World Health Organization (WHO) Priorities

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06/10/17 Politics Reference this

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THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS

Abstract

In the field of international public health policy and international public health, a significant role is played by WHO. To coordinate and direct health is the main responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is a body of the United Nations (UN). To assess and monitor health trends, to provide technical support to countries, to articulate evidence-based policy options, to set standards and norms, to shape the health research agenda and to provide leadership on global health matters are the other responsibilities of WHO. In the eradication of small pox, a leading role has been played by WHO, since its creation. The current priorities of WHO are networking, publications, driving the development of reporting, substance abuse, occupational health, health eating and food safety, nutrition, aging and development, reproductive and sexual health, the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS/HIV.

The World Health Organizations

Introduction

On 7th April 1948, the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) came into force. In the field of international public health policy and international public health, a significant role is played by WHO. On 22nd July 1946, the constitution of the WHO was signed by sixty-nine countries. To coordinate and direct health is the main responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is a body of the United Nations (UN) (World Health Organization, 2006). To assess and monitor health trends, to provide technical support to countries, to articulate evidence-based policy options, to set standards and norms, to shape the health research agenda and to provide leadership on global health matters are the other responsibilities of WHO.

In the eradication of small pox, a leading role has been played by WHO, since its creation. The current priorities of WHO are networking, publications, driving the development of reporting, substance abuse, occupational health, health eating and food safety, nutrition, aging and development, reproductive and sexual health, the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS/HIV (World Health Organization, 2010).

Discussion

Health is being considered as a shared responsibility in the twenty-first century that involves collective defense against transnational threats and equitable access to essential care. WHO is increasingly operating in a rapidly changing and complex landscape that extends into other sectors and that influence health outcomes and opportunities, with the boundaries of public health action becoming blurred (World Health Organization, 2008). Through use of 6-point agenda these challenges are responded by WHO that addresses 2 operational approaches, 2 strategic needs and 2 health objectives. Improving performance, enhancing partnerships, evidence and information, harnessing research, strengthening health systems, fostering health security and promoting development are the six points in the agenda.

The agenda of health development of WHO is directed by the ethical principle of equity, i. e. , health-promoting interventions or access to life-saving must not be denied for unfair reasons, involving those with social or economic roots (World Health Organization, 2007). Priority is given to health outcomes in vulnerable, disadvantaged and poor groups by activities of WHO, whose aim is health development. Addressing the neglected tropical areas, treating and preventing chronic diseases and attainment of health-related Millennium Development Goals are the factors that are included within its development and health agenda (World Health Organization, 2005). Through enforcement of revised International Health Regulations and by strengthening the ability of the world to defend itself collectively against outbreaks, the health safety has been fostered by WHO.

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For WHO, one of the highest priorities is strengthening of health systems. WHO also ensures that health systems do reach underserved and poor populations of the world (World Health Organization, 2007). It addresses areas, like, access to appropriate technology involving essential drugs, suitable systems for collecting vital statistics, sufficient financing, and the provision of adequate number of appropriately trained staff. To monitor the evolving global health situation, to articulate evidence-based policy options, and to set standards and norms, it generates authoritative health information in consultation with leading experts. With the collaboration and support of many partners, involving the private sector, civil society, donors, international organizations and UN agencies, WHO carry out its business partners implementation programs within countries. These countries are encouraged by WHO through use of the strategic power of evidence, so that the activities are aligned with the priorities established by countries, as well, with best technical practices and guidelines. Both within countries and at the international level, WHO participates in ongoing reforms aimed at improving its effectiveness and efficiency as a means of improving its performance.

For the ten-year period from 2006 till 2-15, the framework for organization-wide program of results, resources, budget and work is provided by the eleventh General Program of Work, whose title is “Engaging for Health. ” (World Health Organization & UniceF, 2009). Core functions of WHO are set out by the General Program of Work. These core functions are assessment of health trends, monitoring of health situation, building of sustainable institutional capacity, catalyzing change, providing technical support, articulating evidence-based and ethical policy options, setting of standards and norms and monitoring and promoting their implementations, dissemination and translation of valuable knowledge, stimulating the generating, shaping the research agenda, engaging in partnerships where joint action is required and providing leadership on matters critical to the health.

The attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health is the objective of WHO as set out in its Constitution. Health is not defined as the absence of infirmity or disease but a state of social, mental, and physical well-being by the Constitution (World Health Organization, 2009). For Who, the supreme decision-making body is the World Health Assembly. It is attended by delegations from all 193 member states and is held annually in Geneva. WHO has 147 country offices and 6 regional offices in which more than eight thousand people from more than one hundred and fifty countries work. Its headquarters is located in Geneva.

Experts in the fields of emergency relief, economics and health statistics, and people trained to manage information, financial and administrative systems and epidemiologists, scientists, public health specialists and medical doctors are all included within the staff of WHO. Since year 1950, a “World Health Day” has been celebrated annually on 7th April, to make the founding of the WHO. For World Health Day, each year a theme is selected and a priority area of concern for WHO is highlighted by this theme. To focus on key public health issues that affect the international community, this celebration is a global opportunity. Longer-term advocacy programs are launched by WHO on this day.

Since year 2001, the themes adopted by WHO were, making hospitals safe in emergencies, protecting health from climate change, international health security, working together for health, making every child and mother count, road safety, shaping the future of life, moving for health and mental health (World Health Organization, 2009). Health and urbanization were focused by World Health Day of year 2010. To make cities healthier, a global movement has been called out by WHO, with the campaign, “1000 cities 1000 lives. ” To open up streets for health activities, cities are being called and events are being organized worldwide. To illustrate the things done by people in order to improve health in their cities, the stories of urban health champions are being gathered. To open up public spaces to health is the global goal of the campaign, whether it may be activities in closing off portions of streets to motorized vehicle in thousand cities, or in clean-up campaigns, town hall meetings and parks.

Conclusion

Working in alignment with UNAIDS strategies and objectives is considered as important by WHO that works within the UNAIDS network, in terms of AIDS/HIV (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS & World Health Organization, 2006). To eradicate polio is also one of the major aims of WHO. Since its Global Polio Eradication Initiative launched in year 1988, it has been successful in helping to reduce cases by ninety-nine percent. WHO also works to promote healthy and active aging for all individuals, to improve reproductive and sexual health, to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve health during key stages of life, such as, adolescence, childhood, the neonatal periods, childbirth and pregnancy.

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References

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. , & World Health Organization. (2006). AIDS epidemic update, December 2006. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://books. google. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=q2H0b-WY1pUC&oi=fnd&pg=PP7&dq=World+Health+Organizations+(WHO)&ots=o81vt6dHNB&sig=w-igCuZIHqhnN14d8Vl-xWjQ6ho

World Health Organization (Ed. ). (2005). Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://books. google. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=F1yj1OloKkEC&oi=fnd&pg=PR6&dq=World+Health+Organizations+(WHO)&ots=AjyzxbbucW&sig=8uB9EYpPQVaNQJeHVO2gpjTZPeg

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World Health Organization (Ed. ). (2009). Global status report on road safety: time for action. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://books. google. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Ndrf6DuCQHMC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=World+Health+Organizations+(WHO)&ots=tclGNoiWXy&sig=87inySftslVc06SnetZIAvkOjV4

World Health Organization, & UniceF. (2009). Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: progress report 2009. Retrieved from: http://apps. who. int/iris/handle/10665/44217

World Health Organization. (2006). The world health report: 2006: working together for health. Retrieved from: https://extranet. who. int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/43432

World Health Organization. (2007). Everybody’s business–strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action. Retrieved from: http://apps. who. int/iris/handle/10665/43918

World Health Organization. (2008). International Health Regulations (2005). World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://books. google. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YRBoCh3ErrYC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=World+Health+Organizations+(WHO)&ots=Xo3mvOQ5pd&sig=haHbCg1_ZJ5VfctL0psN90J8oyk#v=onepage&q=World Health Organizations (WHO)&f=false

World Health Organization. (2010). Global tuberculosis control: WHO report 2010. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://books. google. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=BxV0zjM7M8oC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=World+Health+Organizations+(WHO)&ots=9TlNotHoP4&sig=nKT9pBQnCgx_39qCByn_4OcflyM

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