The world nowadays is in danger of nuclear-conflicts. The numbers of states that own nuclear weapons has increased. The international security is threatened by the long lasting arms race between nuclear weapon states (NWS) such as the US, Russia and China. The Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) as the legal international instrument, has the ethical rules to bind its parties to reduce the nuclear weaponry and to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Unfortunately, weak political will hinders the state’s capability to prevent the contest. In the name of national interest and security, big military budget states are continuing their nuclear-modernisation program. Some action should be taken for the international stability and security.
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Weaponization could be interpreted as the transfer of material to a weapon, it could be biological, chemical or nuclear material and can be deployed or integrated as a weapon  . Even in the name of national interest and security, the ability to weaponize and converting nuclear power for weapon should be limited. The impacts are too lethal. People still wondering as the influence so great, can the race be stopped? Is there any ways to avoid the nuclear weaponization program? Nuclear should be used only for the world harmony. In this regard, this essay would describe the danger of nuclear weaponization and some ways to put a stop on these matters.
Since Willliam Rontgen found the ionizing radiation in 1895 (Britannica Encyclopedia)  , the know-how has been developed to produce nuclear weapon. Conversely, the world development has shown the tendencies of conflict escalation and the common response to overcome the problem by hard power resolution. It can be seen in some hot points in the world nowadays, such as the Middle East, whether Israel – Palestine, or an Alliance (lead by the US) – Iran, or Afghanistan. The reality that Israelis unconfirmed themselves as the nuclear weapon-possessed state or Iran that had been accused of using their uranium enrichment facility to create nuclear weapon, had worsen the regional situation. On the other place, North Korea, India and Pakistan improved their influence by testing their nuclear capability. These events have signaled the capability of using and producing nuclear power and ready develop to the higher level – nuclear weapon.
Nuclear Weapon as a threat
The increase in China’s military budget for 7.5% in 2010 (about US$ 78 billion)  , is a warning of China trying to take part in balancing weaponry capacity with other super power states. Every year China steadily rises its military spending. Not only China, other states namely Russia, France, UK, India and Pakistan have the same objective in order to strengthen its national security and spend big amount of its state budget to cope with their state vulnerability.
People are troubled knowing this progress. The threat comes from the power they possessed by too great. One sensitive issue could ignite nuclear-possessed countries to release the power and drag others to start World War III. The World has history of irrational leaders that possibly use the power to force other to do their will. Such leader was Pol Pot of Cambodia that killed thousands of his people for opposing him, or Hilter probably. What if leader such Kim Jong Il of North Korea implement his threat of using nuclear weapon towards the US and South Korea  for their join exercises after the sink of South Korean warship? The region tension is soaring and agitating its stability.
The impact caused by the nuclear explosion is frightening. The magnificent power and the impact of nuclear-contained weapon has been proven, for example in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, which were destroyed and this forced the country to surrender to the alliance in 1945. The other effect on humanity from that event can also be seen until today. Radiation has a mutating effect on human genes. The Japan Times online news agency on the 6th of August 2010, reported that the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing 65 years ago suffered from dementia and various cancers  (lung, thyroid, breast and other organs), respiratory diseases and an acute leukemia without any effective medical treatment.
The nuclear accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, a small suburb area not far from the border with Belarus, is another illustration of this case. The nuclear plant exploded, causing radioactive pollution not only in the surrounding area, over western parts of the former Soviet Union, but the radiation also spread over to eastern and western Europe, some Nordic countries and eastern North America. This disaster had lead to a big evacuation and resettlement of over 336.000 people (World Health Report, 2007).
The fall of communism in the former Soviet Union was the end of Cold War between the US and Soviet Union. The arms race among the two states is also supposed to end. In fact, both sides still have large number of heavy weapons that are feared by other countries for its potential as a weapon of mass destruction (WMD).
As the country has the border, technology has given the ability to shorten it and has provided the unlimited efforts to make it borderless. Since the 1950s, the US and Soviet Union had already developed the medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBMs) and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). India, which successfully tested long range missile capability on the Agni-III in April 2010  , considering the development of Agni-V that could carry 1.5 tons of nuclear warheads with about 6 kilometers of range  . Compared to India, Russian Iskander-E could travel 280 kilometers, while American Minuteman III and Chinese DF-5A at 13,000 kilometers respectively  . Some of the missiles can be carried by a mobile launcher, submarines or aircraft carrier. This development should be considered as endangering the regional security. What will happen if the missiles shot and missed the target or landed in the wrong country? Imagine if the missiles also were nuclear or contained another WMD. Definitely, one missile is capable of eliminating countries from the world map.
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Another missile test conducted by China in the beginning of 2007 and repeated in 2010 were the Chinese anti-satellite system (ASAT) which successfully shot disused satellites. Although the experiments caused millions of pieces of debris, and posed a threat to space navigation in the future, China argued that it would be safe for orbiting spacecraft. In contrast, another state would regard this event as threat to their long range missiles. Meanwhile, outer space will be the new play-ground for an arms race. Again, the incident could drive to the contest of weapon upgrading to exceed any parties’ ability.
Constant disarmament should be taken. It is important to forbid the manufacture and purchase of nuclear weapon or the nuclear power states must reduce and eradicate the weapon. The Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international security signed on July 1st 1968 by the five permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations and 59 other countries, and came into force in 1970. In 1995 the treaty was prolonged to indefinite extension and 189 states are parties now. Five states are recognized as nuclear weapon states (NWS), there are the US, Russia, the UK, France and China, the other parties are known as non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). The United Nations in the official sites describes the purpose of NPT to avoid nuclear weapons and its technology extending all over the world, and to support the disarmament program. NPT also protects the parties rights to develop nuclear for peaceful uses. It is a significant move to any states to join forces and build partnerships. A status quo is not recommended. Any parties must support this act to move forward peaceful world as the international security and stability are needed to shelter economic growth. And the most important factor here is political will.
The big event of the year was conducted in Prague – Czech Republic, on April 8th 2010, Russia and the US signed the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). This treaty will replace the old START which expired in December 2009. Article II of the START clearly states the numbers of the deployed or non deployed heavy arms that should be reduced within seven years after the agreement come into force  . The aggregate limit is 1,550 warheads and 700 ICBMs. Even though the remaining weapons in existence alter the treaty still have the power to eliminate the entire world, this occasion has great meaning in reducing and stepping forward for eliminating nuclear weapons. Within a week, in Washington, on 12 April 2010, at the Nuclear Summit 2010 hosted by President Barack Obama, 47 world leaders agreed and emphasized the prevention of the ownership of nuclear weapon from the terrorist. For the reason that terrorist has the character to utilize the power to threaten and without any hesitation use it for their goal.
The rigid manner to encourage the reduction of nuclear weapon could be done by an international ban toward nuclear power states. An economic embargo is one of the choices. By limiting the economic capability, one country should re-think their attempts. North Korea could be one of the states that have the most US concern of its embargo. The main sanctions imposed are the arms embargo, luxury goods embargo, inspection of the cargo from and to North-Korean seaport (USA Today, 2010)  , the US government also freezed 10 North Korean Bank accounts in all over the world and keep searching another account related to the country’s activities  (Joongangdaily, 2010). The new US sanction has more isolated North Korea for its stubbornness continuing their nuclear project and stay away from the mediation table. The same action had been done by the US to Iran.
The world needs peace not conflicts. Arms race threatens the serenity of the world. Stability and security creates peace. Complete disarmament would be the best way to reduce the nuclear weapon, but it is important to have strong will NWS leaders. In the beginning negotiation and partial disarmament would be excellent followed by arms control. The cooperation and confident measures building as the instrument should be increased to facilitate parties of NPT’s voluntarily reduce their deadly weapon. While the embargo should be the last option.
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