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Justify the methods and processes

Info: 3067 words (12 pages) Essay
Published: 1st Jan 2015 in Psychology

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This chapter covers the research methodology and purpose of this chapter is to justify the methods and process which are examined while the research is carried out. It consists of process model, research approach, research design, research method, data collection etc.

Data Collection

Research Approach

Research Design

Literature Review

Research Questions Formulation

Research Undertaking









Open ended Interview

Semi Structured Questionnaires

Data Analysis


Source: Authors

Qualitative Approach

The given figure outlines the research methodology which is being carried out during the research process. It shows how authors will continue their research process. The research undertaking is related to incorporation of CSR in two leading MNC, s in telecommunication sector. It will focus on three main areas of research named as describing CSR, integrating CSR and monitoring CSR. Several research questions will be prepared on the basis of knowledge and experience and the basic aim of these questions is to analyze the CSR activities in telecommunication sector. The literature review will be made by comparing different articles in the relevant field which will give a new insight. The research is presenting a framework for developing, collecting and analyzing the data. Different research strategies such as exploratory, descriptive and explanatory are used for research objectives and authors will go with descriptive research strategy which is connecting to inductive research approach from observations to theory. The data will collect on primary and secondary basis by semi structured open ended interview and questionnaires. The research design shows that the data will be analyzed and concluded through qualitative research approach.

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First, regarding the objectivity of the thesis the authors believe that the results may first be subjected to the personal judgment and may not be valid over a long period of time because industry is constantly changed over the time. These results may also not be applicable to other markets or other geographic regions except the Pakistani markets. As the authors have no specific knowledge about Pakistani market so they decided to carry the exploratory research. The research described in this thesis has been designed and carried out in context of master level education and rules, regulation, instruction and academic requirements set by the supervisor and the Karlstad University.

The main objective of the research is to investigate the dimensions of the problems which are being analyzed in the previous chapter and to draw the valuable results from the research and to help the authors to build up a good understanding and to have a deep insight into the previous study.

2.1. Inductive and Deductive Research Approach:

Inductive research approach works more specific to more general (Trochim, 2006). Sometimes it called “bottom up” approach. In this type of theory, researchers begin with observation, detect some patterns, formulate some hypothesis and finally end with developing a theory. While on the other hand, Deductive approach works in other way, it moves from broader generalization to more specifications. Informally it is called “top-down” approach. In this approach the researcher start with thinking up a theory about the topic and area of interest or area of research. Then researchers narrow down it and develop a hypothesis about particular topic which they want to test. After that they do the examination on the hypothesis. Finally and ultimately this leads to the confirmation of data, either it confirms the original theory or not











Source: Authors

2.2. Research approach used:

In this study authors will use inductive approach as we start with the observation related to problem which is being analyzed in problem discussion session. Authors will use CSR dimensions which are describing, integrating and monitoring. In general, this study is not developing a model or any type of theory somewhat the theories are narrow down to tackle a specific problem.

2.2.1. Unit of Analysis:

It is one of the most important ideas in the research project. Unit of analysis is a main entity that the researchers want to analyze in their study. It will be individual unit of analysis which will base on two leading organizations from telecommunication sectors of Pakistan and we will compare the results and variations between units.

2.3. Research Methods:

In order to solve a problem, different researcher use systematic and orderly collected data for the purpose of getting information from them (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2005). Yin (1994) and Zikmund (2000) proposed three different purposes of research labeled as exploratory, descriptive and explanatory.

Exploratory studies are fantastic mean to find out what is happening, to ask for new imminent and to ask questions. Robson (1993) mentioned that in order to clarification and understanding the problem, exploratory studies are valuable mean.

Descriptive studies describe inside the problem areas regarding to the literature and the purpose is to study the current events. It purpose is to find out the answers of what, who, how, when, where questions (Zikmund 2000). This theory usually correlates the previous knowledge and understanding the nature of research problems.

Explanatory studies make the relationship between the variables. The purpose of this study is to emphasis on the events and problems in order to explain the relationship between the interrelated variables.

2.3.1 Quantitative Research:

According to Cresswell (1998), the quantitative research can be defined as “an inquiry into social and human problems based on testing a theory composed on the variable, measures with numbers and analyzed with statistical procedures, in order to determine whether the predictive generalization of the theory hold true”.

Above definition mentioned that this theory concern with the statistical data and the transformation of data into figures and graphs. The transformation of the data can be achieved by using SPSS software to get the result of correlation between two factors/variables. This type of research makes large number of units into small amount of information.

2.3.2 Qualitative Research:

According to Cresswell (1998), the qualitative research can be defined as “an inquiry process of understanding a social or human problem, based on building a complex, holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of the informants and conducting in natural setting”

Statistical tools are not used in such kind of research. It is difficult to draw conclusions from qualitative research because of it is more demonstrating than generalizing. It is in contrast as a large amount of information is collected from small number of units. This type of research mostly addresses the question “Why” and describes the phenomena. This type of research cannot and should not be transformed in the forms of numeric. The advantage of this research is flexibility.

2.3.3. Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research:




Underpinning Philosophy

Empiricism: “The only knowledge that human beings acquire is from sensory experiences” (Bernard 1994: 2)

Rationalism: “That human beings achieve knowledge because of their capacity to reason” (Bernard 1994:2)

Approach to Inquiry



Investigation Objective

To define variation in an event, situation, issue, etc.

To describe an extent of variation in an event situation, issue, etc.

Variables Measurement

Stressing on the description of variables

Stressing on some structures of either measurement or classification of variables.

Sample Size

Limited Cases

Emphasis on greater sample size.

Focus of Inquiry

Checks multiple problems but accumulate necessary information from fewer respondents.

Narrows focus in expression of extent of inquiry, but accumulate necessary information from a greater number of respondents.

Main Research Value

Validity but does not state to be value-free.

Value free in terms of Reliability and objectivity.

Main Research Topic

Investigate experiences, feelings, perceptions, expressions and meanings.

Describes pervasiveness, occurrence, and extent nature of subjects, views and attitude; finds out regularities and prepares theories.

Data Analysis

Subjects answers, descriptions or study data to identification of themes and illustrates them.

Subjects variables to frequency distributions, cross-tabulations or other statistical methods.


Organization more descriptive and narrative in nature.

Organization more systematic in nature, drawing deductions and conclusions, and testing degree and potency of a relationship.

Source: Ranjit K. (2005).

2.4. Researched Method used:

The research study will base on two companies from telecommunication sectors that operate in Pakistan. Authors have employed qualitative research in order to analyze the incorporation of CSR because qualitative research aims is to deal with questions which are related to the developing and understanding of the meaning and experience dimensions of human’s lives and social worlds. Qualitative research has its roots in social science and is concerned with the understanding and describing the world of human experiences such as their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and beliefs, opinions, emotions etc (Mack, MacQueen, and Guest & Namey).

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2.5. Data Collection:

The most important and essential part of the study is data collection. Williman (2001) explained that primary data and the secondary data are the main source of data collection. So it is very important for us even in the context of study to achieve its purpose, both and primary and secondary data have been used.

2.5.1. Primary Data:

Primary data is information which is gathered first time in order to solve and justify the problem and to complete the study. In order to do primary research, the following prominent techniques have been used:




The main objective of the primary data is that data collected is exclusively applicable to the particular study. While it’s main disadvantage is time consumption and less degree of control.

2.5.1a. Qualitative Interviews:

Authors have been extensively used this approach in study. In qualitative interviews, discussion often made face to face. This type of interviews is unstructured which shows that interviewers follow the direction of interview takes. The interviewees are free to answer whatever he/she want to do. A positive result can be achieved by the proper training of the interviewers or on the experience and skills. Authors have done this job through email and telephonic interviews.

2.5.1a (i) Questionnaire:

It is very effective when the researcher knows the requirement and procedures in order to measures the area of research. This process can be done either conducting by itself or doing it by electronically/post.

2.5.2. Secondary Data:

Secondary data is a source of collecting data from literature review, articles, internet, papers and journals. Authors have used books, internet, research contribution, journals and have specific companies’ information.( Ghauri and Gronhaug 2005) explains the benefits of secondary data. It helps in following ways

It helps to answer the research questions.

It helps in problem formulation.

It helps in selecting the suitable research method.

Secondary data can be classified into internal and external data. The data which is provides by company is called internal data while the data which is gathered from literatures, articles, internet etc is known as external data. It is source outside the organization.

2.6. Data collection Method used:

In this study, authors have employed qualitative research method. Authors have employed qualitative research in order to analyze the incorporation of CSR in leading telecommunication companies. Qualitative data is mainly including all the aspects of the research problem. External secondary data consisting of the books reviews of the library of university west and also related different articles on the cultural dimension. The other secondary data World Wide Web and Google was also used frequently. The secondary data was very helpful in order to formulate the questions. The internal secondary data is mainly consists of the websites of the organizations. The primary data consists of the interviews, telephonic information and electronic mail.

2.7. Research Criteria:

In qualitative research, only a sample this is a subset of a population is chosen for any specified study and it impossible to get the data from everyone in a community in order to accumulate valid findings. The study’s research purposes and the characters of the study population such as age, size and diversity decide which and how many people are being selected. In a nonprobability sampling, the researchers have more possibility of selecting some units to study than other units.

The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and but it can also be used in the qualitative research paradigm for assessing the findings. In quality analysis, it is certainly interpreting the results as for analyzing the data because it requires constructing codes and categories from the raw data. This means that the understanding aspect of this stage of the research process vary from this stage of quantitative research project where it can be treated for separate analysis and interpretation.

2.7.1. Credibility:

In a qualitative study, it is not likely that the results would be the same in any case but the key points and findings should be moderately presented for the recognition of data. The questions force reflection on own interaction and influence with the system which is being searched. The researchers try to make best efforts for convincing the readers that the interpretation or explanation of the results is credible. The “Thick Description” (Geertz 1973) which arises from the practice of ethnographic research in anthropology and integrates how it is felt for doing research as well as what researchers observed. The objective of thick description is to make able the readers feel that he or she is actually present in the research setting, and possibly even as if he or she is making the research. (Maylor & Blackmon)

We have made interviewed through emails and telephonic conversation in our own language and later on translated into English. The answers show the results which moderately interpret the data. We believe that it will give positive impact on readers.

2.7.2. Transferability:

The transferability of a working hypothesis to different situations depends upon other conditions between original situation and the situation to which it is transferred. The researchers are not able to specify the transferability of findings but they can provide only sufficient information that can be used by the readers to decide whether the findings are applicable to the new situation or not. In a qualitative research, it is considered in the generalization of findings that the results which have been investigated by the researchers have no relevance anywhere else. It is the reader’s choice what they perceive whether it is useful or not or some are not interested in replying of the results.

We have found the results from the original situations. It will be decided by the readers what they think about the results or they are interested or not in replying whether they are applicable or not in the new situation. We believe that the results will provide a true picture of the prevailed situation.


Dependability shows the reliability, correctness, integrity and describes the availability performance of the findings. In a qualitative work, according to Lincoln and Guba (1985), “since there can be no validity without reliability (and thus no credibility without dependability), a demonstration of the former is sufficient to establish the latter.” It means dependability in the research process has a significant importance and it can vary over the time.

The results show the reliability and correctness of our findings. Our findings are based on interviews and introspections. We have made best efforts make our results reliable and valid according to our research.

2.7.4. Conformability:

According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), it is a degree to which the researchers can make an obvious neutrality of the research interpretations through a conformability audit. It is considered that each researcher will bring an exclusive perception to the study. The researchers can document the procedures for inspection and rechecking the data whether it is free from bias or not throughout the study. It mainly concerns that the research should not be influenced by personal and other people influences.

Our research interprets the unbiased results. We have asked open questions and defined the answers accurately with good sense. Our research has not influenced any person or any organization’s image. It gives a good impression about the research topic to the readers which will not be impacted by it.


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