Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs Theory

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18th May 2017 Psychology Reference this

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Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.

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Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that “the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy.” Maslow also studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population.

The lower four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these “deficiency needs” are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. In other words, the hierarchy level of need moves upward as soon as the previous level of need is satisfied.

1. Self-actualization

“What a man can be, he must be.” This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level must be concerned about the potential of what can happen and aware of needs Maslow described this as the desire to become more and more what one is something that can be This is a broad definition to yourself actualization. But when applied to specific individuals must be. Such person may have the desire to be a good parent is right in the other may be more athletically and in the paintings displayed in the image or artifact As mentioned before, to reach. Understand clearly the level of need must first not only meet the needs previously physiological safety love and respect, but underlying is below an explanation of Maslow needs different as people self – actualized and Personality Traits.

Maslow also states that even though these are examples of how the quest for knowledge is separate from basic needs he warns that these “two hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated” (Maslow 97). This means that these levels of need, as well as the next and highest level, are not strict, separate levels but closely related to others, and this is possibly the reason that these two levels of need are left out of most textbooks.

2. Esteem

All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also known to be present in that respect the needs of regular people are recognized and valued by others. Assembly itself must be accepted and activities or activities that give the feeling of people who feel accepted and encouraged self-worth, whether as a career or hobby. Balance on this level can cause low self-esteem or inferiority complex People must respect the low self-esteem from others they may seek fame or honor, which depends on others again. However, please note that many people with low self-esteem will not improve the view of myself, just to gain recognition and respect and honor outside But to accept themselves within Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Most people require a strong self esteem and self-esteem and respect Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. Less than one must respect others’ required to accept the status, reputation and interests of Fame. One needs high self esteem manual, power, skill, confidence and self independence and freedom. After the number one higher than it can relax more about the award through experience and the barriers these requirements can lead to weak, the weak and helpless

3. Love and belonging

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layers of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. This aspect of Maslow’s hierarchy involves emotionally based relationships in general, such as:

Friendship

Intimacy

Family

Human need to feel ownership and acceptance, whether from the social group size, such as such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants).they must love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) with others without these elements, many are susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression is often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

4. Safety needs

Satisfaction with the physical security needs of each person is important and dominant behavior. All these requirements have to do with people yearning for global regulation predict that perception is incorrect and inconsistent under the control of familiar and often rare unfamiliar In the world of work requires security manifest themselves in things like love are not satisfied job security to prevent one person from the power of a savings account, insurance policy, the appropriate disability accommodation and dislikes, Safety and Security needs include:

Personal security

Financial security

Health and well-being

Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

5. Physiological needs

Most of the obvious physiological needs – they are real needs for human survival. If these requirements are not found (exception of clothing, shelter, and sexual activity), the human body cannot continue physiological needs include:

Breathing, Food, Homeostasis, Sex

Air, water and food, are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans Clothing and shelter for the necessary protection from the elements. The severity of the sexual instinct of the human form is more competitive than the sex birth rate sufficient to maintain survival of the species.

Psychologist Douglas Kenrick of Arizona State University has several problems with Maslow’s pyramid. One of them is that needs, once they are met, do not simply disappear. Rather, certain environmental cues can make them come back. Thus, Kenrick et al. created a new pyramid in which the needs overlap one another and coexist, instead of completely replacing each other. The bottom four levels of this pyramid are highly compatible with Maslow’s, but their top three are mate acquisition, mate retention and parenting. Made in this way, human needs are considered from the perspective of evolutionary psychology.

Hawthorne theory

SDT (Self-Determination Theory) is centric belief that humans are the features plus accrued that repeatedly show the organization and commitment in life that trigger theory trend growth naturally people also need psychological by nature as the basis for self-motivation and personality and integration.

Self Determination theory identifies three innate needs that, if satisfied, allow optimal function and growth:

Competence – (Harter 1978), White 1963

Relatedness (Baumeister and Leary 1995

Autonomy (deCharms 1968, Deci 1975

These needs are seen as universal necessities that are innate not learned and seen in humanity across time, gender and culture (Chirkov, Ryan, Kim and Kaplan, 2003

Deci and Vansteenkiste (2003) claim that there are three essential elements of the theory:

Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drives and emotions)

Humans have inherent tendency toward growth development and integrated functioning

Optimal development and actions are inherent in humans but they don’t happen automatically

If this happens there are positive consequence (e.g. well being and growth) but if not, there are negative consequences. So SDT (Self-Determination Theory) emphasizes humans’ natural growth toward positive motivation; however this is thwarted if their basic needs are not fulfilled

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Needs

The theories of the three psychological needs are satisfied the basic need to promote health and well being needs of these can be used widely. Some people may be preferable to others and will sometimes show a different time, culture or experience.

Competence

Refers to being effective in dealing with the environment a person finds themselves in (White, 1959) Relatedness Is the universal want to interact, be connected to and experience caring for others – (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) Autonomy. Is the universal urge to be causal agents of our own life and act in harmony with our integrated self, However Deci and Vansteenkiste (2004) note this doesn’t mean to be independent of others.

Motivations

Self Determination theory claims to give a different approach to motivation, considering what motivates a person at any given time as opposed to seeing motivation as a unitary concept. SDT (Self-Determination Theory) makes distinctions between different types of motivation and the consequences of them.

Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation is the natural, inherent drive to seek out challenges and new possibilities that SDT (Self-Determination Theory) associated with cognitive and social development.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985 is a sub theory of SDT(Self-Determination Theory) that specifies factors explaining intrinsic motivation and variability with it and looks at how social and environmental factors helped or hinder intrinsic motivations. CET (Cognitive Evaluation Theory) focuses on the needs of competence and autonomy.

Claiming social context, such as activity suggestions to work or to award the sense of ability and motivation to enhance internal, Deci (1975) found positive feedback enhanced intrinsic motivations and negative feedback diminished it. Vallerand and Reid (1984) went further and found that these effects were being mediated by perceived control.

Autonomy however must accompany competence in order for people to see their behaviors as self determined by intrinsic motivation. For this to happen there must be immediate contextual support for either needs or inner resources based on prior development support for both needs (Reeve, 1996)

CET (Cognitive Evaluation Theory) and intrinsic motivation is also linked to relatedness through the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation will flourish if linked with a sense of security and relatedness. Grolnick and Ryan (1989) found lower intrinsic motivation in children who believed their teachers to be uncaring or cold and so not fulfilling their relatedness needs.

Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation comes from external sources. Deci and Ryan (1985) developed Organism Integration Theory (OIT), as sub-theory of SDT, to explain the different ways in which extrinsically motivated behavior is regulated.

OIT (Organism Integration Theory) details the different forms of extrinsic motivation and the contexts in which they come about. It is the context of such motivation that concerns the SDT theory as these contexts affect whether the motivations are internalized and so integrated into the sense of self.

OIT describes four different types of extrinsic motivations that often vary in terms of their relative autonomy:

Externally regulated behaviour: Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. Such actions can be seen to have an externally perceived locus of control (deCharms, 1968)

Interjected Regulation of behavior: describes taking on regulations to behavior but not fully accepting said regulations as your own. Deci and Ryan (1995) claim such behavior normally represents regulation by contingent self-esteem, citing ego involvement as a classic form of introjections (Deci and Ryan, 2000). This is the kind of behavior where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self worth. While this is internally driven Deci and Ryan say interjected behavior is on an externally perceived locus of control because they aren’t perceived as part of self.

Regulation through identification: Is a more autonomy driven form of extrinsic motivation. If involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important.

Integrated Regulation: Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation. Occurring when regulations are fully assimilated with self so they are included in persons self evaluations and beliefs on personal needs. Because of this integrated motivations share qualities with intrinsic motivation, but are still classified as extrinsic because the goals that are trying to be achieved are for reasons extrinsic to the self, rather than the inherent enjoyment or interest in the task.

Extrinsically motivated behaviors can be integrated into self. OIT(Organism Integration Theory) proposes internalization is more likely to occur when there is a sense of relatedness.

Ryan, Stiller and Lynch (1994) found children will internalize school’s extrinsic regulations when they felt secure and cared for by parents and teachers.

Internalization of extrinsic motivation is also linked to competence. OIT (Organism Integration Theory) suggests that feelings of competence in activities should facilitate internalization of said actions. (Vallerand, 1997)

Autonomy is particularly important when its regulations are trying to be integrated into a person’s sense of self. If the context allows third parties to include regulation must feel the power, and independence with respect. They must also understand in terms of their other goals the regulation in order for a sense of autonomy to be facilitated. (Kuhl and Fuhrmann, 1998) This was supported by Deci, Eghrari, Patrick and Leone (1994) who found in laboratory settings if person was given a meaningful reason for uninteresting behavior along with support for their sense of autonomy and relatedness they internalized and integrated their behavior.

Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.

Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that “the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy.” Maslow also studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population.

The lower four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these “deficiency needs” are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. In other words, the hierarchy level of need moves upward as soon as the previous level of need is satisfied.

1. Self-actualization

“What a man can be, he must be.” This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level must be concerned about the potential of what can happen and aware of needs Maslow described this as the desire to become more and more what one is something that can be This is a broad definition to yourself actualization. But when applied to specific individuals must be. Such person may have the desire to be a good parent is right in the other may be more athletically and in the paintings displayed in the image or artifact As mentioned before, to reach. Understand clearly the level of need must first not only meet the needs previously physiological safety love and respect, but underlying is below an explanation of Maslow needs different as people self – actualized and Personality Traits.

Maslow also states that even though these are examples of how the quest for knowledge is separate from basic needs he warns that these “two hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated” (Maslow 97). This means that these levels of need, as well as the next and highest level, are not strict, separate levels but closely related to others, and this is possibly the reason that these two levels of need are left out of most textbooks.

2. Esteem

All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also known to be present in that respect the needs of regular people are recognized and valued by others. Assembly itself must be accepted and activities or activities that give the feeling of people who feel accepted and encouraged self-worth, whether as a career or hobby. Balance on this level can cause low self-esteem or inferiority complex People must respect the low self-esteem from others they may seek fame or honor, which depends on others again. However, please note that many people with low self-esteem will not improve the view of myself, just to gain recognition and respect and honor outside But to accept themselves within Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Most people require a strong self esteem and self-esteem and respect Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. Less than one must respect others’ required to accept the status, reputation and interests of Fame. One needs high self esteem manual, power, skill, confidence and self independence and freedom. After the number one higher than it can relax more about the award through experience and the barriers these requirements can lead to weak, the weak and helpless

3. Love and belonging

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layers of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. This aspect of Maslow’s hierarchy involves emotionally based relationships in general, such as:

Friendship

Intimacy

Family

Human need to feel ownership and acceptance, whether from the social group size, such as such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants).they must love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) with others without these elements, many are susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression is often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

4. Safety needs

Satisfaction with the physical security needs of each person is important and dominant behavior. All these requirements have to do with people yearning for global regulation predict that perception is incorrect and inconsistent under the control of familiar and often rare unfamiliar In the world of work requires security manifest themselves in things like love are not satisfied job security to prevent one person from the power of a savings account, insurance policy, the appropriate disability accommodation and dislikes, Safety and Security needs include:

Personal security

Financial security

Health and well-being

Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

5. Physiological needs

Most of the obvious physiological needs – they are real needs for human survival. If these requirements are not found (exception of clothing, shelter, and sexual activity), the human body cannot continue physiological needs include:

Breathing, Food, Homeostasis, Sex

Air, water and food, are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans Clothing and shelter for the necessary protection from the elements. The severity of the sexual instinct of the human form is more competitive than the sex birth rate sufficient to maintain survival of the species.

Psychologist Douglas Kenrick of Arizona State University has several problems with Maslow’s pyramid. One of them is that needs, once they are met, do not simply disappear. Rather, certain environmental cues can make them come back. Thus, Kenrick et al. created a new pyramid in which the needs overlap one another and coexist, instead of completely replacing each other. The bottom four levels of this pyramid are highly compatible with Maslow’s, but their top three are mate acquisition, mate retention and parenting. Made in this way, human needs are considered from the perspective of evolutionary psychology.

Hawthorne theory

SDT (Self-Determination Theory) is centric belief that humans are the features plus accrued that repeatedly show the organization and commitment in life that trigger theory trend growth naturally people also need psychological by nature as the basis for self-motivation and personality and integration.

Self Determination theory identifies three innate needs that, if satisfied, allow optimal function and growth:

Competence – (Harter 1978), White 1963

Relatedness (Baumeister and Leary 1995

Autonomy (deCharms 1968, Deci 1975

These needs are seen as universal necessities that are innate not learned and seen in humanity across time, gender and culture (Chirkov, Ryan, Kim and Kaplan, 2003

Deci and Vansteenkiste (2003) claim that there are three essential elements of the theory:

Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drives and emotions)

Humans have inherent tendency toward growth development and integrated functioning

Optimal development and actions are inherent in humans but they don’t happen automatically

If this happens there are positive consequence (e.g. well being and growth) but if not, there are negative consequences. So SDT (Self-Determination Theory) emphasizes humans’ natural growth toward positive motivation; however this is thwarted if their basic needs are not fulfilled

Needs

The theories of the three psychological needs are satisfied the basic need to promote health and well being needs of these can be used widely. Some people may be preferable to others and will sometimes show a different time, culture or experience.

Competence

Refers to being effective in dealing with the environment a person finds themselves in (White, 1959) Relatedness Is the universal want to interact, be connected to and experience caring for others – (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) Autonomy. Is the universal urge to be causal agents of our own life and act in harmony with our integrated self, However Deci and Vansteenkiste (2004) note this doesn’t mean to be independent of others.

Motivations

Self Determination theory claims to give a different approach to motivation, considering what motivates a person at any given time as opposed to seeing motivation as a unitary concept. SDT (Self-Determination Theory) makes distinctions between different types of motivation and the consequences of them.

Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation is the natural, inherent drive to seek out challenges and new possibilities that SDT (Self-Determination Theory) associated with cognitive and social development.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985 is a sub theory of SDT(Self-Determination Theory) that specifies factors explaining intrinsic motivation and variability with it and looks at how social and environmental factors helped or hinder intrinsic motivations. CET (Cognitive Evaluation Theory) focuses on the needs of competence and autonomy.

Claiming social context, such as activity suggestions to work or to award the sense of ability and motivation to enhance internal, Deci (1975) found positive feedback enhanced intrinsic motivations and negative feedback diminished it. Vallerand and Reid (1984) went further and found that these effects were being mediated by perceived control.

Autonomy however must accompany competence in order for people to see their behaviors as self determined by intrinsic motivation. For this to happen there must be immediate contextual support for either needs or inner resources based on prior development support for both needs (Reeve, 1996)

CET (Cognitive Evaluation Theory) and intrinsic motivation is also linked to relatedness through the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation will flourish if linked with a sense of security and relatedness. Grolnick and Ryan (1989) found lower intrinsic motivation in children who believed their teachers to be uncaring or cold and so not fulfilling their relatedness needs.

Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation comes from external sources. Deci and Ryan (1985) developed Organism Integration Theory (OIT), as sub-theory of SDT, to explain the different ways in which extrinsically motivated behavior is regulated.

OIT (Organism Integration Theory) details the different forms of extrinsic motivation and the contexts in which they come about. It is the context of such motivation that concerns the SDT theory as these contexts affect whether the motivations are internalized and so integrated into the sense of self.

OIT describes four different types of extrinsic motivations that often vary in terms of their relative autonomy:

Externally regulated behaviour: Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. Such actions can be seen to have an externally perceived locus of control (deCharms, 1968)

Interjected Regulation of behavior: describes taking on regulations to behavior but not fully accepting said regulations as your own. Deci and Ryan (1995) claim such behavior normally represents regulation by contingent self-esteem, citing ego involvement as a classic form of introjections (Deci and Ryan, 2000). This is the kind of behavior where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self worth. While this is internally driven Deci and Ryan say interjected behavior is on an externally perceived locus of control because they aren’t perceived as part of self.

Regulation through identification: Is a more autonomy driven form of extrinsic motivation. If involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important.

Integrated Regulation: Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation. Occurring when regulations are fully assimilated with self so they are included in persons self evaluations and beliefs on personal needs. Because of this integrated motivations share qualities with intrinsic motivation, but are still classified as extrinsic because the goals that are trying to be achieved are for reasons extrinsic to the self, rather than the inherent enjoyment or interest in the task.

Extrinsically motivated behaviors can be integrated into self. OIT(Organism Integration Theory) proposes internalization is more likely to occur when there is a sense of relatedness.

Ryan, Stiller and Lynch (1994) found children will internalize school’s extrinsic regulations when they felt secure and cared for by parents and teachers.

Internalization of extrinsic motivation is also linked to competence. OIT (Organism Integration Theory) suggests that feelings of competence in activities should facilitate internalization of said actions. (Vallerand, 1997)

Autonomy is particularly important when its regulations are trying to be integrated into a person’s sense of self. If the context allows third parties to include regulation must feel the power, and independence with respect. They must also understand in terms of their other goals the regulation in order for a sense of autonomy to be facilitated. (Kuhl and Fuhrmann, 1998) This was supported by Deci, Eghrari, Patrick and Leone (1994) who found in laboratory settings if person was given a meaningful reason for uninteresting behavior along with support for their sense of autonomy and relatedness they internalized and integrated their behavior.

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