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Analysis of Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities Tests

2300 words (9 pages) Essay in Psychology

08/02/20 Psychology Reference this

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Analysis of Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities Tests 

My goal is work in the field of ABA therapy, in cognitive and behavior therapy. I can work at a school or hospital as a behavioral therapist. I can also teacher as a special need teacher at a private school working one on one with student who need extra help. I would like to work in third world country where children with autism does not have services at their school. My vision is to provide training for children, families, behavior therapy and assessments. I will be looking at Intelligence/Cognitive Abilities test. I choose the Differential Ability Scales -11 (DAS-11), Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales- Fifth Edition and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities from the List of Test by Type (PDF).  

Element 1

The Differential Ability Scales -11 (DAS-11)

 The Das 11 is a used for children 2 years 6 months through 17 years 11  months. This test is standardized test designs as an intelligence test. The DAS 11 gives a General Conceptual Ability score which helps doctors use this information to determine eligibility for special education.  The test incorporates current trends in cognitive and developmental testing leading to different responses  in intervention for each child.   Each test comprises of three sections verbal, nonverbal reasoning and spatial ability. The test measures the phonological processing, rapid renaming, recall of digit backward and recall of sequential order skills of the child.  (Elliot, Colin D (1979- 2007)). The test is designed for all groups of children regardless of ethnicity background.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales- Fifth Edition

“The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood, Fifth Edition (Early SB5) is a norm-referenced test battery measuring intelligence and cognitive abilities of young children, ages 2 years, 0 months through 7 years, 3 months.” (Roid, Gale H. (2005)). This test purpose is to evaluate the child’s cognitive skills, check for the most effective and reliable results in the smallest time. This test is administered by experienced examiner who asked the child to respond,  nonverbally, verbally or performing a skill to answer a question. This test is given to young children in a psychologist office or a school office.

 Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities

 The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Early Cognitive is an individually designed for children 2.5 years to 7 years and 8 years to 9 years with cognitive delays. The purpose of this test is to “ “identify emergent cognitive abilities and early academic skills” and to get at cognitive delays and relative strengths and weakness that may inform early interventions.” (Schrank, Frederick A. et al. (2015)).  The test measures, written language (academic ability),  expressive language,  general intellectual ability,  reading, early academic skills,  math, cognitive abilities. This test is taken by children with special needs with various disabilities. 

Element 2.

The Differential Ability Scales -11 (DAS-11)

The test content is appropriate for children 2yr and 6 months to 17 yrs. and 11 months. “You can identify the child’s strengths and weaknesses, so the appropriate IEP goal, intervention strategies, and progress monitoring can be developed.” (Pearson Review (2018)). The DAS 11 test the child’s strengths in verbal test such as verbal comprehension; nonverbal test such as building;  fluid reasoning such as matrices; early number concepts, achievement test such as basis number skills and diagnostic such as recall of digits. This battery of test helps the administrator put in place a plan to help the child achieve it best outcome in school.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales- Fifth Edition

“Under the requirements of the individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEIA, 2004), the SB5 provides a comprehensive profile of the score to document the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of children, adolescents, and adults with learning difficulties, delays, and disabilities.” (www.proedinc.com). This test requires fluid reasoning to see if the child can complete a pattern of words such as pink is a color, 1 is ______. The child must answer the word in the same pattern.  Knowledge questions asking a child to explain food they like to eat. Quantitative reasoning , the child is asking to complete basis counting. Visual-Spatial processing, the child is having to complete a puzzle. Working memory, the child is must remember the last one word of a sentence during the testing.

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities

 “Focus on evaluation of relative strengths and weaknesses will help assessment professionals identify and describe patterns or performance across achievement, language and cognitive domains that are key to diagnosing learning problems and developing target interventions for individual needs.” (Houghton Muffin Harcourt, (2014)).  People between the age of 2 to 90 can take this test. This test also tested children who are gifted so that they can be placed in an appropriate class. Achievement such as testing spelling and oral reading; language such as word reading and spelling of sounds; and cognitive such as reading rate and math problem solving.

Element 3

The Differential Ability Scales -11 (DAS-11)

 “ Validity refers to the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests” and “the process of validation involves accumulating relevant evidence”. (Elliot, Colin D (1979- 2007)). The administrator is given test manual with a list of guidelines that must be followed in relation to the test taker ,age, education or background. The test showed high number of reliabilities for positive consistent among the test takers. When random test was done the it also showed high levels of agreement among the test takers.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales- Fifth Edition

 “The Early SB5 manual provides more than adequate evidence of the SB5’s content validity and criterion-related (predictive and concurrent) validity.” ( Roid, Gale H. (2005)). This test showed high scores between moderate to high in measuring cognitive ability. The Manual set high standards for the administrator concerning reliability and validity.  When test among preschool and primary age kid the results was consistent for all age levels.  The examiners also score the test technically well across at all levels.  The testing results was also consistent in a variety of sample groups.

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities

 The test makers in this test worked with professional that work with children with various disabilities.  They made the test accessible to all children regardless of the region, county of birth or race. “The test manual states that validity evidence, in part, is based on prior validity studies related to the four versions of the Woodcock-Johnson test batteries and research dealing with CHC theory. The manual provides a summary of the 10 tests, describing test content, processes, and construct descriptions.” (Schrank, Frederick A. et al. (2015)).

Element 4

The Differential Ability Scales -11 (DAS-11)

 The DAS 11 must be administered by a level C individual. A level C individual must have a doctorate degree in education, psychology or a related field with formal training the ethical administration, scoring and interpretation of clinical assessment related to the intended use of the assessment. (Pearson Review, (2018)).  This test can change the outcome of a child life, if given incorrectly it can lead to grave circumstances for the benefit of the child. The administrator must be well verse in the administering of the test  ”Assessment in this test should be considered carefully  given the systematic differences in overall scores produces in the population. ( Marusiak, Christopher W. et. al. (2005)).

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales- Fifth Edition

 The Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales can be administered by a Level C. A level C individual is required to have a  masters in speech pathology, psychology, occupational therapist, or a social work, education, special education , school counseling and social work. The test administrator must work with children and have a wide knowledge of experience dealing with kids with different learning challenges such as ADHD. “. Within the instrument’s Technical Manual, the authors provide some information about the CPM; however, the structural/theoretical support for the validity of the CPM is limited.” (Taub, Gordon E.(2014)).

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities

 The Woodcock-Johnson test of Cognitive Abilities can be administered by a level B candidate. A level B administrator should have an upper level degree in education or psychology with experience in interpreting test for cognitive abilities. The administrator must be able to make decision based on the information gather from the test. “Without full explication of and factor analytical justification for, structural validity, a clinician or researcher will be less able to properly understand and interpret the scores provided by that instrument.” (PsycINFO)

Compare and Contrast

 I look  at the Differential Ability Scales -11 (DAS-11), Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales- Fifth Edition and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities for this paper. The DAS 11 is my favorite of the test and I will continue to focus on this test for the rest of the class. The DAS 11 is designed for children in general education setting and special education. The DAS 11 allows you to apply the test scores to and IEP for a child with special needs. The DAS 11 is administered by professionals with background in psychology and education.

 All the test required the test administrator to have a background of experience and education in psychology and education. All the test looks at cognitive abilities for the individual. The woodcock Johnson test have to many sections to be tested on young children and can be time consuming.  The Stanford Binet was also the shortest test to give the best results. The Sandford Binet test examine the working memory of the child. None of the other test look this approach in conducting the cognitive test for children.

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