IQ Tests Do They Measure Intelligence Psychology Essay

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1st Jan 1970 Psychology Reference this

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This paper is on “IQ Test”. The paper explains how the IQ test is being used all over the world and for what purposes. It explains the meaning of the term “IQ”. Moreover it explains the tools that have been used to measure intelligence through the IQ Test. It also gives the history and invention of this test, along with who were the inventors of this test. Furthermore the paper explains the uses, validity, interpretations, criticisms, misuses, biases and the reliability of the IQ test. (R.J. Sternberg (2008) It also highlights the various assumptions and theories behind the IQ test. In the end the paper explains the influences of the IQ test like ethnic, genetic, sex or environmental. It is proposed that IQ tests, which largely measure the functioning of the postrolandic cerebrum, are not a good measure of intelligence, which reflects the functioning of the prerolandic cerebrum, especially the prefrontal cortex. Intelligence is defined as an active, transformational process in which sensory data are synthesized into the simplest possible representation for the purpose of maximizing behavioral efficiency. Some say they don’t really measure intelligence, just a narrow set of mental capabilities. Others argue scores are misinterpreted and misused, treated as fixed trait such as height or a measurement of someone’s prospective. (Richardson, Nancy (2007)

The term “Intelligence Quotient” a.k.a IQ is rightly evaluated as mental age/chronological age x 100, where on average IQ score is 100, through scores of 85-115 being seen as the standard level. The debate with reference to the aptitude of the IQ scores to foresee a person’s projection of resulting in life. The reason it is true that a large chunk of extremely clever people (considered by IQ) do not originate accomplishment, at the same time as school failures sometimes accomplish extremely high levels of success in business as well as life which has led to the materialization in emotional quotient (EQ) testing. EQ is a way of intelligence testing that focuses on interpersonal aspects of a person’s aptitude to a certain extent than academic. Whether one agrees with the application of IQ tests or not, it is doubtful that there is such a thing as general intelligence. Intelligence is an encompassing term, many people feel that intelligence includes such attributes as originality, determined inquisitiveness, and accomplishment. James Watson, the pioneer of DNA discovery, has an IQ of about 115 similar to the IQ of the majority college students. He claims that his great success was due to his persistent interest, something not measured by IQ tests. IQ tests, nevertheless, are poor indicators of many attributes of this nature. More often than not, IQ tests seem to calculate common skills and capabilities, most of which are obtained in school.

Now a days IQ tests are considered to be the means to measure intelligence, at the same time a different school of though have their doubts whether IQ tests be a symbol of a person’s true level on intelligence. So what is Intelligence? It is more often than not understood as a general mental ability to underlying principle, resolve problems, consider theoretically, study and comprehend new material, and profit from past knowledge. Intelligence can be considered by a lot of unlike kinds of tasks. (Kaufman, A.S. (2009) Similarly, this capacity is uttered in a lot of aspects of a person’s life. Intelligence draws on a range of mental processes, including memory, learning, awareness, administrative, idea, and scrutiny. (Richardson, Nancy (2007)

Intelligence testing is used by Clinical Psychologists to gauge a child’s rational ability in more than a few definite areas. Suitably, for an IQ test children within a range of 3 to 16 years 1. The tests can smooth the progress of substantiating a child’s major learning path, where a child scores within the top 5% for their age bracket it is realistic to anticipate them to be performing within the top 5% rationally. The result of an IQ test positions a child adjacent to a very large picture of children the same age. At the same time as the best IQ tests are quite complicated and are based upon sound methodical values, the question of what really constitutes intelligence has never been completely determined. The majority of experts would quarrel that, to some degree, intelligence is distinct in terms of those abilities and capacities which are valued by the social structure. An agrarian civilization would value a person’s ability to generate food, in spite of the fact that a marine culture might value the pioneering or practical fisherman. (Kaufman, A.S. (2009)

A standard intelligence test can put forward valuable logical information as well as insights concerning fair ability that might or else be unobserved or overlooked. In lots of conditions, all the same, intelligence testing has turned out to be extremely controversial, mainly for the reason that of confusion regarding how to understand IQ scores. One analysis of intelligence tests is that they do not actually gauge intelligence even though just a slight set of intellectual ability, taking for instance, intelligence tests do not calculate understanding, thoughts, underlying principle, public skills, and realistic understanding abilities that allow people to grow to be accustomed to their environment as well as reply to problems on a daily basis. The assessment of this conviction depends on how one defines capacity. (Lahn, B.T.; Ebenstein, L. (2009) A few theorists believe knowledge, encouragement, and societal capability as aspects of intelligence; on the other hand others do not. The majority of the psychologists are familiar that little about how to dispassionately gauge these additional abilities. A different analysis of IQ tests is that a few people might not perform well for the reason that they turn out to be concerned when taking any timed, steady test. Their deprived performance may imitate their anxiety rather than their true abilities. On the other hand, test anxiety is most likely not a major cause of erroneous scores. (Thompson, P.M. et al. (2008)

Most aptitude researchers describe intellect as what is measured by aptitude tests, on the other hand a number of scholars disagree that this definition is insufficient and that intelligence is whatever abilities are respected by one’s traditions. According to this point of view, conceptions of intelligence differ from culture to culture. For instance, North Americans frequently relate verbal and arithmetical skills by means of intelligence; however a few seafaring cultures in the islands of the South Pacific vision spatial memory as well as navigational skills as markers of intelligence. Those who believe aptitude are ethnically comparative argument the idea that any one test could moderately gauge intelligence across different cultures. Others nevertheless outlook intelligence as a fundamental cognitive ability regardless of customs. In current years, a number of theorists have argued that average intelligence tests measure just a portion of the human abilities that could be considered aspects of intelligence. Additional scholars suppose that such tests precisely determine intellect as well as that the lack of agreement on a definition of intelligence does not nullify its extent. According to them intelligence is much like a lot of technical concepts that are precisely calculated well prior to scientists comprehend what the measurement in reality means. Importance, temperature, and energy are all examples of concepts that were measured earlier than they were implied.

Resources

Kaufman, A.S. (2009). IQ Testing 101. New York (NY): Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8261-0629-2.

Lahn, B.T.; Ebenstein, L. (2009). “Let’s celebrate human genetic diversity”. nature (journal) 461 (7265): 726-728. doi:10.1038/461726a. PMID 19812654.

Richardson, Nancy (2007). “Stanford-Binet IV, of Course!: Time Marches On! (originally published as Which Stanford-Binet for the Brightest?)”. Roeper Review 15 (1): 32-34.

R.J. Sternberg (2008). “Increasing fluid intelligence is possible after all (Commentary)”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (19): 6791-6792. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803396105. PMID 18474863.

Thompson, P.M. et al. (2008). “Genetic influences on brain structure”. Nat. Neurosci. 4 (12): 1253-1258. doi:10.1038/nn758. PMID 11694885.

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