Difference Between Genders and IQ Estimation

1501 words (6 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Psychology Reference this

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This study is investigating the different types of IQ estimate people will give to them selves as well as their father and mother. According (Hogan, 1978, Higgin, 1987) they found out that when people are asked to estimate their own IQ and that of their mother and father, there are dependable differences in the estimate. Furnham and Fong; Furnham & Rawles, 1999 have looked particularly at cross-cultural differences in self estimates. When they asked participant to rate their overall intelligence, they found out that men gave themselves significantly higher scores compared to women. Secondly, people tend to believe there are generational differences in IQ, with each generation being more intelligent than the last (i.e. people think that they are less intelligent than their children but more intelligent than their parents). Thirdly when asked to rate multiple intelligence, participants show gender differences in favour of men primarily in mathematical or logical and spatial intelligence. Fourthly, people believe mathematical, spatial, and verbal intelligence are the major predictors of overall intelligence. Gardener (1983) defined intelligences as “the ability to solve problems or to create products that is valued within one or more cultural settings” and specified seven categories of intelligence. He argued that linguistic or verbal and logical or mathematical intelligences are typically valued in educational settings. Women are thought to be more intuitive, and to prefer dealing with personal, social and verbal problems rather than with the scientific, mathematical and mechanical problems which men aspire. There stereotypes of cognitive functioning are reflected in occupational differences between the sexes in the career preferences and expectations expressed by children and young people. However Mackie and Pattullo (1977) argued that regardless of whether or not these occupational differences are between men and women, sex-role stereotypes clearly play a major part in the shaping of cognitive abilities during development and their translation into occupational opportunities and achievements in adulthood. According to Heim (1970) he strongly suggested that social and cultural causes for males outstanding successful in working life. In comparison more males than females tend to present themselves or be presented by other as outstanding, and males have been found to have greater opportunities in the society. The reason for this being is that mare are more like to be promoted or employed because they have less responsibilities compared to female, as females conceive.

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On the other hand Parsons (1984), who suggest that sex-role stereotypes have a deleterious effect on female expectation for success in mathematics and on their confidence in their mathematical abilities generally. The aim of this research is to find out if the previous finding conclusions are still true. Therefore it is going to be four two tailed hypotheses that will be used males vs. Female. First one It was hypothesized that higher estimates of own IQs by male. Secondly it was predicted higher IQ estimates for father than mothers. Third it was also predicted that higher IQ estimates for father than for participants. Fourth it was predicted lower IQ estimates for mothers than for participants.

METHOD

Participants

There were 30 participants who took part in this research. The research was curried out part at Elephant and Castle bus stop. It was all different cultural background that participated. They were 15 females and 15 male participants.

Materials

The Data Collection Grid of gender and IQ estimation. One researcher took part on the observation to collect the data. The researcher entered columns for sex and age. Estimate of own IQ (Question 1), estimates of mother’s IQ (Question 2), estimates of father’s IQ (Question3) than, in the date view, enter the date for each participant.

Question for participants

By comparison with the national average IQ score of 100 (one hundred), what do you estimate your IQ would be, should you take one of the standard, objective tests?

By comparison with the national average IQ score of 100 (one hundred), what do you estimate your mother’s IQ would be, should she take one of the standard, objective tests?

By comparison with the national average IQ score of 100 (one hundred), what do you estimate your father’s IQ would be, should he take one of the standard, objective tests? (See appendix.)

Design

This study was a between-subject design, looking at the difference of male and female will estimate them self and for they mother and father. The independent variable is the genders with two levels of treatment which are males and females (within-subject design) and participant’s IQ perception levels of treatment own, father and mother. The dependent variable is the IQ estimate.

Procedures

The researcher identified a suitable area that was busy and with people with a variety of cultural backgrounds, where the researcher carried out this questions for the gender and IQ estimate. For the researcher to collect these IQ estimates, the researcher is going to ask question about females and males IQ estimate of them selves as well as their father and mother. There were interactions between the participants and the researcher. Each time the researcher asked the participant about their own IQ estimate, the researcher will make an entry in the table. If the researcher asked for the father IQ estimate this will be entered as likewise with (F), and for the mother as well (M) entry the estimate. Male tend to give themselves as well as their father higher estimate compared to the female gender.

RESULTS

The results indicate that there was no significant association between self, mother and father IQ estimation, but they was a significant difference themselves and mother IQ. For the compare self t=923, df = 28, p =>364. It also showed that men made higher IQ estimate than (female). The male (mean = 94.46, SD = 37.022) and female (mean = 84.200, SD = 22.007).

The self and mother t= -2.547, df= 29, p=<016 and the (mean = - 7.600, SD= 16.346).

The self and father t= -1.054, df= 29, p=>301 and the (mean= – 4.233, SD= 21.996).

The mother and father t= 771, df= 29, p=>447 and the (mean= 3.366, SD=23.9273).

Fig 1 Fig2

Fig3 Fig4

DISCUSSION

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Looking at the graph provided, it was investigated that the hypothesis is correct. As for a male being more intelligent than female the research has proven this to be correct. The result has also proven that participant’s has estimated that their father is more intelligent compared to their mother, they even gave themselves a higher IQ estimates compared to their mother. Overall male has been noted as being more intelligent compared to the female gender.

In context on previous research my findings has sown that black-male tends to lie about their age and noted their father with the highest IQ compared to their mother. The finding also showed that young participants do not know their parents are so therefore they had nothing to contribute regarding this matter. The white males are more open and confidents to talk about their parents IQ. When people were asked to estimate their IQ and that of their mother and father there were consistent differences in their estimation. Higgins (1987) has also proven that participants placed their mothers lower on the IQ scale than themselves.

Looking at the findings compared to previous research the result is consistent, it still remains that participants believe that they are more intelligent compared to their mothers but less when compared to their father. When Heim (1970) suggest that male has greater opportunities than female this theory could be different to within the Asian family as the majority of Asian females are more prone to being housewives whilst the male are the breadwinners.

In conclusion when this research was carried out it was obvious that participants lied about their age as well as their IQ ratings. In the future it will be better to ask participants to be as honest as possible as their views/opinions is vital to the results, and to do it in a more private approach. Also like to use a different environment and ask more people perhaps carry out this research in a more rural area, like Westminster, Wimbledon and Muswell Hill. If as again to explore and expand on this research, it will be better to find out what participants think about themselves and their parents personally. The reason why some participants may think less of their mothers intelligent, than their father could be because they have more respect for their father than their mother.

This study is investigating the different types of IQ estimate people will give to them selves as well as their father and mother. According (Hogan, 1978, Higgin, 1987) they found out that when people are asked to estimate their own IQ and that of their mother and father, there are dependable differences in the estimate. Furnham and Fong; Furnham & Rawles, 1999 have looked particularly at cross-cultural differences in self estimates. When they asked participant to rate their overall intelligence, they found out that men gave themselves significantly higher scores compared to women. Secondly, people tend to believe there are generational differences in IQ, with each generation being more intelligent than the last (i.e. people think that they are less intelligent than their children but more intelligent than their parents). Thirdly when asked to rate multiple intelligence, participants show gender differences in favour of men primarily in mathematical or logical and spatial intelligence. Fourthly, people believe mathematical, spatial, and verbal intelligence are the major predictors of overall intelligence. Gardener (1983) defined intelligences as “the ability to solve problems or to create products that is valued within one or more cultural settings” and specified seven categories of intelligence. He argued that linguistic or verbal and logical or mathematical intelligences are typically valued in educational settings. Women are thought to be more intuitive, and to prefer dealing with personal, social and verbal problems rather than with the scientific, mathematical and mechanical problems which men aspire. There stereotypes of cognitive functioning are reflected in occupational differences between the sexes in the career preferences and expectations expressed by children and young people. However Mackie and Pattullo (1977) argued that regardless of whether or not these occupational differences are between men and women, sex-role stereotypes clearly play a major part in the shaping of cognitive abilities during development and their translation into occupational opportunities and achievements in adulthood. According to Heim (1970) he strongly suggested that social and cultural causes for males outstanding successful in working life. In comparison more males than females tend to present themselves or be presented by other as outstanding, and males have been found to have greater opportunities in the society. The reason for this being is that mare are more like to be promoted or employed because they have less responsibilities compared to female, as females conceive.

On the other hand Parsons (1984), who suggest that sex-role stereotypes have a deleterious effect on female expectation for success in mathematics and on their confidence in their mathematical abilities generally. The aim of this research is to find out if the previous finding conclusions are still true. Therefore it is going to be four two tailed hypotheses that will be used males vs. Female. First one It was hypothesized that higher estimates of own IQs by male. Secondly it was predicted higher IQ estimates for father than mothers. Third it was also predicted that higher IQ estimates for father than for participants. Fourth it was predicted lower IQ estimates for mothers than for participants.

METHOD

Participants

There were 30 participants who took part in this research. The research was curried out part at Elephant and Castle bus stop. It was all different cultural background that participated. They were 15 females and 15 male participants.

Materials

The Data Collection Grid of gender and IQ estimation. One researcher took part on the observation to collect the data. The researcher entered columns for sex and age. Estimate of own IQ (Question 1), estimates of mother’s IQ (Question 2), estimates of father’s IQ (Question3) than, in the date view, enter the date for each participant.

Question for participants

By comparison with the national average IQ score of 100 (one hundred), what do you estimate your IQ would be, should you take one of the standard, objective tests?

By comparison with the national average IQ score of 100 (one hundred), what do you estimate your mother’s IQ would be, should she take one of the standard, objective tests?

By comparison with the national average IQ score of 100 (one hundred), what do you estimate your father’s IQ would be, should he take one of the standard, objective tests? (See appendix.)

Design

This study was a between-subject design, looking at the difference of male and female will estimate them self and for they mother and father. The independent variable is the genders with two levels of treatment which are males and females (within-subject design) and participant’s IQ perception levels of treatment own, father and mother. The dependent variable is the IQ estimate.

Procedures

The researcher identified a suitable area that was busy and with people with a variety of cultural backgrounds, where the researcher carried out this questions for the gender and IQ estimate. For the researcher to collect these IQ estimates, the researcher is going to ask question about females and males IQ estimate of them selves as well as their father and mother. There were interactions between the participants and the researcher. Each time the researcher asked the participant about their own IQ estimate, the researcher will make an entry in the table. If the researcher asked for the father IQ estimate this will be entered as likewise with (F), and for the mother as well (M) entry the estimate. Male tend to give themselves as well as their father higher estimate compared to the female gender.

RESULTS

The results indicate that there was no significant association between self, mother and father IQ estimation, but they was a significant difference themselves and mother IQ. For the compare self t=923, df = 28, p =>364. It also showed that men made higher IQ estimate than (female). The male (mean = 94.46, SD = 37.022) and female (mean = 84.200, SD = 22.007).

The self and mother t= -2.547, df= 29, p=<016 and the (mean = - 7.600, SD= 16.346).

The self and father t= -1.054, df= 29, p=>301 and the (mean= – 4.233, SD= 21.996).

The mother and father t= 771, df= 29, p=>447 and the (mean= 3.366, SD=23.9273).

Fig 1 Fig2

Fig3 Fig4

DISCUSSION

Looking at the graph provided, it was investigated that the hypothesis is correct. As for a male being more intelligent than female the research has proven this to be correct. The result has also proven that participant’s has estimated that their father is more intelligent compared to their mother, they even gave themselves a higher IQ estimates compared to their mother. Overall male has been noted as being more intelligent compared to the female gender.

In context on previous research my findings has sown that black-male tends to lie about their age and noted their father with the highest IQ compared to their mother. The finding also showed that young participants do not know their parents are so therefore they had nothing to contribute regarding this matter. The white males are more open and confidents to talk about their parents IQ. When people were asked to estimate their IQ and that of their mother and father there were consistent differences in their estimation. Higgins (1987) has also proven that participants placed their mothers lower on the IQ scale than themselves.

Looking at the findings compared to previous research the result is consistent, it still remains that participants believe that they are more intelligent compared to their mothers but less when compared to their father. When Heim (1970) suggest that male has greater opportunities than female this theory could be different to within the Asian family as the majority of Asian females are more prone to being housewives whilst the male are the breadwinners.

In conclusion when this research was carried out it was obvious that participants lied about their age as well as their IQ ratings. In the future it will be better to ask participants to be as honest as possible as their views/opinions is vital to the results, and to do it in a more private approach. Also like to use a different environment and ask more people perhaps carry out this research in a more rural area, like Westminster, Wimbledon and Muswell Hill. If as again to explore and expand on this research, it will be better to find out what participants think about themselves and their parents personally. The reason why some participants may think less of their mothers intelligent, than their father could be because they have more respect for their father than their mother.

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