memo, meaning “mindful” or “remembering” (Auyang, 2001). The effect or influence of the human behavior in case of past experience is thought of terms of memories.

Encoding is allowed of the information from the external world for reaching of the 5th senses. Those are known as physical and chemical effect. The information of different things must be altered that is put into the encoded process in the 1st step of memories. It is the capability of remembering the past events and the ability to recall experienced facts, impressions, assistances, experiences as well as habits. The 2nd step of the memories’ procedures is the storing (Fukuda and Vogel, 2010). This entails that information is maintained for the future time periods. Lastly, retrieving of the storing information is the 3rd step of the memories. The retrieved information is returned and posted to the sense. Different retrieved information is considered as effective because of the information gathered and other challenges in order to remember and store information. It can be for the demand level of the situation created.

It can clearly be stated that, memory is connected to but distinct from learning, which is the process of acquiring knowledge of the world and modifying subsequent behavior (Laird, 1920). During the learning process, neurons due to the production of the defined past events are changed as there is the inclination for firing in the field of memories. The explanation is as follows, a new language is learnt by studying it, but speaking is done by using memory to retrieve the words that are learned. Childhood is the period from birth to 10 years. One does not remember everything that happened in this childhood, but the important events are stored in the subconscious mind. Childhood is a mixture of joy and sorrows. When a man is sick of the present he seeks relief in the past and fondly recalls the memories of childhood (Michael, 1992). In fact, learning fact is the important issues of the memories because the fact tells us storing and retrieving of the past information the learning is termed as the extension of the memories. Besides this, computer is used in the concept of memories. The storing of different data and information and capacity of this is known as the recalling concept of memories.

3. Differences between short term and long term memory

The memory model tells that, the encoding process, consolidating process, storing process, and retrieving and recalling process are known as the memory process (Don, 1971). Considering these, two types of memories are available there including short term and long term memory. The short term memory and long term memory are the important part of the learning of the memory concept.

3.1 Short Term Memory:

Short term memories are the memories known as the scratch pad (Yates, 1966). These terms are for the recalling past events, experiences, facts for a future short term period. The short term memories are short in term of remembering (James, 2008). The small and little amount of information is retrieved and storing for a shorter period of the life cycles. The short term memories are also known as the temporary memory. A limited and short capacity and ability of the remembering of past information is in the short term memories. It is called as the present reasoning condition and process (Izquierdo, 1998). It holds a smaller amount of information. It is a call up of the past information. In the short term memories, the brain of the human beings can flesh and store and retried for the shorter time. The short term memories are the smallest simple and easy expedient. The short term memories are served as the temporary storing of the past information, events, class, experiences, data’s and past facts (Locke, 1971). The short term memories are also used as the working memories concept of the human being perspective. The short term memories are explained in the law of millers. The short term memories are the stage of the storing, repetition, and the reinforcing of the human remembering of the events. The classification of the definition of the short term memories is the three parts. These three parts of the human short term memories are given bellow:

  1. Duration of the keeping events in mind: 0- 12 seconds in the time scale
  2. Capacity of the items or events of storing information: 9 +/- 4 events or items or data
  3. The encoding process of the short term memories: it is the auditor in terms
  4. The important less things are stored (Micheal.1990).

In the short term memories, the small capacity of the events and information is required. The short term memories are paying less importance and attention on the remembering of the events. In the short term memories, less interference is given on focusing point.

3.2 Long Term Memory:

The long term memory refers to the storing of the past experiences, events, facts, data and information for an unlimited time scale of the human life cycles (James, 2008). The events and information and experiences are gathered and stored and retrieved in the latter period. In the long term memories the capacity of the storage are the unlimited in terms. The long term memories do not overlap from the mind immediately but overlap for the latter period of the time scale of the human life. The long term memories are also known as the lasted memory cycles (Bartlett, 1932). An unlimited and long and large capacity and ability of the remembering of past information included in the long term memories. It is called as the future reasoning condition and process. It holds a larger amount of information. It is not known as calls up of the past information but known as the expressing of the past information. The physical changes are happened in case of the remembering of the past events and information. In the long term memories the brain of the human beings cannot flesh and but the position and condition are required as storing and retrieving for the long time period. The long term memories are the largest difficult and not easy expedient. The long term memories are served as the latest and lasting storing of the past information, events, class, experiences, data’s and past facts. The long term memories are also used as the working memories concept of the human being perspective. The long term memories are the stage of the storing, repetition, and the reinforcing of the human remembering of the events (Izquierdo, 1998). The classification of the definition of the long term memories is the three parts. These three parts of the human short term memories are given bellow:

  1. Duration of the keeping events in mind: unlimited time scale
  2. Capacity of the items or events of storing information: unlimited events or items or data
  3. The encoding process of the long term memories: it is the auditor in terms
  4. The important and essential things are stored
  5. It is visual and auditor
  6. It is semantic

For understanding of the short term memory and long term memory difference the critical strengths of evaluation are required for the perspective (James, 2008). The short term memory is weakened and the long term memory is durable (Kandel, 2009). The short term moor encoding in short term in nature and duration and capacity also refers to the differences.

4. Functions of memory system in human interactions based on theories of memories:

Different theories are used for the understandings of the functions of the memory systems. Those theories are based on the neurology and physiology. The memory function is mainly based on the encoding of the past events, information and storing and recalling and retrieving of the past events. There are different functions of the memory systems those are focused on the physiological theories and neurology theories (Ayer, 1956). These functions of memory systems are given bellow:

  1. Encoding of the Memory
  2. Consolidation of the Memory
  3. Storing of the Memory
  4. Retrieving / recalling of the past events or memories

4.1 Memory Encoding:

The sense of the perception of the event of bio logical at the starting level is known as the encoding of the memory. For encoding of the process events the attention is required. The memorable events are required for the encoding of the memories. Memorable events are the main cause of the following three issues:

  1. the people firing again and again,
  2. making intension of the past experiences and
  3. the like hood increment of the desired event (Ayer, 1956)

Those are included in the memories of encoding of the events. Hippocampus is an important part of the encoding of the events. The inputs are analyzed because of the hippocampus. The emotions are also included in the encoding function of the memories. The emotion increases and extends the attention of the events to the people. The encoding process is also known as the walking through of the past experiences, events, information and data (Weldon, 2001). It creates the long term memories systems. The event processing causes to the real sensation of the events. The encoding refers to the poor remembering of the events. It the imaginer level of the events.

4.2 Memory Consolidation:

Consolidation of the events is the important and discussed function of the memories systems (Woozley, 1949). After the encoding stage known as the first or initial accusation of the events, the memories are needed to make stable to the events in the memories of the people. So the process of the stabilization of the memories is known as the memories consolidation. The consolidation process is considered as the part or element of the encoding of the events or the storing of the past experiences, events and information (Woozley, 1949). It is a mental processing unit of the memories systems. The consolidation of the memories is done into the different two types of the activities. Those are the following activities:

  1. Consolidation of synaptic of the memories
  2. Consolidation of the systems of the memories

The synaptic consolidation process starts with finishing of the encoding or learning after first few hours. On the other hand, the systems consolidation process includes the hippocampus dependent memories (Laird, 1920). It is the process of memories systems to become self-sufficient and lasting of the remembered for the future period of the events keeping in mind. The consolidation helps the memories increasing of the strength for remembering of the events and larger transmutation of the events and information.

4.3 Memory Storage:

Storage of the events in the brain is the main issue point of the memories systems. The retention of the information or retrieving of the past events is the definition of the storage of the events (Wood and Byatt 2008). The storing function is the defined process of the human memories function. It is the function mainly used in the both of the stable long term memories, short term memories or sensor memories. Performing better is termed useful in the storing of the memories. It is the function retained in the long term memories systems of the functions of the memories. The events occurred in the past and happened but this function indicates the recording, storing of the events and kept in the memories used in the later period.

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4.4 Memory Recall/Retrieval:

The last step of the memories functions is the recalling and retrieving of the memory of events (Audi, 1998). The reassessment of the information of past and past events and past experiences and past facts are included in the function of the recalling or retrieving of the past events and experiences. Reconstruction of the information is termed as the retrieving of the past events (Kandel, 2009). Activation of the neurons is included in the retrieval function. In the retrieval process activation of the network and strength are required for the recalling of the memories. Neural network recognition is part of the recalling function of the memories systems.

5. Conclusion

From the above analysis, it can be said that, memory is a crucial part of a human body. Every parts of the human body has its own definite and well-structured task that the parts perform smoothly. Like the other parts, memory has its own functions and these functions are storing information, recalling, past incidents and day to day practices. On the other hand, memeroy is quite related but distinctive to learning in many ways. It is also evident that, learning is helpful for the performance of the functions of the memory. There are two types of memories inlcuding short-term memory and long-term memory. The function of short memory is to remember incidents, facts, past things and so on for a very short period. After that the whole incident has been deleted automatically. Whereas, the long-term memory is opposite of the short-term memory. The function of this very part is to remember things for a long term period. This can be done either consciously by repeating the task again and again or by subconsciously that does not need to remember forcefully. To understand the functions of the memories several doctrines and theroies are used. According to the theories, the functions of memory are encoding, consolidation, storing and recalling. Encoding of the memory means the feelings of the perception of the event of biological at the starting level. After the encoding of the memories comes the function of consolidation. In this process the events are stabilized. The retention of the memory is another function. In this function, the events are stored for future in case of any need. The last and the most important one is recalling. This function reminds the person of about something that has been stored earlier. Overall, it is for sure that, storage is more or less passive source of retaining information from the brain in both short term and logn term memory.

References:

Ayer, A.J. (1956), The Problem of Knowledge, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Auyang, S. (2001), Mind in Everyday Life and Cognitive Science, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Basden, H., Basden, R.and Sean, H. (2000), Applied Cognitive Psychology, Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Bartlett, C. (1932), A study in experimental and social psychology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Don, L. (1971), Memory, London: Macmillan.

Fukuda, K. and Vogel, E. (2010), Visual short term memory serves as a gateway to long term memory. Journal of Vision10 (7), pp.730-730

Izquierdo, I. (1998). Short- and long-term memory,Behavioral Pharmacology, 9(1), p.S46.

Jarrod, L. (2011). Long-term memory supports the retention, preservation, and prioritization of short-term memory. Front. Hum. Neurosis. 5.

John, L. (1920), A Study in Realism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kandel, E. (2009). The Long and Short of Long Term Memory. GBM Annual Spring meeting Mosbach 2009 (Spring).

Kwint, Marius (1999), Material Memories, Oxford: Berg.

Mengistu, A. (2007), The Language of Memory in a Cross linguistic Perspective, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Michael, L. (1992), Symmetry, Causality, Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Robert, A. (1998), Epistemology, London: Routledge.

Woozley, A.D. (1949), Theory of Knowledge: An Introduction, London: Hutchinson.

Wood, H.H. and Byatt, A.S. (2008), Memory: An Anthology, London: Chatto and Windus.

Yates, A. and Frances, B. (1966), The Art of Memory, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Table of Contents (Jump to)

1. Introduction:

2. Stages involved in learning and memory based on the multi-store approach

3. Differences between short term and long term memory

3.1 Short Term Memory:

3.2 Long Term Memory:

4. Functions of memory system in human interactions based on theories of memories:

4.1 Memory Encoding:

4.2 Memory Consolidation:

4.3 Memory Storage:

4.4 Memory Recall/Retrieval:

5. Conclusion

References:

 

1. Introduction:

Memory is known as the encoding, storing, retaining and recalling of the information in the human brain (Fukuda and Vogel, 2010). It is the ability of remembering of the past events, and the process to recall past facts, impressions, skills, experiences, and habits (Basden, 2000). Short-term memory refers as the scratch-pad for recalling of past information. Despite the everyday experiences it likes as long-term memory that lasts short time, and able of storing of unlimited amount of information almost indefinitely. At the time of recalling, neural activity model acts used in generating of the response to definite event, resonating of the brain’s discernment of the real event. Memories are not stored in brains in such a collection of self-sufficient pictures and video clips, as books on library abandons, or even as thinking of collage or a tangram puzzle, because these consists of the different elements storing dissimilar parts to the brain related with the organizations, associations as well as networks. In this context, this assignment is organised into three sections. The first section reveals the stages engaged in learning and memory according to the multi-store approach; the second section works on the differences between short term and long term memory; and the last section discusses the various functions of memory.

2. Stages involved in learning and memory based on the multi-store approach

In psychology, memory is the procedure of information encoding, storing, and retrieving (Anyang, 2005). Basically, the new English word consists of memory that generated to us which coming from the memories of Anglo France and ultimately from the Latin me moral and memo, meaning “mindful” or “remembering” (Auyang, 2001). The effect or influence of the human behavior in case of past experience is thought of terms of memories.

Encoding is allowed of the information from the external world for reaching of the 5th senses. Those are known as physical and chemical effect. The information of different things must be altered that is put into the encoded process in the 1st step of memories. It is the capability of remembering the past events and the ability to recall experienced facts, impressions, assistances, experiences as well as habits. The 2nd step of the memories’ procedures is the storing (Fukuda and Vogel, 2010). This entails that information is maintained for the future time periods. Lastly, retrieving of the storing information is the 3rd step of the memories. The retrieved information is returned and posted to the sense. Different retrieved information is considered as effective because of the information gathered and other challenges in order to remember and store information. It can be for the demand level of the situation created.

It can clearly be stated that, memory is connected to but distinct from learning, which is the process of acquiring knowledge of the world and modifying subsequent behavior (Laird, 1920). During the learning process, neurons due to the production of the defined past events are changed as there is the inclination for firing in the field of memories. The explanation is as follows, a new language is learnt by studying it, but speaking is done by using memory to retrieve the words that are learned. Childhood is the period from birth to 10 years. One does not remember everything that happened in this childhood, but the important events are stored in the subconscious mind. Childhood is a mixture of joy and sorrows. When a man is sick of the present he seeks relief in the past and fondly recalls the memories of childhood (Michael, 1992). In fact, learning fact is the important issues of the memories because the fact tells us storing and retrieving of the past information the learning is termed as the extension of the memories. Besides this, computer is used in the concept of memories. The storing of different data and information and capacity of this is known as the recalling concept of memories.

3. Differences between short term and long term memory

The memory model tells that, the encoding process, consolidating process, storing process, and retrieving and recalling process are known as the memory process (Don, 1971). Considering these, two types of memories are available there including short term and long term memory. The short term memory and long term memory are the important part of the learning of the memory concept.

3.1 Short Term Memory:

Short term memories are the memories known as the scratch pad (Yates, 1966). These terms are for the recalling past events, experiences, facts for a future short term period. The short term memories are short in term of remembering (James, 2008). The small and little amount of information is retrieved and storing for a shorter period of the life cycles. The short term memories are also known as the temporary memory. A limited and short capacity and ability of the remembering of past information is in the short term memories. It is called as the present reasoning condition and process (Izquierdo, 1998). It holds a smaller amount of information. It is a call up of the past information. In the short term memories, the brain of the human beings can flesh and store and retried for the shorter time. The short term memories are the smallest simple and easy expedient. The short term memories are served as the temporary storing of the past information, events, class, experiences, data’s and past facts (Locke, 1971). The short term memories are also used as the working memories concept of the human being perspective. The short term memories are explained in the law of millers. The short term memories are the stage of the storing, repetition, and the reinforcing of the human remembering of the events. The classification of the definition of the short term memories is the three parts. These three parts of the human short term memories are given bellow:

  1. Duration of the keeping events in mind: 0- 12 seconds in the time scale
  2. Capacity of the items or events of storing information: 9 +/- 4 events or items or data
  3. The encoding process of the short term memories: it is the auditor in terms
  4. The important less things are stored (Micheal.1990).

In the short term memories, the small capacity of the events and information is required. The short term memories are paying less importance and attention on the remembering of the events. In the short term memories, less interference is given on focusing point.

3.2 Long Term Memory:

The long term memory refers to the storing of the past experiences, events, facts, data and information for an unlimited time scale of the human life cycles (James, 2008). The events and information and experiences are gathered and stored and retrieved in the latter period. In the long term memories the capacity of the storage are the unlimited in terms. The long term memories do not overlap from the mind immediately but overlap for the latter period of the time scale of the human life. The long term memories are also known as the lasted memory cycles (Bartlett, 1932). An unlimited and long and large capacity and ability of the remembering of past information included in the long term memories. It is called as the future reasoning condition and process. It holds a larger amount of information. It is not known as calls up of the past information but known as the expressing of the past information. The physical changes are happened in case of the remembering of the past events and information. In the long term memories the brain of the human beings cannot flesh and but the position and condition are required as storing and retrieving for the long time period. The long term memories are the largest difficult and not easy expedient. The long term memories are served as the latest and lasting storing of the past information, events, class, experiences, data’s and past facts. The long term memories are also used as the working memories concept of the human being perspective. The long term memories are the stage of the storing, repetition, and the reinforcing of the human remembering of the events (Izquierdo, 1998). The classification of the definition of the long term memories is the three parts. These three parts of the human short term memories are given bellow:

  1. Duration of the keeping events in mind: unlimited time scale
  2. Capacity of the items or events of storing information: unlimited events or items or data
  3. The encoding process of the long term memories: it is the auditor in terms
  4. The important and essential things are stored
  5. It is visual and auditor
  6. It is semantic

For understanding of the short term memory and long term memory difference the critical strengths of evaluation are required for the perspective (James, 2008). The short term memory is weakened and the long term memory is durable (Kandel, 2009). The short term moor encoding in short term in nature and duration and capacity also refers to the differences.

4. Functions of memory system in human interactions based on theories of memories:

Different theories are used for the understandings of the functions of the memory systems. Those theories are based on the neurology and physiology. The memory function is mainly based on the encoding of the past events, information and storing and recalling and retrieving of the past events. There are different functions of the memory systems those are focused on the physiological theories and neurology theories (Ayer, 1956). These functions of memory systems are given bellow:

  1. Encoding of the Memory
  2. Consolidation of the Memory
  3. Storing of the Memory
  4. Retrieving / recalling of the past events or memories

4.1 Memory Encoding:

The sense of the perception of the event of bio logical at the starting level is known as the encoding of the memory. For encoding of the process events the attention is required. The memorable events are required for the encoding of the memories. Memorable events are the main cause of the following three issues:

  1. the people firing again and again,
  2. making intension of the past experiences and
  3. the like hood increment of the desired event (Ayer, 1956)

Those are included in the memories of encoding of the events. Hippocampus is an important part of the encoding of the events. The inputs are analyzed because of the hippocampus. The emotions are also included in the encoding function of the memories. The emotion increases and extends the attention of the events to the people. The encoding process is also known as the walking through of the past experiences, events, information and data (Weldon, 2001). It creates the long term memories systems. The event processing causes to the real sensation of the events. The encoding refers to the poor remembering of the events. It the imaginer level of the events.

4.2 Memory Consolidation:

Consolidation of the events is the important and discussed function of the memories systems (Woozley, 1949). After the encoding stage known as the first or initial accusation of the events, the memories are needed to make stable to the events in the memories of the people. So the process of the stabilization of the memories is known as the memories consolidation. The consolidation process is considered as the part or element of the encoding of the events or the storing of the past experiences, events and information (Woozley, 1949). It is a mental processing unit of the memories systems. The consolidation of the memories is done into the different two types of the activities. Those are the following activities:

  1. Consolidation of synaptic of the memories
  2. Consolidation of the systems of the memories

The synaptic consolidation process starts with finishing of the encoding or learning after first few hours. On the other hand, the systems consolidation process includes the hippocampus dependent memories (Laird, 1920). It is the process of memories systems to become self-sufficient and lasting of the remembered for the future period of the events keeping in mind. The consolidation helps the memories increasing of the strength for remembering of the events and larger transmutation of the events and information.

4.3 Memory Storage:

Storage of the events in the brain is the main issue point of the memories systems. The retention of the information or retrieving of the past events is the definition of the storage of the events (Wood and Byatt 2008). The storing function is the defined process of the human memories function. It is the function mainly used in the both of the stable long term memories, short term memories or sensor memories. Performing better is termed useful in the storing of the memories. It is the function retained in the long term memories systems of the functions of the memories. The events occurred in the past and happened but this function indicates the recording, storing of the events and kept in the memories used in the later period.

4.4 Memory Recall/Retrieval:

The last step of the memories functions is the recalling and retrieving of the memory of events (Audi, 1998). The reassessment of the information of past and past events and past experiences and past facts are included in the function of the recalling or retrieving of the past events and experiences. Reconstruction of the information is termed as the retrieving of the past events (Kandel, 2009). Activation of the neurons is included in the retrieval function. In the retrieval process activation of the network and strength are required for the recalling of the memories. Neural network recognition is part of the recalling function of the memories systems.

5. Conclusion

From the above analysis, it can be said that, memory is a crucial part of a human body. Every parts of the human body has its own definite and well-structured task that the parts perform smoothly. Like the other parts, memory has its own functions and these functions are storing information, recalling, past incidents and day to day practices. On the other hand, memeroy is quite related but distinctive to learning in many ways. It is also evident that, learning is helpful for the performance of the functions of the memory. There are two types of memories inlcuding short-term memory and long-term memory. The function of short memory is to remember incidents, facts, past things and so on for a very short period. After that the whole incident has been deleted automatically. Whereas, the long-term memory is opposite of the short-term memory. The function of this very part is to remember things for a long term period. This can be done either consciously by repeating the task again and again or by subconsciously that does not need to remember forcefully. To understand the functions of the memories several doctrines and theroies are used. According to the theories, the functions of memory are encoding, consolidation, storing and recalling. Encoding of the memory means the feelings of the perception of the event of biological at the starting level. After the encoding of the memories comes the function of consolidation. In this process the events are stabilized. The retention of the memory is another function. In this function, the events are stored for future in case of any need. The last and the most important one is recalling. This function reminds the person of about something that has been stored earlier. Overall, it is for sure that, storage is more or less passive source of retaining information from the brain in both short term and logn term memory.

References:

Ayer, A.J. (1956), The Problem of Knowledge, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Auyang, S. (2001), Mind in Everyday Life and Cognitive Science, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Basden, H., Basden, R.and Sean, H. (2000), Applied Cognitive Psychology, Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Bartlett, C. (1932), A study in experimental and social psychology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Don, L. (1971), Memory, London: Macmillan.

Fukuda, K. and Vogel, E. (2010), Visual short term memory serves as a gateway to long term memory. Journal of Vision10 (7), pp.730-730

Izquierdo, I. (1998). Short- and long-term memory,Behavioral Pharmacology, 9(1), p.S46.

Jarrod, L. (2011). Long-term memory supports the retention, preservation, and prioritization of short-term memory. Front. Hum. Neurosis. 5.

John, L. (1920), A Study in Realism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kandel, E. (2009). The Long and Short of Long Term Memory. GBM Annual Spring meeting Mosbach 2009 (Spring).

Kwint, Marius (1999), Material Memories, Oxford: Berg.

Mengistu, A. (2007), The Language of Memory in a Cross linguistic Perspective, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Michael, L. (1992), Symmetry, Causality, Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Robert, A. (1998), Epistemology, London: Routledge.

Woozley, A.D. (1949), Theory of Knowledge: An Introduction, London: Hutchinson.

Wood, H.H. and Byatt, A.S. (2008), Memory: An Anthology, London: Chatto and Windus.

Yates, A. and Frances, B. (1966), The Art of Memory, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

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